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U. S. FOREST SERVICE 
RESEARCH PAPER INT-32 
1966 



^^nec^udl^ 6^me^ ToA^u^o/^ ^&/n^ 




^n^&^f'/rimi/n^aln/ 



^^ ,yiea^&n/ 



Arthur H. Holmgren and James L Reveal 




Intermountain Forest and Range Experiment Station 

Forest Service 

U. S. Department of Agriculture 

Ogden, Utah 



THE AUTHORS 

ARTHUR H. HOLMGREN has been a member of 
the Department of Botany and has been Director of the 
Intermountain Herbarium at Utah State University since 
1943. He is intimately acquainted with plant life of the 
Intermountain region and adjacent States. He has pub- 
lished five books and numerous professional articles on 
plants in Utah and Nevada. 

JAMES L. REVEAL is a graduate of Utah State 
University and is recognized as authority on the genus 
Eriogonum. He has botanized extensively in the 
Intermountain region and contiguous areas. 



ACKNOWLEDGMENTS 

Acknowledgment is given to Dr. W. O. Shepherd, 
Miss Marguerite A. Israelson, Selar S. Hutchings, and 
M. E. Lewis of the U.S. Forest Service, who helped in 
numerous details of preparing and editing the manuscript. 
Thomas Jensen is here acknowledged for the use of his 
rough draft of a similar paper. 

Dr. Arthur J. Cronquist checked the manuscript of 
the Compositae and several other families. Dr. C. L. 
Hitchcock and Dr. R. J. Davis have given assistance 
on Anemone patens and Claytonia rosea, respectively. 
Most of their suggestions have been incorporated in this 
publication. 

A. H. H. 

J. L. R. 



S. Forest Service Research Paper INT -32 1966 



CHECKLIST OF THE VASCULAR PLANTS 
OF THE INTERMOUNTAIN REGION 



Arthur H . Holmgren 
Curator of the Intermountain Herbarium 

and 

James L. Reveal 



A cooperative study 

by 

Intermountain Forest and Range Experiment Station 
Forest Service, United States Department of Agriculture 

Ogden, Utah 

and 

Agricultural Experiment Station, Utah State University 
under direction of the 
Intermountain Herbarium 
Logan, Utah 



THE I NTER MOUN TAI N REGION 










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11 



CHECKLIST OF THE VASCULAR PLANTS OF THE INTERMOUNTAIN REGION 

INTRODUCTION 

Fieldwork and herbarium studies leading towards the publication of an illustrated flora of the Intermountain 
ion were begun in 1931. More than 110,000 herbarium specimens, on which this flora v^ill be based, have ac - 
ulated and been filed in the Lntermountain Herbarium. Manuscript for several families and most of the illus - 
itions have been completed. It seemed desirable to precede the projected three -volume flora with a checklist 
that the final study could be relatively free of omitted species. We learned in 1961 that the Forest Service was 
erested in publication of such a checklist for an area that approximates its Intermountain Region. A cooperative 
reement was soon made between the Intermountain Forest and Range Experiment Station and the Intermountain 
rbarium, and work on the project started in the fall of 1961. 

The present checklist is the first attempt to include all the species of vascular plants that grow spontaneously 
the Intermountain region. It is expected that persons who use this checklist will add species to it. Such additions 
[11 contribute to a more nearly complete listing of the plants of this large floristic area. 

BOUNDARY 

Tlte floristic boundaries of the Intermountain region have been determined by the Lntermountain Herbarium 
kff after more than 3 decades of study. They have been modified many times during these years; so the area as 
|w delineated is a natural floristic unit. 

The area includes all of Utah, tliat portion of Arizona norUi of the Grand Canyon, most of Nevada, parts of 
[lifornia that lie within the Great Basin, the sagebrush areas of southeastern Oregon, southern Idaho to the high 
juntainous area on the north, and the Red Desert area of southwestern Wyoming. 

PHYSIOGRAPHY 

The area thus circumscribed includes parts of three physiographic provinces. The noriiiern portion of the 
[ermountain region, which drains into the Snake River and ultimately reaches the Columbia River, lies in the 
ction known as the Snake River Plains of die Columbia River Plateau. The southwestern corner of Wyoming, tlie 
stern half of Utah, and the nortliern portion of Arizona are within the Colorado Plateau Province. The remaining 
d largest portion of the region lies within the Basin and Range Province. 

Details concerning principal mountain ranges and other physu)grapliic features may be found in Fenneman's 
lYSIOGRAPHY OF WESTERN UNITED STATES. 

HISTORY OF PRINCIPAL BOTANICAL EXPLORATION 

Numerous collectors have traversed the Intermountain region studying the flora. Many species were first col- 
ted by a handful of early explorers. The Lewis and Clark expedition (1804-1806) was the first important group to 
llect plants in this area. Pursh described their collections in 1808. This expedition, like the Fremont expedition 
1845, lost most of its plants. Only those plants hastily gathered on Fremont's return trip finally reached botanists. 
Jwin James of the Long Expedition, and later Wyeth, traversed the northern edge of the Intermountain region. James 
med some of his plants, notably Pinus flexilis, but sent most of them to John Torrey. Wyeth returned his plants to 
lomas Nuttall in Philadelphia, who described them. Nuttall, a man who many claim walked more of the United States 
in any other person, came west, but he too stayed on the nortiiern edge of the Intermountain region. 

Creation of tlie Topographical Corps of the United States Army in 1838 opened a new era of systematic botanical 
[idles of Intermountain flora. 

As people started moving west in large numbers, more routes for trails, wagons, and railroads were needed. 
bert, Sitgreaves, Ives, Whipple, Powell, Parry, Ward, and others led expeditions into die West . Torrey played 
important role in naming the new species collected by these explorers; but his pupil Asa Gray and his associates 
England, George Bentham and Joseph Hooker, also aided in naming many western American plants. 

Sereno Watson was one of the most important of die early plant collectors. He named many of the nordiern 
ah and Nevada species. Watson, upon returning east after King's expedition in the late 1860's, became associated 
'th Asa Gray and subsequently became the foremost authority on western flora. 



During the half century following initial observations by these early explorers, many botanists carefully c 
lected specimens in the Intermountain region. Alice Eastwood of the California Academy of Science studied the 
of soutliern Utah in the latter years of the 19th century and later returned for many extensive trips with her assi 
J. T. Howell. E. L. Greene carefully collected in the Intermountain region during this period. A. A. Heller g 
P. B. Kennedy of Nevada collected in Utah during the early 1900's. Aven Nelson and F. Macbride of Wyoming i 
the northern areas of the Intermountain region. 

M. E. Jones, the first student of the entire Intermountain flora, is most often remembered for his cutting 
criticism of all the other botanists. His work on Astragalus is still highly respected, as is his work on many oi 
groups . 

Nine books on the flora of various parts of the hitermountain region have been published since 1900. Avei 
Nelson (1909) revised Coulter's old manual (1885) of the central Rocky Mountains. P. A. Rydberg (1917) publisi 
a large manual of the Rocky Mountain flora. Ivar Tidestrom (1925) published die only manual that covers most 
region. A. O. Garrett published several floras on tlie spring flowers of Utah during the 1920's. Five manuals 
been written recently. Morton E. Peck and R. J. Davis have written manuals on the flora of Oregon and Idaho, re 
tively. A. H. Holmgren has published two handbooks, one on the flora of northeastern Nevada and another trea 
the northern Wasatch region of Utah. Stanley L. Welsh, Michael Treshow, and Glen Moore published a guide t( 
common Utah plants in 1964. 

The "hard to get" places became more accessible as dependable transportation became available in the IS 
Such botanists as W. P. Cottam, Percy Train, H. L. Mason, P. A. Munz, B. F. Harrison, Bassett Maguire, J. 
Howell, R.J. Davis, D. D. Keck, A. H. Holmgren, K. H. Beach, and A.J. Cronquist have made important 
contributions to the known flora of the region. J 

Special note should be made of four botanists who have collected widely in the Intermountain region since' 
1930's. Their numerous collections have aided in the writing of this checklist. Bassett Maguire, curator of th 
Intermountain Herbarium from. 1931 to 1942, is now head curator of the New York Botanical Garden. 

Arthur H. Holmgren, the present curator of the Intermountain Herbarium, was a student of Bassett Magui 
and coUected for several years with him. Holmgren has published HANDBOOK OF THE VASCULAR PLANTS C 
THE NORTHERN WASATCH and HANDBOOK OF THE VASCULAR PLANTS OF NORTHEASTERN NEVADA. i 

Rupert C. Barneby deserves special recognition for his careful survey of the Intermountain region during 
past 25 years. His numerous publications have increased the number of known species of this region. Barneby 
scholarly publications on the genus Astragalus are a most important contribution. He has described numerous 
endemic plants from Utah and Nevada, and has published many notes on plant distribution. 

Arthur J. Cronquist, curator of the New York Botanical Garden, has in the last few years become a serioi 
student of the Intermountain flora. Cronquist, with C. L. Hitchcock and others, is writing a flora of the Pacific 
Northwest. He and A. H. Holmgren have planned collaboration in publishing ILLUSTRATED FLORA OF THE 
INTERMOUNTAIN REGION. { 



Stanley L. Welsh, Brigham Young University, has collected many interesting plants in some of the most r 
areas of Utah. 

Noel H. Holmgren and James L. Reveal are among the most recent botanists to make extensive collection 
the Intermountain region. 

ORGANIZATION OF THIS CHECKLIST 



The concept of the species and other taxa in this checklist is conservative. Although a checklist is not 
floristic in nature, several comments have been included in the text that ordinarily would be omitted from such 
study. A. S. Hitchcock's MANUAL OF GRASSES OF THE UNITED STATES and Elbert L. Little's CHECKLISI 
OF NATIVE AND NATURALIZED TREES OF THE UNITED STATES have been followed unless recent monograp 
show that changes in nomenclature should be made. 

Nearly all the families are arranged in a phylogenetic order, following the Engler and Prantl system. Ge! 
and species are arranged alphabetically. Synonymy follows its accepted taxon in alphabetical order. 



Taxon (pi. taxa ) . A general term applied to any taxonomic element, population, or group, irrespective 
of its classification level. 



81'RYCHIUM 



PITYROCRAMMA 



Duision PTERIDOPHYTA. Ferns and Fern Albes (13) 



OPHIOGLOSSACEAE. Grapefern Family 

B'HVCHIUM Sw. (14) 

B. BOREALE Milde var. BOREALE 

B. BOREALE Milde var. OBTUSILOBUM 

(Rupr.) Broun B. b. ssp. o, 

Glaus. 
B. LANCEOLATUM (S. G. Gmel.) Angstr. 
B. LUNARIA (L.) Sw. var. LUNARIA 
B. LUNARIA (L.)Sw. var. MINGANENSE 

(Vict.) Dole B. m. Vict. 
B. LUNARIA (L.)Sw. var. ONONDAGENSE 

(Underw.) House 
B. MATRICARIAEFOLIUM A. Br. var. 

HESPERIUM (Mux. & Glaus.) 

Broun B. m. ssp. h. Max & 

Glaus. 
B. MULTIFIDUM (Gmel.) Rupr. var. 

COMPOSITUM (Lasch) Milde 
B. MULTIFIDUM (Gmel.) Rupr. ssp. 

COULTERI (Underw.) Glaus. 
B. C^. Underw. 

B. sllaifoUum Presl var. c. Jeps. 
B. s. of some western authors, not 
Presl 
B. SIMPLEX E. Hitchc. 
B. VIRGINIANUM (L.)Sw. var. EURO- 

PAEUM Angst. 



GRAPEFERN 



Northern G. 
Lanceleaf G. 
Moonwort 



Matricary G. 



G. FRAGILIS (L.) Bernh. var. TENUIFOLIA 
(Clute) Broun 

C. MONTANA (Lam.) Bernh. 

Filix m. Underw. 

DRYOPTERIS .\dans. 

D. DILATATA (Hoffm.) A. Gray 

D. spinulosa (Muell.) Watt var. d. 
" Watt 

D. FIL1X-M.\S (L.) Schott 

Aspidium f. Sw. 
D. INTERMEDIA (Muhl.) A. Gray 

D. spinulosa (Muell.) Watt var. i. 
Watt 
D. SPINULOSA (Muell.) Watt var. 
SPINULOSA 
Aspidium s. Sw. 
D. SPINULOSA ("Muell.) Watt var. 

AMERICANA (Fisch.) Fern. 

GYMNOCARPIUM Newm. (6) 

G. DRYOPTERIS (L.) Newni. 
Dryopteris d.C. Christ. 
D. disjuncta (Rupr.) Morton 
D. Iinnaeana C. Christ. 



Tlielyptcris d. (L.) Slosson 



Little G. 



N0TH0LAI;NA R. Br. (15) 



N, 



N. 



POLYPODLACEAE. Fern Family 

ILANTUM L. 

A. CAPILLUS-VENERIS L. 

A. modestum Underw. 

A. rimicola Slosson 
A. PEIDATUM L. var. ALELniCUM Rupr. 

'LENIUM L. 

A. ADIANTUM- NIGRUM L. 
A. andrewsii A. Nels. 
A. SEPTENTRIONALE (L.) Hoffm. 
A. TRICHOMANES L. 
A. VIRIDE Huds. 

HYRIUM Roth 

A. ALPESTRE (Hoppe) Rylands var. 
AMERICANUM Butters 
A. a. (Butters) Maxon 
A. FILIX~FEMINA (L.) Roth var. 

CALIFORNICUM Butters 
A. cyclosorum Rupr. 
Asplenium f. Bernh., a synonym for 
the typical species. 

EILANTHES Sw. 

C. COVILLEI Maxon 

C. EATONI Balcer 

C. FEEI T. Moore 

C. FENDLERl Hook. 

C. GRACILLIMA D. C. Eaton 

C. WOOTONU Ma.\on 

( VroGRAMMA R. Br. 

C. ACROSTICHOIDES R. Br. 

C. crispa (L. ) R. Br. ssp. a. Hult. 
C. c. var. a. C. B. Clark 
C. STELLERI (Gmel.) Prantl 

C sroPTERIS Bernh. 

i:. BULBIFERA (L.) Bernh. 

Filix b. Underw. 
C. FRAGILIS (L.) Bernh. var. FRAGILIS 

FiUx f. Gibb. 



JONESII Maxon 

Cheilanthes J. Munz 
Pellaea j . Morton 

LIMITANEA Maxon 
Pellaea I. Morton 



MAIDENHAIR 
Southern M. 



SPLEENWORT 



Green S . 



LADYFERN 



LIPFERN 
Breadfern 
Eaton L. 
Fee L. 
Fendler L. 
Lace L. 



ROCKBRAKE 
American R. 



BLADDER FERN 
Berry B. 



Brittle B. 



WOODFERN 
Mountain vV. 



Male Fern 
Common W'. 



Toothed W. 



OAK FERN 
O. 



CLOAK FERN 



N. fendleri of Intermountain authors, 

not Kuntze 
N. nivea of American authors, in 
large part, not Desv. 
PARRYI D. C. Eaton 

Cheilanthes p. Domin. 
SINUATA (Sw.)~Kaulf. var. SINUATA 

Cheilanthes s. Oomin. 
SINUATA (Sw.)"'Kaulf. var. COCHIS- 
ENSIS (Qiodding) Wcatlierhv 
N. c . Goodding 
N. STANDLEM Maxon 

Cheilanthes hooken (D. C. Eaton) 

Domin. 
N. h. D. C. Eaton 

ONYCHIUM Kaulf. (9) 
O. DENSUM Brack. 

Cheilanthes siliquosa Maxon 
Cryptogramma d. Diels 
Pellaea d. Hook. 

PELLAEA Link (16) 

P. ATROPURPUREA (L.) Link 
P. BREWERI D. C. Eaton 
P. BRIDGESII Hook. 

P. GLABELLA Mett. var. OCCIDENTALIS 
(E. Nels.) Butters 
P. 0. Rydb. 
P. pumila Rydb. 
P. GLABELLA Mett. var. SIMPLEX 



Bulh c:. 



PODFERN 
P. 



CLffbrake 
Purple C. 
Brewer C. 
Bridges C . 



Butters 
atropurpurea var. 
suksdorfiana Butters 



Morton 



P. LONGIMUCRONATA Hook. 

PITTOOGRAMM/\ Link. 

P. TRIANGULARIS (Kaulf.) Maxon var. 

TRIANGULARIS 
P. TRIANGULARIS (Kaulf.) Maxon var. 

MAXONI Weatherbv 



Spiny C. 



Goldfern 



POLYPODIUM 



PINUS 



POLYPODIUM L. (9) POLYPODY 

P. VULGARE L. var. COLUMBIANUM 

Gilb. Western P. 

P. hesperium Maxon 

POLYSTICHUM Roth HOLLYFERN 

P. LONCHITIS (L.) Roth H. 

P. SCOPULINUM (D. C. Eaton) Ma-xon Eaton H. 

P. mohrioides (Bory) Presl var. 
s. Fern. 

PTERIDIUM Scop. BRACKEN 

P. AQUILINUM (L.) Kuhn var. LANUGI- 

NOSUM (Bong.) Fern. B. 

P. a. var. pubescens Underw. 

WOODSIA R. Br. WOODSIA 

W. MEXICANA Fee Mexican W. 

W. OREGANA D. C. Eaton Oregon W. 

W. PLUMMERAE Lemraon 

W. pusiUa Fourn. var. glandulosa 
~ (Eat. & Fax . ) Taylor 

W. SCOPULINA D. C. Eaton Rocky Mtn. W. 

WOODWARDIA J. E. Smith CHAINFERN 

W. FIMBRIATA Sm. C. 



ISOETACEAE. Quillwort Family 

ISOETES L. (17) QUILLWOI 

I. BOLANDERI Engelm. var. BOLANDERI Bolander Q 
I. BOLANDERI Engelm. var. PYGMAEA 

(Engelm.) Clute 
I. HOWELLII Engelm. 
I. MELANOPODA Gray & Dur. 
I. MURICATA Durieu var. HESPERIA 
Reed 
I. braunii of western authors, 
not Dur. 
I. NUTTALLIl A. Br. 



Howell Q. 



Nuttall Q. 



I. OCCIDENTALIS Menders. 

I. paupercula (Engelm.) A. 
Eaton 



A. 



SELAGINELLACEAE. Selaglnella Family 



SPIKEMOSI 
SELAGI 

NELLA 



Douglas S. 



NIARSILEACEAE. Pepperwort Family 



PEPPERWORT 



MARSILEA L. 

M. MUCRONATA A. Br. 

M. oligospora Goodding 
M. vestita of American authors, 
not Hook. & Grev. 



SALVINIACEAE. Salvinia Family 

AZOLLA Lam. AZOLLA 

A. MEXICANA Presl 

A. caroliniana of some manuals, 
in part, not Willd. 



EQUISETACEAE. Horsetail Family 

EQUISETUM L. (3, 9) HORSETAIL 

E. ARVENSE L. Field H. 

E. FUNSTONII A. A. Eaton 

E. laevigatum A. Br. ssp. f. Hartmann 
E. HyImALE L. var. AFFINE (Engelm.) 
A. A. Eaton 
E. a. Engelm. 
E. HY'EMALE L. var. CALIFORNICUM Western 



SELAGINELLA Beauv. 



S. DENSA Rydb. var. DENSA 
S. DENSA Rydb. var. SCOPULORUM 
(Maxon) Tyron 
S. s. Maxon 
S. DOUGLASII (Hook. & Grev.) Spring 
S. LEUCOBRYOIDES Maxon 
S. MUTICA D. C. Eaton 
S. SELAGINOIDES (L.) Link 
S. UNDERWOODII Hieron. 
S. UTAHENSIS Flowers 
S. WATSONI Underw. 



Division SPERMATOPHYTA. Seed Plants 
Subdivision GYMNOSPERMAE. Conifers and Joint-firs (7) 



PINACEAE. Pine Family 

ABIES Mill. (19) 

A. CONCOLOR (Gord. & Glend.) Lindl. 
A. LASIOCARPA (Hook.) Nun. 
A. MAGNIFICA A. Murr. 



Mi Ida 
E. h. of western authors 
HYEMALE L. var. ROBUSTUM 

(A. Br.) A. A. Eaton 
E. r. A. Br. 
E. prealtum Raf. 



Scouringrush 



E. 


KANSANUMSchaffn. 




E. 


LAEVIGATUM A. Br. 

E. hyemale var. intermedium 

A. A. Eaton 
E. i. Rydb. 


Smooth H. 


E. 


PA LUSTRE L. 

E. p. var. americanum Vict. 


Marsh H. 


E. 


PRATENSE Ehrh. 


Meadow H. 


E. 


VARIEGATUMSchleich. var. 






VARIEGATUM 


Variegated H. 


E. 


VARIEGATUMSchleich. var. 
NELSONl A. A. Eaton 
E. n. Schaffn. 





LARIX Mill. 

L. OCCIDENTALIS Nutt. 

LIBOCEDRUS Endl. 

L. DECURRENS Torr. 

PICEA A. Dietr. 

P. ENGELMANNII Parry 
P. PUNGENS Engelm. 

P. parryana Sarg. 

PINUS L. 

P. ALBICAULIS Engelm. 

P. ARISTATA Engelm. 

P. CONTORTA Dougl. (20) 

P. murrayana Grev. & Balf. 

P. c. ssp. m. Critchf. 

P. c. var. m. Engelm. 

P. c. var. latifolia Engelm. 

P. c. ssp. 1_. Critchf. 

P. EDULIS Engelm. 

Caryopitys e. Small 

P. FLEXILIS James 
Apinus f . Rydb. 



FIR 

White F. 
Siibalpine F 
California 
Red F. 

LARCH 
Western L. 

INC ENS E- 

CEDAR 
I. 

SPRUCE 
Engelmann S 
Blue S . 



PINE 

Whitebark P, 
Bristlecone 1 
Lodgepole P, 



Pinvon 



Limber P. 



njs 



POTAMOGETON 



lUS L. (con.) 

P. JEFFREYI Grev. & Balf. 

P. ponderoEa Laws. var. j. Balf. 
P. LAMBERTIANA Dougl. 
P. MONOPHYLLA Torr. & Frem. 

Caryopitys m. Rydb. 
P. MONTICOLA Dougl. 

Strobus m. Rydb. 
P. PONDEROSA~Laws. 

P. brachyptera Engelm. 
P. scopulorum (Engelm.) Ltmnion 
P. WASHOENSIS Mason & Stockwell, 

probably a hybrid, P. ponder- 
osa X P. Jeffrey! 

lUDOTSUGA Carr. 

P. MENZIESII (Mirb.) Franco var. 
MENZIESII 
P. douglasu (Lindl.) Carr. 
P. mucronata (Raf.) Sudw. 
P. taxifolia (Lamb.) Britton 
P. MENZIESII (Mirb.) Franco var. 

GLAUCA (Beissn.) Franco 



Jeffrey P. 

Sugar P. 

Singleleaf 

Pinyon 

Western 
White P. 

Ponderosa P. 



Subdivision ANGIOSPERMAE. Flowering Plants 
Class MONOCOTYLEDONEAE. Monocots 



TYPHACEAE. Catlail Fjimly 

TYPHA L. (23) CATTAIL 

T. DOMINGENSIS Pers. 

T. angustifolia of most western 
authors , not L. 
T. GLAUCA Godron. hybrid between T. 
domingensis and T. latifolia 
T. LATIFOLIA L. Common C. 



SPARGANIACEAE. Burreed Faniil\ 



DOUGLAS -FIR 



D. 



SPARGANIUM L. (.i) 

S. ANGUSTIFOLIUM Miclix. 
S. EUR YCARPUM Engelm. 
S. MINIMUM Fries 
S. MULTIPEDUNCULATUM (Morong) 
Rydb. 
S. simplex of .American .lutliurs 
not Huds. 



BURREED 
Narrowleaf . 
Giant B. 
U'jst B. 



JGA (Endl.) Carr. HEMLOCK 

T. HETEROPHYLLA (Raf.) Sarg. Western H. 

T. MERTENSIANA (Bong.) Carr. Mountain H. 



CUPRESSACEAE. Cypres.s Family 



«PERUS L. 

J. COMMUNIS L. var. SAXATILIS Pall. 

J. c. var. montana Ait. 

J. sibirica Burgsd. 
J. MONOSPERMA (Engelm.) Sarg. 

Sabina m. Rydb. 
J. OCCIDENfALIS Hook. 

Sabina o. Ant. 
J. 0STE0SPE"RMA (Torr.) Little 

J. utahensis (Engelm.) Lemmon 

Sabina u. Rydb. 
J. SCOPULORUM Sarg. 

Sabina s. Rydb. 



JUNIPER 

Mt. Common J. 



One -seed J. 
Western J. 
Utah J. 

Rocky Mtn. J. 



EPHEDRACEAE. Ephedra Family 



-lEDRA L. (21, 22) 



ASPERA Engelm. 

E. nevadensis S. Wats. var. 



EPHEDRA; 
JOINT- FIR; 
MORMON- 
TEA 

Rough E. 





L. Benson 




E. reedii Cory 


E. 


CUTLERI Peebles 




E. coryi Reed var. viscida Cutler 




E. viridis Cov. var. v. L. Benson 


E. 


FASCICULATA A. Nels. var. 




FASCICULATA 


E. 


FASCICULATA A. Nels var. CLOKEYI 




(Cutler) Clokey 




E. c. Cutler 


E. 


NEVADENSIS S. Wats. Nevada E. 




E. antisyphilitica S. Wats. 




E. n. var. pedimculata S. Wats. 


E. 


TORREYANA S. Wats. Torrey E. 


E. 


VIRIDIS Cov. Green E. 




E. nevadensis var, v. M. E. Jones 



Slim leaf P. 



Large leaf P. 



POTAMOGETONACEAE. Pondwecd Family 

P0TAM0G1-:T0N L. (24, 2S, 26) PONDWEED 

P. ALPINUS Balbis var. SLT3ELLIPTICUS 

(Fern.) Ogden 
P. ALPINUS Balbis var. TENUIFOLIUS 
(Raf.) Ogden 
P. a. of American autliors. not 

Balbis 
P. t_. Raf. 
P. AMPLIFOLIUS Tuckerm. 
P. BKRCHTOLDII Fieb. 

P. pusillus of Fernald in 24, nut L. 
P. CRISPUS L. Curly P. 

P. DIVERSIFOLIUS Raf. 

P. dimorphus of California authors, 
not Raf. 
P. EPIHYDRUS Raf. Rihlwnleaf P. 

P. e. var. nuttallii (Cham. & Schl.) 
Fern. 
P. FIBRILLOSUS Fern. 
P. FILIFORMIS Pers. var. FILIFORMIS 
P. interior Rydb. , in a large part 
P. FILIFORMIS Pers. var. BOREALIS 
(Raf.) St. John 
P. interior Rydb. , in a small part 
P. FILIFORMIS Pers. var. MACOUNU 

Morong 
P. FOLIOSUS Raf. var. FOLIOSUS Leafy P. 

P. FOLIOSUS Raf. var. MACELLUS Fern. 
P. FRIESU Rupr. Fries P. 

P. GRAMINEUS L. var. GRAMINEUS Variableleaf P. 

P. g. var. graminifolius Fries 
P. heterophyllus of Intermountain 
authors, not Schreb. 
P. GRAMINEUS L. var. MAXIMUS Morong 
P. ILUNOENSIS Morong IlUnois P. 

P. lucens of American authors, 

not L. 
P. zizzi of American authors, 
not M . & K . 
P. LATIFOLIUS U. W. Robbins) Morong Broadleaf P. 
P. pectinatus L. var. I. J. W. 
Robbins 
P. NATANS L. 
P. NODOSUS Poir. 

P. americanus Cham. & Schreb. 
P. lonchites auth. 



Floatingleaf P. 
Longleaf P. 



POTAMOGETON 



BROMUS 



POTOMOGETON L. (con.) 
P. PECTINATUS L. 
P. PRAELONGUS Wulf. 

P. vaginatus Turcz. 
P. PUSiLLUS L. 

P. panormintanus Biv. 
P. p. Biv. var. major G. Fisch. 
P. PUSILLUS L. var. MINOR (Biv.) 
Fern. & Schub. 
P. panormmlanu s Biv. var. m. Biv. 
P. PUSILLUS L. var. TENUISSIMUS"M. 
& K. 
P. berchtoldii var. t. Fern. 
P. RICHARDSONII (Benn.)~Rydb. 
P. ROBBINSII Oakes 
P. STRICTIFOLIUS Benn. var. 
RUTILOIDES Fern. 
P. ZOSTERIFORMIS Fern. 

P. compressus of American 
authors, not L. 
P. zosterifolius of American 

authors, not Schum. 



ALISMACEAE. Waterplantain Family 



Fennelleaf P. 
Whitestem P. 

Baby P. 



Richardson P. 
Robbins P. 



Flatstem P. 



ALISMA L. (30) 

A. GEYERI Torr. 

A. gramineum of some eastern 

authors, in reference to 
the western flora, not 
K. C. Gmel. 

A. g. K. C. Gmel. var. g. (Torr.) 
Samuels. 

A. validum Greene 
A. TRTvIALE Pursh 

A. brevipes Greene 

A. plantago-aquatica of American 
authors, not L. 

A. p. ssp. b. Samuels. 

A. p. var. t. Farw. 

ECHINODERUS Rich. 

E. BERTEROI (Spreng.) Fassett 
Alisma b. Spreng. 
E. rostratus Engelm. 



WATER - 

PLANTAIN 
Geyer W. 



American W 



BURHEAD 



RUPPIACEAE. Widgeonweed Family 



RUPPIA L 

R. MARITIMA L. 

R. curvicarpa A. Nels. 
R. occidentalis S. Wats. 



DITCHGRASS 
Widgeongrass 



R. PECTINATA Rydb. , is a doubtful 
species 



NAJADACEAE. Water-nymph Family 



NAJAS L. (27) Also spelled Naias 

N. FLEXILIS Rostkov. & Schmidt ssp. 
FLEXILIS 
N. canadensis Mictrx. 
N. FLIXILIS Rostkov. & Schmidt ssp. 

CAESPITOSA Maguire 
N. GUADALUPENSIS Morong 
N. MARINA L. 



NAJAS 



Southern N. 
Spiny N. 



MACHAEROCARPUS Small (9) 

M. CALIFORNICUS (Torr.) Small 
Damasonium c. Torr. 
D. c. var. biddlei Henders. 

SAGITTARIA L. (31, 32) 
S. CUNEATA Sheld. 

S. arifolia Nutt. ex J. G. Smith 
S. LATIFOLIA Willd. 
S. MONTEVIDENSIS Cham. & Schlecht. 
ssp. CALYCINA (Engelm.) 
Bo gin 
S. c. Engelm. 

Lophotocarpus c. J. G. Smith 
L. californicus 



BUTOMACEAE. Flowering Rush Family 
BUTOMUS L. 

B. UMBELLATUS L. 



ARROWHEAD 
Duckpotato A. 



Common A. 



FLOWERING 

RUSH 
F. 



ZANNICHELLIACEAE. Horned Pondweed Family 
ZANNICHELLIA L. 
Z. Palustris L. 



HORNED 

PONDWEED 
H. 



HYDROCHARITACEAE. Frogs-bit Family 



ELODEA Michx. 



WATERWEED; 
ELODEA 



SCHEUCHZERIACEAE. Scheuchzeria Family (8) 



E. CANADENSIS Michx. 

Anacharis c. Planch. 



SCHEUCHZERIA L. 

S. PALUSTRIS L. var. AMERICANA Fern. 
S. p. of American authors, not L. 



SCHEUCH- 
ZERIA 



A. planchonii Rydb. 
E. planchonii Casp. 
Philotria c. Britton 



John 



JUNCAGINACEAE. Arrowgrass Family 



ARROWGRASS 



TRIGLOCHIN L. (28, 29) 

T. CONCINNA Davy 

T. DEBILIS (M. E. Jones) Love & Love 
T. concinna var. d. J. T. Howell 
T. maritima L. var. d. M. E.Jones 

T. MARITIMA L. "" Shore A. 

T. PALUSTRIS L. A. 



P. p. Rydb. 
NUTTALLII (Planch.) St. 
Anacharis n. Planch. 
A. occidentalis Marie-Vict. 
E. occidentalis St. John 
Philotria n. Rydb. 



GRAMINEAE. Grass Family (33) 

Subfamily FESTUCOIDEAE 

Tribe 2. Festuceae 



BLEPHARIDACHNE Hack. 

B. KINGII (S. Wats.) Hack. 



LILAEACEAE. Lilaea Family 

LILAEA Humb. & Bonpl. 

L. SCILLOIDES (Poir.) Haum. 

L,. subulata Humb. & Bonpl. 



LILAEA 
AwUeaf L. 



BROMUS L. (34) 

B. ANOMALUS Rupr. 
B. ARENARIUS LabiU. 



BROMGRASS; 

CHESS 
Nodding B. 
Australian C. 



RROMUS 



GLYCE'^IA 



BROMUS L. (con.) 

B. ARIZONICUS (Shear) Stebbins 

B. carinatus Hook. & Arn. var. 
a. Shear 
B. ARVENSIS L. 
B. BREVIARISTATUS Buckl. 
B. subvelutinus Shear 



B, 



::ATABR0SA Beauv . 

C. AQUATICA (L.) Beauv. 

3ACTYUS L. 

D. GLOMERATA L. 

DISTICH LIS Raf. (36) 

D. SPICATA (L.) Greene var. 

DIVARICATA Beetle 

D. SPICATA (L.) Greene var. STRICTA 

(Torr.) Beetle 
D. dentata Rydb. 
D. s. Torr. 

ENNEAPOGON Desv. 

E. DESVAUXII Beauv. 

Pappophorum wrightii S. Wats. 



ERAGROSTIS Beauv. 

E. BARREUERI Daveau 
E. DIFFUSA Buckl. 
E. HYPNOIDES (Lam.) BSP. 
E. LUTESCENS Scribn. 
E. MEGASTACHYA (Koel.) Unk 
E. ciUanensis of American 



LOVEGRASS 



Stinkgrass 



B. BRIZAEFORMIS Fisch. & Meyer 
B. CARINATUS Hook, ii Arn. 

B. hookerianus Thurb. 
B. ClUATUS L. 
B. COMMUTATUS Schrad. var. 

COMMUTATUS 
B. COMMUTATUS Schrad. var. 

APRICORUM Simonkai 
B. FRONDOSUS (Shear) Woot. & Standi. 
B. HAENKEANUS (Presl) Kunth. 
B. INERMIS Leyss. 

B. JAPONICUS Thunb. var. JAPONICUS 
B. JAPONICUS Tnunb. var. PORRECTUS 

Hack. 
B. LANATIPES (Shear) Rydb. 

B. anomalus var. 1. Shear 
B. MARGINATUS Nees 

B. latior (Shear) Rydb. 
B. MOLLIS L. 

B. hordeaceus of American authors, 
not L. 
B. ORCUTTIANUS Vasey 
B. PANICULATUS (Shear) Rydb. 
B. POLYANTHUS Scribn. 
B. PORTERI (Coult.) Nash 
B. PUMPELLIANUS Scribn. var. 
PUMPELLIANUS 
B. inermis ssp. p. Wagnon 
PUMPELLIANUS Scribn. var. 

TWEEDYI Scribn. 
RACEMOSUS L. 
RICHARDSONII Link 
RIGIDUS Roth var. RIGIDUS 
RIGIDUS Roth var. GUSSONEI (Pari.) 

Coss. & Dur. 
RUBENS L. 
SECALINUS L. 
STERILIS L. 
TECTORUM L. var. TECTORUM 



B. TECTORUM L. var. GLABRATUS 
Speimer 

B. U var. nudus Klett. & Richt. 
B. TRINII Desv. 
B. VULGARIS (Hook.) Shear 

B. eximius (Shear) Piper 
B. WILLDENOWII Kunth (35) 

B. catharticus Vahl. 

B. uiuoloides of American authors, 
not HBK. 



Rattlesnake C. 
Califorma B. 

Fringed B. 

Hairy C. 



Smooth B. 
Japanese C. 



Big Mountain B. 
Soft C. 



authors, not (All.) I, utati 
E. NEUMEXICANA Vasey 
E. ORCUTTIANA Vasey 
E. OXYLEPIS (Torr.) Torr. 

E. secundiflora of American authors, 
not Presl 
E. PECTINACEA (Michx.) Nees 

E. caroliniana (Spreng.) Scribn. 



Ripgut Grass 



Foxtail C. 
C. 

Downy C. ; 
Cheatgrass 



E. 


PILOSA (L.) Beauv. 






E. 


TRICHODES (Nutt.) Nash 






FESTL'CA L. 




FESCUE 


F. 


ARIDA Elmer 






F. 


ARIZONICA Vasey 
F. vaseyana Hack. 




Arizona F. 


F. 


ARUNDINACEA Schreb. 




Reed F.; 
Alta F. 




F. elatior L. var. a. Wimm. 




F. 


DASYCLADA Hack. 






F. 


ELATIOR L. 

F. pratensis Huds. 




Meadow F. 


F. 


IDAHOENSIS Elmer 




Idaho F. 




F. ovina L. var. ingrata 


Hack. 






F. i. Rvdb. 








F. 0. var. oregona Hack 






F. 


MEGALURA Nutt. 




Foxtail F. 


F. 


MYUROS L. 






F. 


OCCIDENTALIS Hook. 




Western F. 


F. 


OCTOFLORA Walt. ssp. oc 
Vulpia 0. Rvdb. 


toflora 


Sixweeks F 


F. 


OCTOFLORA Walt. ssp. HIRTELLA 






Piper 








F. pusilla Buckl. 







Chilean C. 



Rescue Grass 



BROOKGRASS 



ORCHARD- 
GRASS 
O. 

SALTGRASS 



Desert S. 



PAPPUSGRASS 
Spike P. 



OCTOFLORA Walt. var. TENELLA 
(Willd.) Fem. 
Vulpia 0. var. t. Fem. 
OVINA L.~var. OVINA 

F. brevifolia Schult. var. 

utahensis St. Yves 
F. calligera (Piper) Rydb. 
F. minutiflora Rydb. 
F. saximontana Rydb. 
OVTnA L. var. BRACHYPHYLLA 
(Schult.) Piper 
F. b. Schult. 
F. brevifolia R. Br. 



Sheep F. 



Alpine F. 



F. 


PACIFICA Piper 
Vulpia p. Rydb. 




Pacific F. 


F. 


REFLEXA Buckl. 
Vulpia r. Rydb. 






F. 


RUBRA L. var. RUBRA 
F. oregona Vasey 




Red F. 


F. 


RUBRA L. var. LANUGINOSA Mert. 






& Koch 






F. 


SORORIA Piper 






F. 


SUBULATA Trin. 




Bearded F. 




F. jonesii Vasey 






F. 


THURBERI Vasey 




Thurber F 




Poa festucoides M. E. 


Jones 






P. kaibensis M. E. Jones 





F. VIRIDULA Vasey 
GLYCERIA R. Br. (37) 

G. BOREALIS (Nash) Batchelder 

Panic ularia b. Nash 
G. DECLINATA Brebiss. 
G. ELATA (Nash) A. S. Hitchc. 

Panicularia e. Nash 



Greenleaf F. 

MANNA - 
GRASS 
Northern M. 



GLYCERIA 



GLYCERIA R. BR. (con.) 

G. GRANDIS S. Wats. 

Panlcularia americana MacM. 



P. g. Nash 
OCCIDENTALIS (Piper) J. C 

Panicularia o. Piper 
STRIATA (Lam . ) A . S 



Nels. 



Hitchc. 
G. nervata (Willd.) Trin. 
Panicularia s. A. S. Hitchc. 



P. n. 

Poa s 



Kiintze 
, Lam. 



HESPEROCHLOA (Piper) Rydb. 

H. KINGU (S. Wats.) Rydb. 
Festuca k. Cassidy 



American M. 



Fowl M. 



SPIKE FESCUE 





F. confinis Vasey 






F. watsoni Nash 






Peak. S. Wats. 




MELICA L. (38) 


MELIC GRASS 


M. 


BULBOSA Geyer 
M. bella Piper 
M. b. Geyer var. caespitosa Cronq 


Oniongrass 


M. 


FRUTESCENS Scribn. 




M 


FUGAX Boland. 

M. macbridei Rowland 


Little 
Oniongrass 


M 


PORTERI Scribn. 


Porter M. 


M 


SMITHII (Porter) Vasey 


Smith M. 


M 


SPECTABILIS Scribn. 


Purple 
Oniongrass 


M 


STRICTA Boland. 


Rock M. 


M 


SUBULATA (Griseb.) Scribn. 


Alaska 
Oniongrass 


PHRAGMITES Tnn. 


COMMON 






REED 


P. 


COMMUNIS Trin. 

P. phragmites (L.) Karst. 


C. 


POA L. 


(39) 


BLUEGRASS 


P. 


ALPINA L. 


Alpine B. 


P. 


AMPLA Merr. 

P. confusa Rydb. 

P. laeviculmis Williams 

P. truncata Rydb. 




P. 


ANNUA L. 


Annual B. 


P. 


ARCTICA R. Br. 


Arctic B. 



P. alpicola Nash 

P. aperta Scribn. 

P. callichroa Rydb. 

P. grayana Vasey 

P. longipila Nash 

P. tricholepis Rydb. 
P. ARFdA Vasey 

P. andina Nutt. , not Trin. 

P. californica Monro 

P. pratensiformis Rydb. 

P. pratericola Rydb. & Nash 

P. pseudopratensis Scribn. & Rydb. 
not Beyer 

P. sheldoni Vasey 
P. BIG'ELOVII Vasey & Scribn. 
P. BOLANDERI Vasey 
P. BULBOSA L. 
P. CANBYI (Scribn.) Piper 

P. helleri Rydb. 

P. tenuifolia Nutt. 
P. COMPRESSA L. 
P. CURTA Rydb. 
P. CUSICKII Vasey 

P. fiUfolia Vasey, 



Plains B. 



POA L. (con.) 

P. EPILIS Scribn. 

P. paddensis Williams 



REDFIELDL\ 



Skyline B. 





p. purpurascens Vasey 






P. sabpurpurea Rydb. 




P. 


FENDLERIANA (Steud.) Vasey 


Mutton Gras 




P. brevipaniculata Scribn. & 






Williams 






P. eatoni S. Wats. 






P. longipedunculata Scribn. 






P. longiligula Scribn. & Williams 






P. f. var. 1. (Scribn. & Williams) 






Gould 






P. montana Vasey, not All. 






P. scabriuscula Williams 




p. 


GLAUCIFOUA Scribn. & WilUams 






P. planifolia Scribn. & Williams 




p. 


GRACILLIMA Vasey 


Pacific B. 




P. multnomae Piper 




p. 


INCUR VA Scribn. & WilUams 




p. 


INTERIOR Rydb. 

P. subtriviaUs Rydb. 


Inland B. 


p. 


JUNCIFOLIA Scribn. 


ADcaU B. 


p. 


LEIBERGII Scribn. 


Leiberg B. 


p. 


LEPTOCOMA Trin. 

P. crandalUi Gandoger 


BogB. 


p. 


MACROCLADA Rydb. 




p. 


NERVOSA (hook.) Vasey 
Festuca n. Hook. 
P. olneyae Piper 
P. subreflexa Rydb. 
P. vaseyana Scribn. 
P. wheeleri Vasey 


Wheeler B. 


p. 


NEVADENSIS Vasey 

P. pauciflora Benth., not Roem. & 

Schult. 
P. thurberiana Vasey 


Nevada B. 


p. 


PALUSTRIS L. 

P. crocata Michx. 
P. triflora Gilib. 


Fowl B. 


p. 


PATTERSONI Vasey 


Patterson B 


p. 


PRATENSIS L. 
P. peckii Chase 


Kentucky B. 


p. 


PRINGLEI Scribn. 
P. argentea Howell 




p. 


REFLEXA Vasey & Scribn. 
P. pudica Rydb. 


Nodding B. 


p. 


RUPICOLA Nash 

P. rupestris Vasey, not With. 


TimberUne 


p. 


SANDBERGII Vasey 

P. secunda of American authors, 
not PresI 




p. 


SCABRELLA (Thurb.) Benth. 
P. buckleyana Nash 
P. Umosa Scribn. & Williams 
P. tenuiflora Thurb. , not L. Rich. 


Pine B. 


p. 


SUKSDORFU (Beal) Vasey 




p. 


TRIVIA LIS L. 


Rough B. 


p. 


VASEYOCHLOA Scribn. 





Bigelow B. 

Bulbous B. 
Canby B. 



Canada B. 
Cusick B. 



PUCCINELLIA Pari. (37) ALKALI- 

GRASS 
P. AIROIDES (Nutt.) S. Wats. & Coult. Nuttall A. 

P. nuttalUana (Schult.) A. S. Hitchc. 

Poa n. Schult. 
P. DISTANS (L.) Pari. 
P. FASCICULATA (Torr.) Bickn. 

P. borreri (Bab.) A. S. Hitchc. 
P. LEMMONl (Vasey) Scribn. 
P. PARISHII A. S. Hitchc. 



not Schkuhr 



REDFIELDIA Vasey 



P. idahoensis Beal 
P. nematophylla Rydb. 
P. scaberrima Rydb. 
P. scabifolia Heller 
P. subaristata Scribn. 



BLOWOUT 
GRASS 



FLEXUOSA (Thurb.) Vasey 
Graphephorum f. Thurb. 



SCLEROCHLOA 



ELYMUS 



SCLEROCHLOA Beauv. 

S. DURA (L.) Beauv. 

Crassipes annuus Swallen 

SCLEROPOGON Phil. 

S. BREVIFOUUS Phil. 

Si:iJLOCHLOA Link 

S. FESTUCACEA (Willd.) Link 
Fluminea f_. A. S. Hitchc. 

TORREYOCHLOA Church (37) 

T. ERECTA (A. S. Hitchc.) Church 
Glyceria e. A. S. Hitchc. 
Paniculana e. A. S. Hitchc. 
Puccinellia e. Munz 
T. PAUCIFLORA (Presl ) Church 
Glyceria p. Presl 
Panicularia p. Kuntz 
Puccinellia p. Munz 

TRIDENS Roem. & Schult. 

T. ELONGATUS (Buchl.) Nasli 
Tricuspis e. Nash 
Triodia e. Scribn. 



BURROGRASS 
B. 



T. 



MUTICUS (Torr.) Nash 

Tricuspis m. Torr. 

Triodia m. Scribn. 
PILOSUS (BVckl.) A. S. Hitchc. 

Erioneuron p. Nash 

Tricuspis p. Nash 

Triodia acuminata (Muiiro) Vasey 



Triodia p. Merr. 
PULCHELLUS (HBK.) A. S. Huchc. 
Dasyochloa p. WUkl. 
Triodia"prH"BK . 



Tribe 3. Hordeae 

AEGILOPS L. 

A. CYLINDRICA Host 

AGROPYRON Gacrtn. 

A. ALBICANS Scribn. & Smith 
A. ARIZONICUM Scnbn. & Smith 

Elymus a. Gould 
A. BAKER] E.~Nels. 
A. CRIST ATUM (L.) Gacrtn. 

A. desertorum in A. S. Hitchc 



TRIDENS 
Rough T. 



Slim T. 



Hairv T. 



FUdfgrass 



GOATGRASS 
Jointed G. 

WHEATGRASS 



Baker W. 
Crested W. 
(1935), 



not (Fisch.) Schult 
A. DASYSTACHYUM (Hook.) Scribn. Thickspike W. 

A. lanceolatum Scribn. & Smith 

A. subvillosum (Hook.) E. Nels. 

A. d. var. s. Scribn. Si Smith 

Elymus 1. Gould 

E. s. Gould 
A. DE"SERT0RUM (Fisch.) Schult. 
A. HLMERI Scribn. 

A. ELONGATUM Host Tall W. 

A. GRIFFITHSII Scribn. & Smith 

A. INTERMEDIUM (Host) Beauv. Intermediate W. 

A. LATIGLUME (Scribn. & Smith) Rydb. 
A. PSEUDOREPENS Scribn. & Smith 

Elymus pauciflorus Gould var. p. 
Gould 
A. REPENS (L.) Beauv. Quackgrass 

Elymus r. Gould 

A. RIPARIUM Scribn. & Smith Streambank W. 

A, smithii Rydb. var. r. M. E. 

Jones 
Elymus r. Gould, not Wicgand 
E. rydbergi Gould 
A. SAUNDERSII (Vasey) A. S. Hitchc. 
Sterile hybrid between Agropyron 
trachycaulum and 
Sitanion hystrix 
Elymus s. Vasey 
E. s. var. californicus Hoover 



A. SAXICOLA (scribn. Si Smith) Piper 

Sterile hybrid between A. spicatum 
Sitanion hystrix or S. 
jubatum 
A. flexuosum (Piper) Piper 
Elymus s. Scnbn. Si Smith 
Sitanion lanceolatum J. G. Smith 
A. SCRIBNERI Vasey 

Elymus s. M. E. Jones 
A. SIBIRICUM~(Willd.) Beauv. 
A. SMITHII Rydb. var. SMITHII 
A. occidentale Scribn. 
Elymus s. Gould 
A. SMITHII Rytlb. var. MOLLE (Scribn. 
Si Smith) M. E. Jones 
A. m. Rydb. 

A. occidcntalis Scribn. var. m. 
Scribn. 
A. SMITHII Rydb. var. PALMER! (Scribn. 
Si Smith) Heller 
A. ji. Rvdb. 
A. SPICATUM (Pursh) Scribn. Si Smith 
var. SPICATUM 
A. divergens (Nees) Vasey 
A. vaseyi Scribn. Si Smith 
Elymus s. Gould 
Festuca s. Pursh 
A. SPICATUM ^Pursh) Scnbn. 8. Smith 
var. INFRMI- (Scnbn. & 
Smith) Heller 
A. i_. Rydb. 
A. SPICATUM (Pursh) Scribn. Si Smith 

var. PUBESCENS Elmer 
A. SUBSECUNDUM (Link) A. S. Hitchc. 
var. SUBSECUNDUM 
A. caninoides Beal 



Spreading W . 



Western W. 



Blue bund I W . 



Bearded W. 



A. caninum of American autliors, 

not (L. ) Beauv . 
A. gmelini (Griseb.) Scribn. Si 

Smith 
A. richardsoni (Tnn.) Schrad. 
A. unilaterale Cassidy 
A. violacescens (Pound) Beal 
Elvinus pauciflorus Gould ssp. s. 
Gould 
A. SUBSECUNDUM (Link) A. S. Hitchc. 
var. ANDINUM (Scribn. Si 
Smith) A. S. Hitchc. 
A. a. Rydb. 
A. brevifolium Scribn. 
A. TRACHYCAULUM (Link) Make 



Slender W. 



A. biflorum (Brign.) Roem & Schult. 
A, ciliatum (Scribn. & Smith 
A. pauciflorum (Schwein.) A. S. 

Hitchc. , not Schur. 
A. tenerum Vasey 
A. violaceum (Hornem.) Lange 



Elymus p. Gould, not Lam. 
TRICHOPHORUM (Link) Richt. 
TRITICEUM Gaertn. 



ELYMUS L. 

E. AMBIGUUS Vasey S: Scribn. var. 

AMBIGUUS 
E. AMBIGUUS Vasey Si Scribn. var. 
STRIGOSUS (Rydb.) A. S. 
Hitchc. 
E. strigosus Rydb. 
E. villiflorus Rydb. 
E. ARTsTATUS Merr. 

Sterile hybrid between E. cinereus 

X Sitanion hystrix 
E. glaucus Buckl. var. a. A. S. 
~ Hitchc . 

E. CANADENSIS L. 

E. brachystachvs Scribn. S; Ball 



Statliair W. 



WILDRYE 



Canada W. 



ELYMUS 



DESCHAMPSIA. 



Macoun W. 



Salina W. 



Beardless W. 



ELYMUS L. (con.) 

E. CINEREUS Scribn. & Merr. 

E. condensatus Presl var. pubens 

Piper 
E. c. of Intermountain authors, not 
~ ~ Presl 

E. FLAVESCENS Scribn. & Smith 
E. GLAUCUS Buckl. var. GLAUCUS Blue W. 

E. americanus Vasey & Scribn. 
E. angustifolius Davy 
E. marglnalis Rydb. 
E. nitidus Vasey 
E. GLAUCUS Buckl. var. JEPSONI Davy 

E. g. ssp. J . Gould 
E. HIRTIFLORUS^A. S. Hitchc. 
E. MACOUNII Vasey 

Sterile hybrid between Agropyron 
trachycaulum X 
Hordeum jubatum 
E. SALINA M. E. Jones 
E. TRITICOIDES Buckl. var. 

TRITICOIDES 
E. TRITICOIDES Buckl. var. PUBESCENS 

A. S. Hitchc. 
E. TRITICOIDES Buckl. var. SIMPLEX 
(Scribn. & WilUams) A. S. 
Hitchc. 
E. s. Scribn. & Williams 
E. VIRGINICUS L. var. VIRGINICUS 
E. jejunus (Ramaley) Rydb. 
E. striatus Willd. 
Hordeum v. Schenck 
E. VIRGINICUS^L. var. SUBMUTICUS 
Hook. 

HORDEUM L. (40) 

H. BRACHYANTHERUM Nevski 

H. boreale Scribn. & Smith, not 

Gandoger 
H. nodosum of American authors, 

in part, not L. 
H. n. var. b. (Scribn. & Smith) 
~ "" A. S. Hitchc. 

H. DEPRESSUM (Scribn. & Smith) Rydb. 
H. nodosum L. var. d. Scribn. & 



Smith 



DISTICHON L. 
HYSTRIX Roth 



H. 



murinum of American authors, 
not L. 



in part, 
H. gussoneanum Pari. 
H. JUBATUM L. var. JUBATUM 
H. JUBATUM L. var. CAESPITOSUM 
(Scribn.) A. S. Hitchc. 
H. c. Scribn. 
H. LEToRINUM Link 

H. murinum of American authors, 
in part, not L. 
H. PUSILLUM Nutt. var. PUSILLUM 
H. PUSILLUM Nutt. var. PUBENS A. S. 

Hitchc. 
H. STEBBINSU Covas 

H. murinum of American authors, 
in part, not L. 
H. VULGARE L. var. VULGARE 
H. VULGARE L. var. TRIFURCATUM 
(Schlecht.) Alef. 
H. t_. Schlecht. 

LOLIUM L. 

L. MULTIFLORUM Lam. 

1;. itaUcum A. Br. 
L. PERENNE L. 

SECALE L. 

S. CEREALE L. 



Virginia W. 



BARLEY 
Meadow B. 



SITANION Raf. (41) 

S. HANSENI (Scribn.) J. G. Smith 

Sterile hybrid between Elymus 

glaucus X S. jubatum 

Elymus h. Scribn. 
S. HORDEOIDES Suksd. 
S. HYSTRIX (Nutt.) J. G. Smith var. 
HYSTRIX 

Elymus elymoides (Raf.) Swezey 

E. hystrix (Nutt.) M. E. Jones 

Hordeum e. Schenck 

S. basalticola Piper 

S. cinereumj. G. Smith 

S. e. Raf. 

S. glabrumj. G. Smith 
S. HYSTRIX (Nutt.) J. G. Smith var. 

CALIFORNICUM 0- G. Smith) 
F. D. Wilson 

S. c. J. G. Smith 

S. latifoUum Piper 

S. montanum J. G. Smith 

S. rigidum J. G. Smith 

S. strigosum J. G. Smith 
S. JUBATUM J. G. Smith 

S. breviaristatum J. G. Smith 

S. villosum J. G. Smith 
S. LONGIFOLIUM J. G. Smith 

S. brevifolium J. G. Smith 

S. moUe J. G~ Smith 

S. pubiflorum J. G. Smith 

TAENIATHERUM Nevski 

T. CAPUT-MEDUSAE (L. ) Nevski 
Elymus c. L. 
Hordeum c. Coss. Si Dur. 

TRITICUM L. 

T. AESTIVUM L. 

T. sativum Lam. 
T. vulgare Vill. 

Tribe 4 . Aveneae 



SQUIRRELTAIL 
Hansen S. 



Medusahead 



WHEAT 



ARRHENATHERUM Beauv. 

A. ELATIUS (L.) Presl 



Mediterranean 



Foxtail B. 



AVENA L. 

A. BAR ATA Brot. 
A. FATUA L. var. 



FATUA 



A. FATUA L. 
A. SATIVA L, 



var. GLABRATA Peterm. 



Little B. 



B. 

Beardless B. 



RYEGRASS 
Italian R. 



Perennial R. 



RYE 
R. 



DANTHONIA Lamb. & DC. 

D. CALIFORNICA Boland. var. 

CALIFORNICA 
D. CALIFORNICA Boland. var. AMERI- 
CANA (Scribn.) A. S. Hitchc. 
D. a. Scribn. 

D. c. var. palousensis St. John 
D. c. var. piperi St. John 
D. INTERMEDIA Vasey 

D. cusickii (Williams) A. S. Hitchc. 
D. PARRYl Scribn. 
D. SPICATA (L.) Beauv. 

D. thermale Scribn. 
D. UI^SPICATA (Thurb.) Munro 

DESCHAMPSIA Beauv. 

D. ATROPURPUREA (Wahl.) Scheele 

Aira a. Wahl. 
D. CAESPlfOSA (L.) Beauv. 

Aira c. L. 

A. alpicola (Rydb.) Rydb. 

D. a. Rydb. 

D. confinls (Vasey) Rydb. 

D. pungens Rydb. 



Tall Oatgrasi 

OATS 
Slender O. 
Wild O. 

O. 

OATGRASS 

California O. 



Timber O. 

Poverty O. 

One -spike 0. 

HAIRGRASS 
Mountain H. 

Tufted H. 



OI-SCHAMPSIA 



CALAMAGROSTIS 



Di-SCHAMPSIA Beauv. (con.) 

D. DANTHONIOIDES (Tnn.) Munro 

Aira d. Trin. 

D. calycina Presl 
D. ELONGATA (Hook.) Munro 

Aira e. Hook. 

A. vaseyana Rydb. 

D. ciliata (Vasey) Rydb. 

HI'LICTOTRICHON Besser. 

H. MORTONIANUM (Scribn.) Henr. 
Avena m. Scribn, 

III li.CUS L. 

H. LANATUS L. 

Avena 1. Koel. 
Nothoholcus 1. Nash 



Annual H. 



Slender H. 



ALPINE OAT 



Nothokus 1. Nash 



KOELERIA Pers. 

K. CRISTATA (L.) Pers. 
Aira c . L. 
Festuca c. Vill. 



JUNEGRASS 
J. 



WEDGEGRASS 
Slender W. 



Prairie W. 



TRISETUM 
Tall T. 



Nodding T. 



Spike T. 



K. gracilis Pers. 
K. idahoensis Heller 
K. mtida Nutt. 
Poac. L. 

SCHISMUS Beauv. 

S. ARABICUS Nees 

S. BARBATUS (L.) Thell. 

SPHENOPHOLIS Scribn. 

S. INTERMEDIA (Rydb.) Rydb. 
Eatonia i. Rydb. 

S. OBTUSATaI Mi chx.) Scribn. 
Eatonia o. A. Gray 
S. robusta (Vasey) Heller 

TRISETUM Pers. 

T. CANESCENS Buckl. 

T. cernuum Tnn. var. c, Beal 
T. CERNUUM Trin. 
T. MONTANUM Vasey 

T. shearii Scribn. 

Graphephorum s. Rydb. 
T. SPICATUM (L.) Ru;ht. 

T. americanum Gandoger 

T. majus Rydb. 

T. subspicatum (L.) Beauv. 
T. WOLFU Vasey 

T. brandegei Scribn. 

T. muticum (Boland.) Scribn. 

Graphephorum b. Rydb. 

G. m_. Heller 

G. w. Vasey 



Tribe 5. Agrostideae 

AGROSTIS L. 

A. ALBA L. 

A. BOREALIS Hartm. 

A. bakeri Rydb. 
A. DIEGOENSIS Vasey 

A. foUosa Vasey, not Roem. & 
Schult. 
A. EXARATA Trin. var. EXARATA 

A. albicans Buckl. 

A. asperifoUa Trin. 

A. grandis Trin. 
A. EXARATA Trin. var. MONOLEPIS 

(Torr.) A. S. Hitchc. 
A. EXARATA Trin. var. PACIFICA Vasey 
A. HUMILIS Vasey Alpine B. 

A. IDAHOENSIS Nash Idaho Redtop 



A. LEPIDA A. S. Hitchc. 

A. MICROPHYLLA Steud. var. MICRO- 

PHYLLA 
A. MICROPHYLLA Steud. var. MAJOR 

Vasey 
A. OREGONENSIS Vasey 

A. PALUSTRIS Huds. 

A. depressa Vasey 
A. reptans Rydb. 
A. SCABRA Willd. var. SCABRA 

A. hiemalis of A. S. Hitchc. in 

Manual, edit I , for the 
western plants. 
A. SCABRA WiUd. var. GEMINATA 
(Tnn.) Swallen 
A. g. Tnn . 
A. SEMIVERTICILLATA (Forsk.) 
C. Christ. 
A. verticillata Vill. 
A. STOLONIFERA L. 
A. THURBERIANA A. S. Hitchc. 
A. VARIABILIS Rydb. 

A. rossae of A. S. Hitchc. in 
edit I , in part. 

ALOPECURUS L. 

A. AEQUALIS Sobol. 

A. aristulatus Michx. 

A. caespitosus Trin. 
A. AlTiNUS J. E. Smith 

A. occidentalis Scribn. & Tweedy 
A. CA"R0LINIANUS Walt. 

A. gracilis Willd. 

A. macounii Vasey 
A. GENICULATUS L. 
A. PALLESCENS Piper 
A. PRATENSIS L. 

Tribe 10. Aristideae 



Oregon Redtop 

B. 
Creeping B. 



Water B. 



Thurber B. 
Mountain B. 



FOXTAIL 
Short -awn 



Alpine F. 



Water F. 
Washington F. 
Meadow F. 



BENTGRASS 
Redtop B. 



Thingrass B. 



Spike B. 



-ID 


A L. 




THREE-AWN 


A. 


ADSCENSIONIS L. 
A. bromoides HBK. 
A. fasciculata Torr. 




Six-weeks T. 


A. 


ARIZONICA Vasey 




Arizona T. 


A. 


DIVARICATA Humb. & 
A. lemmoni Scribn. 
A. palmeri Vasey 


Bonpl . 


Poverty T. 


A. 


FENDLERIANA Steud. 




Fendler T. 


A. 


GLAUCA (Nees) Walp. 




Reverchon T. 


A. 


HAMULOSA Henr. 






A. 


LONGISETA Steud. var 


LONGISETA 


Red T. 


A. 


LONGISETA Steud. var 
A. S. Hitchc. 


. RARIFLORA 




A. 


LONGISETA Steud. var 
Merr. 


ROBUSTA 




A. 


OUGANTHA Michx. 




Prairie T. 


A. 


PARISHU A. S. Hitchc. 






A. 


PLIRPUREA Nutt. 




Purple T. 


A. 


WRIGHTII Nash 







BLEPHARONEURON Nash 

B. TRICHOLEPIS (Torr.) Nash 

Sporobolus t. Coult . 
Vilfa t.Tor"r. 

CALAMAGROSTIS Adans. 

C. CANADENSIS (Miclix.) Beauv. 

CANADENSIS 



C. blanda Beal 



HAIRY 

DROPSEED 
H. 



REEDGRASS 

Bluejoint; 
Reed Ca- 
nary grass 



C. oregonensis Buckl. 

C. c. var. acuminata Vasey 



A. filiculmis M. E. Jones 



CALAMAGROSTIS 



CALAMAGROSTIS Adans. (con.) 

C. CANADENSIS (N4ichx.) Beauv. var. MA- 
COUNIANA (Vasey) Stebbins 
C. m. Vasey 
C. EPIGETOS (L.) Roth 
C. INEXPANSA A. Gray 
C. KOELERIOIDES Vasey 
C. MONTANENSIS Scribn. 
C. NEGLECTA (Ehrh.) Gaertn. Mey. & 

Schreb. 
C. PURPURASCENS R. Br. 

C. vaseyi Beal 
C. RUBESCENS Buckl. 
C. cusickii Vasey 



STIPA 



Northern R. 
Plains R. 

Purple R. 
Pinegrass 



C. suksdorfi Scribn. 
C. luxurians Rydb. 
SCOPULORUM M. E 
C 



Jones 
var. lucidula Kearney 



C. SCRIBNERI Beal 

CALAMOVILFA Hack. 

C. GIGANTEA (Nutt.) Scribn. 

Calamagrostis g. Nutt. 

C 



Scribner R. 



Merr. 



LONGIFOLIA (Hook.) Scribn. 
Calamagrostis 1. Hook. 



CINNA L. 

C. LATIFOLIA (Trevir.) Griseb. 




WOODREED 
Drooping W. 


LYCURUS HBK. 

L. PHLEOIDES HBK. 




WOLFTAIL 
W. 


MUHLENBERGIA Schreb. 

M. ANDINA (Nutt.) A. S. Hitchc. 
M. comata (Thurb.) Thurb. 
M. ARSENEI A. S. Hitchc. 
M. ASPERIFOLIA (Nees & Meyer 


) Parodi 


MUHLY 
Foxtail M. 

Scratchgrass 



M. THURBERl (Scribn.) Rydb. 

Sporobolus t. Scribn. 

M. filiculmis (Thurb.) M. E. Jones, 
not Vasey 
M. TORREYI (Kunth) A. S. Hitchc. 
M. UTILIS (Torr.) A. S. Hitchc. 

Sporobolus u. Scribn. 
M. WOLFII (Vase"y) Rydb. 

Sporobolus w. Vasey 

S. ramulosus in Manual, ed. 1. 
M. WRIGHTIl Vasey 

M. coloradensis Mez 

ORYZOPSIS Michx. 

O. ASPERIFOLIA Michx. 

O. BLOOMERI (Boland.) Ricker 

Sterile hybrid between O. hymen - 
oides X a number of 
species of Stipa 
Stipa b. Boland. 
O. caduca Beal 
S. c. Scribn. 
Eriocoma c. Rydb. 
Stiporyzopsis c. B. L. Johnson & 

Rogler 
S. b. B. L. Johnson 
O. EXTgUA Thurb. 
O. HYMENOIDES (Roem. & Schult.) 

Ricker var. HYMENOIDES 
Stipa h. Roem. & Schult. 
Eriocoma h. Rydb. 
O. cuspidata (Nutt.) Benth. 
O. membranacea (Pursh) Vasey 
O. HYMENOIDES (Roem. & Schult.) 
Ricker var. CONTRACTA 
B. L. Johnson 



Ringgrass 
Aparejo Grass 



Spike M. 



RICEGRASS 



Little R. 
Indian R. 



Sporobolus a. Nees & Meyer 
M. CURTIFOLIA Scribn. 
M. DEPAUPERATA Scribn. 
M. FILICULMIS Vasey, not M. E. Jones 
M. FILIFORMIS (Thurb.) Rydb. 

M. aristulata Rydb. 

M. f. var. fortis E. H. Kelso 

M. simplex (Scribn.) Rydb. 

Sporobolus aristulata Rydb. , not 
Pers. 

S. i_. Rydb. 
M. JONESIl (Vasey) A. S. Hitchc. 

Sporobolus ]. Vasey 
M. LONGILIGULA A. S. Hitchc. 
M. MEXICANA (L.) Trin. 

M. ambigua Torr. 



SUmstem M. 
Pull-up M. 



Nels 



M. setiglumis (S. Wats.) A. 

~ & Macb. 

M. foUosa (Roem. & Schult) Trin. 
ssp. a. Scribn. 
M. MICROSPERMA (DC.) Kunth 
M. MINUTISSIMA (Steud.) Swallen 

Sporobolus microspermus A. S. 
Hitchc. 
M. MONTANA (Nutt.) A. S. Hitchc. 

M. gracilis of American authors, 
not (HBK.) Kunth 

M. subalpina Vasey 
M. MONTICOLA Buckl. 
M. MUNDULA I. M. Johnston 
M. PAUCIFLORA Buckl. 



Minutissima 
Mountain M. 



Mesa M. 



New Mexican 
M. 



0. 


MICRANTHA (Trin. & Rupr.) Thurb. 


Littleseed R. 


o. 


WEBBERI (Thurb.) Burth . ex. Vasey 




PHLEUM L. 


TIMOTHY 


P. 


ALPINUM L. 


Alpine T. 


P. 


PRATENSE L. 


T. 


POLYPOGON Desf. 


POLYPOGON 


P. 


INTERRUPTUS HBK. 


Ditch P. 


P. 


MONSPELIENSIS (L.) Desf. 


Rabbitfoot 
Grass 


SPOROBOLUS R. Br. 


DROPSEED 


S. 


AIROIDES (Torr.) Torr. var. 






AIROIDES 


Alkali Sacato 


S. 


AIROIDES (Torr.) Torr. var. 






WRIGHTIl (Munro) Gould 


Sacaton 




S. w. Munro 




S. 


ASPER (Michx.) Kunth 




S. 


CONTRACTUS A. S. Hitchc. 

S. st rictus (Scribn.) Merr., not 
Franch. 


Spike D. 


S. 


CRYPTANDRUS (Torr.) A. Gray 


Sand D. 


S. 


FLEXUOSUS (Thurb.) Rydb. 


Mesa D. 


S. 


GIGANTEUS Nash 


Giant D. 


S. 


INTERRUPTUS Vasey 


Black D. 


S. 


NEALLEYI Vasey 


Nealley D. 



S. NEGLECTUS Nash 
S. PULVINATUS Swallen 
S. TEXANUS Vasey 



STIPA L. 



M. POLOCAULIS Scribn. 
M. PORTERI Scribn. 
M. PUNGENS Thurb. 
M. RACEMOSA (Miclix.) BSP 
M. REPENS (Presl) A. S. Hitchc. 
M. RICHARDSONIS (Trin.) Rydb. 
M. squarrosa (Trin.) Rydb. 



Bush M. 



Creeping M. 
Mat M. 



ARIDA M. E. Jones 
S. mormonum Mez 



S. CALIFORNICA Merr. & Davy 
S. COLUMBIANA Macoun 

S. nelsoni Scribn. 

S. c. var. n. A. S. Hitchc. 

S. minor (Vasey) Scribn. 



NEEDLE- 
GRASS 



Columbia N. 



TIPA 



PANICUM 



TIPA L 


. (con.) 




S. 


COMATA Trin. & Rupr. var. 


Needle -and - 




COMATA 


Thread Grass 


S. 


COMATA Trin. & Rupr. var. INTER- 
MEDIA Scribn. & Tweedy 
S. tweedyi Scribn. 




S. 


CORONATA Thurb. var. CORONATA 




s. 


CORONATA Thurb. var. DEPAUPERATA 




(M. E.Jones) A. S. Hitchc. 






S. panslui Vasey 




s. 


ELMERI Piper & Brodie 




s. 


LEMMONI (Vasey) Scribn. 


Lemmon N. 


s. 


LETTERMANI Vasey 


Letterman N. 


s. 


NEOMEXICANA (Thurb.) Scribn. 
S. pennata L. var. n, Thurb. 


New Mexico 
Feathergrass 


s. 


OCCIDENTAUS Thurb. 
S. regonensis Scribn. 


Western N. 


s. 


PINETORUM M. E. lones 




s. 


ROBUSTA Scribn. 




s. 


SCRIBNERI Vasey 


Scribner N. 


s. 


SPECIOSA Trin. & Rupr. 


Desert N. 


s. 


THURBERIANA Piper 


Thurber N. 


s. 


WEBBERI (Thurb.) B. L. Johnson 
Eriocoma w. Thurb. 
Oryzopsis w. Benth. 





LEPTOCHLOA Beauv. 

L. FASCICULARIS (Lam.) A. Gray 
L. FILIFORMIS (Lam.) Beauv. 
L. UNINERVIA (Presl) A. S. Hitchc. & 
Chase 
L. imbricata Thurb. 

MUNROA forr. 

M. SQUARROSA (Nutt.) Torr. 

SCHEDONNARDUS Steud. 

S. PANICULATUS (Nutt.) Trel. 

SPARTINA Schreb. (42) 
S. GRACILIS Trin. 
S. PECTINATA Link 

S. michauxiana A. S. Hitchc. 

Tribe 8. I'halarideae 

HIEROCHLOE R. Br. 

H. ODOR ATA (L.) Beauv. 
Savastana o. Scribn. 
Torresia o. A. S. Hitchc. 



SPRANGLETOP 
Red S. 



S. WILLIAMSII Scribn. 



Trilie b. Zoysieae 

IlLARIA HBK. 

H. JAMESII (Torr.) Benth. 

Pleuraphis j. Torr. 
H. RIGIDA (Thurb.) Benth. 

Pleuraphis r. Thurb. 

RAGUS Hall 

T. BERTERONIANUS Schult. 

Tribe?. Chlorideae 

ECKMANNIA Host 

B. SYZIGACHNE (Steud.) Fern. 

B. erucaeformis of American 

authors, not (L. ) Host 

OUTELOUA Lag. 

B. ARISTIDOIDES (HBK.) Griseb. 
B. BARBATA Lag. 

B. micrantha Scribn. & Merr. 

B. polystachya (Benth.) Torr. 

B. rothrockii of Tidestrom, not 
Vasey 
B. CURTIPENDULA (Michx.) Torr. 
B. ERIOPODA (Torr.) Torr. 
B. GRACILIS (HBK.) Lag. 

B. oLigostachya (Nutt.) Torr. 
B. HIRSLITA Lag. 
B. SIMPLEX Lag. 

B. procumbens (Dur.) Griffiths 

B. prostrata Lag. 
B. TRfFIDA Thurb. 

B. UNIFLORA Vasey 

:HL0RIS Swartz 

C. VERTICILLATA Nutt. 
C. VIRGATA Swartz 

•YNODON Rich. 

C. DACTYLON (L.) Pers. 
Capriola d. Kuntze 

■.LHUSINE Gaertn. 

E. INDICA (L.) Gaertn. 



Williams N. 



GALLETA 



BigG. 



PHALARIS L. 

P. ARUNDINACEA L. 
P. CANARIENSIS L. 
P. CAROLINIANA Walt. 

Tribe 9. Oryzcae 

LEERSIA Swartz 

L. OR YZOIDFS (L.) Swartz 



TUMBLE- 
GRASS 
T. 

CORDGRASS 
Alkali C. 
Prairie C. 



SWEETGRASS 
S. 



CANARY 
GRASS 
Reed C . 
C. 
Carolina C. 



RICE CUT- 

GRASS 
R. 



SLOUGHGRASS 
American S. 



GRAMA 
Needle G. 
Sixweeks G. 



Side-oats G. 
Black G. 
Blue G. 



Subfamily 2. PANICOIDEAE 

Tribe 12. Paniceae 

CENCHRUS L. SANDBLIR 

C. PAUCIFLORUS Benth. Field S. 

C. carolinianus of Rydb., not Walt. 



DIGITARIA Heister 

D. ISCHAEMLlM (Schreb.) Schreb. 
Syntherisma i. Nash 
S. humifusa (Pers.) Rydb. 



CRABGRASS 
Smooth C. 



D. SANGUINALIS (L.) Scop. C. 

Syntherisma marginatum (Link) Nash 
S. s. Dulac 



Hairy G. 



FINGERGRASS 
Windmill Grass 
Feather F. 

BERMLIDA 

GRASS 
B. 



GOOSEGRASS 
G. 



ECHINOCHLOA Beauv. 

E. CRUSGALLI (L.) Beauv. var. 

CRUSGALLI 
E. CRUSGALLI (L. ) Beauv. var. MITIS 

(Pursh) Peterm . 
E. CRUSGALLI (L.) Beauv. var. ZELA- 

YENSIS (HBK.) A. S. Hitchc. 

PANICUM L. (43) 

P. BULBOSUM HBK. var. BULBOSUM 
P. BULBOSUM HBK. var. MINUS Vasey 
P. b. var. sciaphilum (Rupr.) 
A. S. Hitchc. 
P. CAPILLAR E L. var. CAPILLAR E 
P. CAPILLARE L. var. OCCIDENTALE 
Rydb. 
P. barbipulvinatum (Vasey) Nash 
P. DICHOTOMIFLORUM Michx. 
P. FLEXILE (Gattinger) Scribn. 
P. HALLII Vasey 



BARNYARD 
GRASS 



PANICUM 
Bulb P. 



Witchgrass 



Fall P. 



Hall's P. 



PANICUM 



CAREX 



PANICUM L. (con.) 

P. HIRTICAULE Presl 

P. capillare var. h. Gould 
P. HUACHUCAE Ashe var. HUACHUCAE 
P. HUACHUCAE Ashe var. FASCICULATUM 

(Torr.) Hubb. 
P. LEPIDULUMA. S. Hitchc. & Chase 
P. MILIACEUM L. 



P. OBTUSUM HBK. 

P. OCCIDENTALE Scribn. 

P. brodiei St. John 
P. PACIFICUM A. S. Hitchc. & Chase 
P. SCRIBNERIANUM Nash 
P. TENNESSEENSE Ashe 
P. THERMALE Boland. 

P. ferventicola Schmoll 
P. VIRGATUM L. 

PASPALUM L. 

P. DILATATUM Poir. 
P. DISTICHUM L. 

SETARIA Beauv. 

S. GLAUCA (L.) Beauv. (9) 

Chaetochloa g. Scribn. 

S. lutescens (Weigel) Hubb. 

C. I. Stuntz 
S. GRISEBACHII Fourn. 

Chaetochloa g. Scribn. 
S. MACROSTACHYA HBK. 

Chaetochloa m. Scribn 



Broomcom 

Millet 
Vine-mesquite 



SORGHUM Moench 

S. HALEPENSE (L.) Pers. 

Holcus h. L. 
S. SUDANENSE (Piper) Stapf . 

S. vulgare Pers. var. s. A. S. 
Hitchc. 
S. VULGARE Pers. 

Holcus sorghum L. 



Tribe 14. Tripsaceae 



ZEA L. 
Z. 



MAYS L. 



Johnson Grass 
Sudan Grass 

Sorghum 



CORN 
Maize; 
Indian C. 



CYPERACEAE. Sedge Family 



Switchgrass 



Dallasgrass 
Knotgrass 

BRISTLE - 

GRASS 
Yellow B. 



Grisebach B. 



Plains B. 



BULBOSTYLIS Kunth. 

B. CAPILLARIS (L.) Clarke 
Stenophyllus c. Britton 



Merr. 

C. composita of authors, not (HBK.) 
Scribn. 
S. VERTICILLATA (L.) Beauv. Bur B. 

Chaetochloa v. Scribn. 
S. VIRIDIS (L.) Beauv. Green B. 

Chaetochloa v. Scribn. 

TRICHACHNE Nees COTTONTOP 

T. CALIFORNICA (Benth.) Chase C. 

Valota saccharata (Buckl.) Chase 



Tribe 13. Andropogoneae 

ANDROPOGON L. 

A. BARBINODIS Lag. 

Amphilophis b. Nash 
A. GERARDl Vitman 

A. furcatus Muhl. 

A. provincialis Lam. 
A. GL"0MERATUS (Walt.) B.S.P. 
A. HALLII Hack. 

A. paucipilus Nash 
A. HIRTIFLORUS (Nees) Kunth var. 
FEENSIS (Fourn.) Hack. 

A. f. Fourn. 
A. SACCHAROIDES Swartz 

Amphilophis s. Nash 

A. torreyanus (Steud.) Nash 
A. SCOPAKIUS Michx. var. SCOPARIUS 

Schizachyrium s. Nash 
A. SCOPARIUS Michx~ var. NEOMEXI- 
CANUS (Nash) A. S. Hitchc. 

A. n. Nash 

Schizachyrium n . Nash 

HETEROPOGON Pers. 

H. CONTORTUS (L.) Beauv. 

IMPERATA Cyrillo 

I. BREVIFOUA Vasey 
I^ hookeri Rupr. 

SORGHASTRUM Nash 

S. NUTANS (L.)Nash 

Chrysopogon n. A. Gray 



BEARDGRASS 



Bushy B. 
Sand Bluestem 



Silver B. 



Little Bluestem 



Tanglehead 

SATINTAIL 
S. 



INDIAN GRASS 
I. 



EX 


L. (9, 44, 45) 


SEDGE 


C. 


ABLATA L. H. Bailey 
C. owyheensis A. Nels. 




C. 


ABORIGINUM M. E. Jones 




C. 


ABRUPTA Mkze. 


Abruptbeak S 


C. 


ALBO-NIGRA Mkze. 


Black and 
white S. 



c. 



ALMA L. H. Bailey 

C. arizonensis C. B. Clark 

C. vitrea Holm 
AMPLIFOLIA Boott 
ANGUSTIOR Mkze. 
APERTA Boott. 
AQUATILIS Wahl. 

C. interimus Maguire 

C. substrlcta (Kukenth.) Mkze. 

C. ]^^^ 

C. variabilis L. 



Bigleaf S. 



Water S . 



rhomboides Holm 

H. Bailey 



ARCTA Boott 
ARCTOGENA H. Smith 
ATHERODES Spreng. 

C. aristata R. Br. 
ATHROSTACHRYA Olney 

C. a. var. minor Olney 

C. tenuirostris Olney 
ATRATA L. 
ATROSQUAMA Mkze. 

C. apoda Clokey 
AUREA Nutt. 

C. mutica R. 



Slenderbeak S. 



Black S. 



Golden S. 



Br. 



C. BEBBII Ohiey 

C. BELLA L. H. Bailey 

C. atrata var. discolor L. H. Bailey 
C. BIGELOVIITorr. 

C. concolor R. Br. 
C. BIPARTITA Bell. var. AUSTROMON- 
TANA F. J. Herm. 

C. lachenoUi Schkuhr. 

C. lagopina Wahl. 
C. BOLANDERl Olney Bolander Sj 

C. deweyana Schw. var. b. W. Boott 
C. BREVIOR (Dewey) Mkze. 
C. BREVIPES W. Boott 

C. deflexa Homem. var. b. L. H. 
Bailey 
C. BRUNNESCENS (Pers.) Poir. Brownish S] 

C. BUXBAUMII Wahl. 
C. CALIFORNICA L. H. Bailey 
C. CAMPYLOCARPA Holm ssp. AFFINIS 

Maguire & Holmgren 
C. CANESCENS L. 

C. curta Good. 
C. C AXILLARIS L. 

C. c. var. elongata Olney 
C. CAPITATA L. 



12 



.vRl-.X 



CAREX 



L. (con.) 
. CHALCIOLEPIS Holm 

C. atrata var. c. Kiikenth. 



C. COMOSA Boott 

C. CONCINNOIDES Mkze. 

C. CRAWEI Dewey 

C. CRAWFORDII Fern. Crawford S. 

C. CUSICKU Mkze. Cusick S. 

C. teretiuscula Rerchenb. var. 
ampla L. H. Bailey 
C. DEWEYANA Schw. 
C. DIANDRA Schrank 
C\ DISPERMA Dewey 

C. tenella Schkuhr 
C. DOUGLASII Boott Douglas S. 

C. d. var. densispicata Dewey 

C. meekii Dewey 

C. nuttalUi Dewey 
C. DRUMMONDIANA Dewey 

C. rupestris All. var. d. L. H. 
Bailey 
C. EBENEA Rydb. Ebony S. 

C. haydeniana Olney var. e. 

~ U. Kelso 

C. festiva in Hall's manual, not 
Dewey 
C. EGGLESTONIl Mkze. 
C. ELEOCHARIS L. H. Bailey Needleleaf S. 

C. stenophylla of some American 
authors, not Wahl. 

C. s. var. e. Hulten 
C. ELYNOIDES Holm 

C. affinis R. Br. 

C. lyoni Boott 
C. ENGELMANNU L. H. Bailey 
C. EPAPILLOSA Mkze. 

C. EUR YCARPA Holm. Widefruit S. 

C. EXSERTA Mkze. Shonhair S. 

C. EXSICCATA L. H. Bailey 

C. lanceolata L. var. globosa 
L. H. Bailey 
C. FESTIVELLA Mkze. 

C. festiva in Rydb. , not Dewey 

C. f. Dewey var. viridis L. H. 
Bailey 
C. FETA L. H. Bailey 

C. FILIFOLIA Nutt. Threadhead S. 

C. FISSURICOLA Mkze. 

C. luzulaefolia W. Boott, in a small 
part. 
C. FLAVA L. 
1 . FOENEA Willd. 

C. siccata Dewey 
C. GARBERl Fern. 

C. aurea var. androgyna OInev Elk S. 

C. GEYERl Boott 
C. GYNOCRATES Wormsk. 
C. HALLll Olney 

C. parryana of American authors 
<-:. HA"SSE1 L. H. Bailey 
C. HA \TlENIANA Olney Cloud S. 

C. festiva Dewey var. h. W. Boott 

C. f. var. decumbens Holm 

C. nubicola Mkze. 
C. HETiOPHILA Mkze. Sun S. 

C. HELLERl Mkze. 
C. HEPBURND Boott 

C. nardina Fries var. h. Kukenth. 
e:. HETERONEURA W. Boott" 

C. quadrifida L. H. Bailey 
C. HOODll Boott HoodS. 

C. muricata L. var. confixa 
L. H. Bailey 



C. 



HOOKERANA Dewey 
HYSTRICINA Muhl. 
IDAHOA L. H. Bailey 
I L LOTA L. H. Bailey 



Bottlebrush S. 



C. INTEGRA Mkze. 

C. INTERIOR L. H. Bailey Inlands. 

C. JEPSONIl J. T. Howell 

C. whitneyi in Mkze., in part, not 
Olney 
C. JONESll L. H. Bailey 
C. KELLOGGII W. Boott KelloggS. 

C acuta var. pallida Boott 

C. limnaea Holm . 
C. LA'EVICULMIS Meinsh. 
C. LANUGINOSA Michx. Woolly S. 

C. watsoni Olney 
C. LASIOCARPA Ehrh. Woolfruit S. 

C. LEPORINELLA Mkze. 
C. LEPTALEA Wahl. 
C. LEPTOPODA Mkze. 

C. LIMOSA L. Mud S. 

C. LIVIDA (Wahl.) Willd. 
C. LUZULAEFOLIA W. Boott 
C. LUZULINA Olney 
C. MEDIA R. Br. var. STEVENII (Holm) 

Fern. 
C. MICROPTERA Mkze. SmallwingS. 

C. MISANDRA R. Br. 
C. MISERABILIS Mkze. 
C. MONTANENSIS L. H. Bailey 
C. MULTICAULIS L. H. Bailey 

C. geyeri Boott, in part 
C. ML'iLTICOSTATA Mkze. 

C. pachycarpa Mkze. 
C. NEBRASKENSIS Dewey Nebraska S. 

C. jamesii Torr. 
C. NEXSONII Mkze. 
C. NERVINA L. H. Bailey 
C. NEUROPHORA Mkze. 

C. nervina of Mkze. in Rydb., in 
part 
C. NIGRICANS C. A. Meyer Black Alpine 

C. NOVA L. H. Bailey 

C. violacea C. B. Clark 
C. OBTUSATA Lilj. 
C. OCCIDENTALIS L. H. Bailey 

C. muricata L. var. americana 

~ L. H. BaiTey 

C. PACHYSTACHYA Cham. var. PACHY- 

STACHYA Chamisso S. 

C. macloviana D'Urv. var. p. Hult. 
C. PACHYSTACHYA Cham. var. 

GRACILIS (Olney) Mkze. 

C. festiva Dewey var. g. Olney 
C. PACHYSTACHYA Cham. [. MONDS- 
COULTERI (L. Kelso) F. J. 
Herm . 
C. PAUPERCULA Michx. 
C. PELOCARPA F. J. Herm. 
C. PERGLOBOSA Mkze. 
C. PETASATA Dewey Liddon S. 

C. liddoni Boott 
C. PHAEOCEPHA LA Piper DunheadS. 

C. leporina L. var. americana Olnev 
C. PHYSOCARPA Presl 

C. saxatilis L. var. major Olney 
C. PITYOPHILA Mkze. 
C. PLATYLEPIS Mkze. 

C. piperi Mkze. 
C. PODOCARPA R. Br. 
C. PRAECEPTORUM Mkze. 

C. canescens var. dubia L. H. 
Bailey 
C. PRAEGRACILIS W. Boott 

C. camporum Mkze. 

C. douglasii var. brunnea Olney 

C. latebrosa Mkze. 

C. marcida Boott 

C. m. var. debilis L. H. Bailey 

C. usta L. H. Bailey 
C. PRATICOLA Rydb. 
C. PRESLll Steud. Presl S. 



CAREX 



FIMBRISTYLi 



CAREX 


L. (con.) 




C. 


PSEUDOSCIRPOIDEA Rydb. 

C. scirpoidea of early western 
authors 




C. 


PYRENAICA Wahl. 




C. 


RAYNOLDSII Dewey 


Raynolds S 


C. 


RETRORSA Schw. 




C. 


ROSSII Boott 

C. deflexa Hornem. var. r. 

L. H. Bailey 
C, farwelUi Mkze. 


Ross S. 


C. 


ROSTRATA Stokes 
C. utriculata Boott 
C. r. var. u. L. H. Bailey 
C, u. var. minor Boott 


Beaked S. 


C. 


RUSBYl Mkze. 




C. 


SAXIMONTANA Mkze. 

C. backii in Rydb. , not Holm 




C. 


SCOPULORUM Holm 




C. 


SCOPULORUM Holm var. 





C. FENDLERIANUS Boeckl. 
C. NIGER Ruiz & Pavon var. CAPITATUS 
(Britton) O'Neill 
C. n. var. castaneus (S. Wats.) 

Kukenth. 
C. melanostachys HBK. 
C. NIGER Ruiz & Pavon var. RIVU- 
LARIS (Kunth) V. Grant 
(9) 
C. r. Kunth 



Fendler F. 



SPIKE-RUSH 



Needle S. 



C. 



SCOPULORUM 
SCOPULORUM Holm var. BRACTEOSA 
(Bailey) F. J. Herm. 

C. gymnoclada Holm 
SCOPULORUM Holm var. CHIMO- 

PHILA (Holm) Kukenth. 

C. c. Holm 
SHELDONn Mkze. 
SIMULATA Mkze. 
SITCHENSIS Prescott 

C. pachystoma Holm 
SPECIFIC A L. H. Bailey 
SPECTABILIS Dewey 

C. nigella Boott 
STIPATA Muhl. 

STRA MINI FOR MIS L. H. Bailey 
SUBFUSCA W. Boott 

C. stenoptera Mkze. 
SUBNIGRICANS Stacey 

C. engelmannii of west coast 
authors 

C. pyrenaica of Nevada authors, 
not Wahl. 

C. rachillis Maguire 
TENERAEFORMIS Mkze. 
TOLMIEI Boott 

C. paysonis Clokey 

C. podocarpa in Mkze., not R. Br. 
TRACYI Mkze. 
VALLICOLA Dewey 

C. brevisquama Mkze. 

C_. phaeolepis Holm 

C_. vagans Holm 
VERNACULA L. H. Bailey var. 

VERNACULA 
VESICARLA L. 
VIRIDULA Michx. 

C. flava var. rectirostrata 
L. H. Bailey 

C . oederi var . pumila Fern . 
VULPINOIDEA Mlchx^ 
XERANTICA L. H. Bailey 



Sheldon S. 



Sierraslim S. 
Tolmie S. 



Tracy S. 
Valleys. 



Blister S. 
Green S. 



Fox S. 



CLADIUM R. Br. 

C. MARISCUS R. Br. var. CALIFOR- 
NICUMS. Wats. 
C. c. O'Neill 
Mariscus c. Fern. 

CYPERUS L. (46) 

C. ACUMINATUS Torr. & Hook. 

C. cyrtolepis Torr. & Hook. 
C. ARISTATUS Rottb. 

C. inflexus Mtihl. 
C. ERYTHRORHIZOS Muhl. 

C. occidentaUs Torr. 
C. ESCULENTUS L. 



SAW -GRASS 



FLATS EDGE 
Taperleaf F. 

Bearded F. 



Chufa F. 



ELEOCHARIS R. Br. (47, 48, 49) 

Also spelled Heleocharis. 
E. ACICULARIS (L.) Roem. & Schult. 
E. a. var. occidentaUs Svens. 
E. a. f. o. Beetle 
E. AcTJmTnATA (Muhl.) Nees 
E. ATROPURPUREA (Retz.) Kunth 
E. BELLA (Piper) Svens. 

E. acicularis var. b. Piper 
E. BOLANDERI A. Gray" 

E. monteviclensis var. b. V. Grant 
E. EN"GELMANNI Steud. var.lviONTICOLA 
(Fern.) Svens. 
E. m. Fern. 

E. obtusa (Willd.) Schult. var. e. 
Gilly 
E. FLACCIDA (Reichb.) Urban 

E. MACROSTACHYA Britton Common S. 

E. MONTEVIDENSIS Kunth 
E. arenicola Torr. 
E. montana of western authors, 
except Arizona refer- 
ences, not (HBK.) Roem. 
& Schult. 
E. m. (HBK.) Roem. & Schult. var. 

nodulosa (Roth) Svens. 
E. n. Schult. 
E. PARIS HII Britton 

E. montevidensis var. p. V. Grant 
E. PARVULA (Roem. & SchulT.) Unk var. 
ANACHAETA (Torr.) Svens. 
E. leptos in Svens., not Clarke 
E. PARVULA (Roem. & Schult.) Link var. 
COLORADENSIS (Britton) 
Beetle 
E. leptos (Steud.) Svens. var. c. 

Svens. 
Scirpus c. Britton 
E. PAUCIFLORUS (Lightf.) Link var. 
PAUCIFLORUS 

S. p. Ughtf. 
E. PAUCIFLORUS (Lightf.) Link var. 

SUKSDORFIANA Svens. 
E. RADICANS (Poir.) Kunth 

E. acicularis var. r. Britton 

E. lindheimeri (Clarke) Svens. 
E. ROSTELLATA (Torr.) Torr. 

E. I. var. occidentaUs S. Wats. 

ERIOPHORUM L. 

E. ALTAICUM Meinsh. var. NEOGAEUM 

Raymond 
E. ANGUSTIFOUUM Roth 

E. ocreatum A. Nels. 
E. CH AMISS ONIS C. A. Meyer 

E. russeolum Fries 

E. scheuclizeri of Intermountain 

references, not Hoppe 

E. GRACILE Koch 

FIMBRISTYLIS Vahl 

F. SPADICEA (L.) Vahl 

F. thermaUs S. Wats. 



Few -floweret ( 
S. 



Beaked S. 



COTTON- 
SEDGE 



Narrowleaf ( 



14 



^.Il(:ARPHA 



JL'NCUS 



1 Ili'ARPHA Nees & Arn. 

II. MICRANTHA (Vahl) Pax. var. 
ARISTULATA Cov. 
H. a. Smyth 

H. 111. of western authors, not (Vuhl) 
~ ~ Pax 

CdU-'.SIA Willd. 

K. BELLARDI (All.) Degland 
Elyna b. Koch 



T. PINETORUM Greene 



JL'NCACEAE. Rush Family 



JUNCUS L. (6, 53) 



RUSH, 
WIREGRASS 



NUS L. 

. NIGRICANS L. 



C!l'i;S L. (50) BULRUSH 

S. ACUTUS Muhl. Tule B. 

S. occidentalis (S. Wats.) Chase 



s. 


AMERICANUS Pers. 

S. a. var. polyphyllus (Boeck.) 
Beetle 


American B 


s. 


ATROVIRENS MuJil. 


Green B. 


s. 


CESPITOSUS L. var. CALLOSUS 






Bigel. 


Deerhair B. 




S. c. of American authors, not L. 






also spelled 






S, caespitosus 




s. 


CRINIGER A. Gray 

Enophorum c. Beetle 




s. 
s. 


FLUVIATILIS (Torr.) A. Gray 
MICROCARPUS Presl 


Paiucled B. 


s. 


NEVADENSIS S. Wats. 


Nevada B. 


s. 


OLNEYI A. Gray 

S, chilensis of western authors. 


Olney B. 



not Nees & C. A. Meyer 



PALUDUS (Britton) Fern. 
PALUDOSUS A. Nels. 

S. campestris Britton 

S. interior Britton 
RUBROTINCTUS Fern. 
SUPINUS L. var. HALLII A 

S. h. A. Gray 

S. saximontanus Fern. 

S. s. of western authors, not L. 
VALIDUS Vahl 



Gray 



Alkali B. 



Hall B. 



Softstem B. 



LEMNACEAE. Duckweed Family (8) 



IJINA L. (51) 
L. GIBBA L. 
L. MINIMA Phil. 
L. MINOR L. 
L. TRISULCA L. 
L. VALDIVIANA Phil. 

L. cyclostasa of western authors, 
~ not (Ell.) Chev. 

iPODELA Schleid. 

S. POLYRHIZA (L.) Schleid. 

VV'.FFIA Horkel 

W. PUNCTATA Griseb. 



COMMELINACEAE. Spiderwort Family 



DUCKWEED 
Swollen D. 
Least D. 
Common D. 
Star D. 



GREAT 

DUCKWEED 
G. 



OdMEUNA L. (52) 

C. DIANTHIFOUA DeUie 

npESCANTIA L. 

{ T. OCCIDENTAUS (Britton) Smyth var. 
OCCIDENTALIS 
T. larimiensis Goodding 
T. universitatis Cockerell 
T. OCCIDENTAUS (Britton) Smyth var. 

SCOPULORUM (Rose) Anders. 
I & Woods. 

T. s. Rose 



DAY FLOWER 
BirdbiU D. 

SPIDERWORT 

Praire S. 



ABJECTUS F. J. Herm. 
ACUMINATUS Mich.x. 

J. bolanderi Engelm. var, riparius 
Jeps. 
ACLITUS L. var. SPHAEROCARPLIS 

Engelm . 
ALBESCENS (Lange) Fern. 

J. triglumis of American authors, 
not L. 
ALPINUS ViU. var. ALPINUS 
ALPlNUSViU. var. FUSCESCENS Fern 
ARTICULATUS L. 
BADIUS Suksd. 

J. truncatus Rydb. 
BALTICUS L. var. MONTANUS Engelm 

J. b. of American authors, not L. 

J. ater Rydb. 

J. breweri Engelm, 
BALTICUS L. var. VALUCOL.-^ Rydb. 

J_. v_. Rydb. 
BR VOID ES F. J. Herm. 
BL-FONIUS L. 

J_. congdoni S. Wats. 
CHLOROCEPHALUS Engelm. 
COLUMBIANUS Cov. 
CONFUSUS Cov. 
COOPER! Engelm. 
DRUMMONDII E. Meyer 

J^. subtriflorus (E. Meyer) Cov. 
EFFUSUS L. var. EXIGUUS Fern. 

Wieg. 
EFFUSUS L. var. PACII-ICUS Fern 

& Wieg. 
ENSIFOLIUS Wikstr. 
FILIFORMIS L. 
GKRARDI Lois. 
HALUI Engelm. 
HEMIENDYTUS F. J. 
INTERIOR Wieg. var 
INTERIOR Wieg. var. ARIZONICUS 
(Wieg.) F. J. Herm. 

J. a. Wieg. 
JON"ES"Ii Rydb. 
KELLOGGII Engelm. 

J. brachystylus Piper 

J. b. var. uniflorus Engelm. 
LONGfSTYLIS Torr. 
MERTENSIANUS Bong. 
MEXICANUS Willd. 

J. balticus var 



Alpine R. 



Toad R. 



Cooper R. 



Herm. 
. INTERIOR 



Saltmeadow R . 



Inland R. 



Kuntze 
NEVADENSIS S. Wats. 

NODOSUS L. Jointed R. 

ORTHOPHYLLUS Cov. 

J . latifolius (Engelm . ) Buch . , not 
Wulf. 
PARRYI Engelm. 
REGELII Buch. 

SAXIMONTANUS A. Nels. f. SAXI- 
MONTANUS Rocky Mtn. R. 
J. parous Rydb. 
SAXIMONTANUS A. Nels. f. BRUN- 

NESCENS (Rydb.) F.J. Herm. 
J_. b. Rydb. 
SPHAEROCARPUS Nees 
TENUIS Willd. var. TENUIS Poverty R. 

J_. macer S. F. Gray 
TENUIS Willd. var. DUDLEYI (Wieg.) 
F. J. Herm. 
J^. d. Wieg. 
TORREYI Cov. Torrey R. 

J. megacephalus (Torr.) Wood, 
not Curtis 



JUNCUS 



BRODIAEA 



WOODRUSH 



JUNCUS L. (con.) 

J. TRACYI Rydb. 

J. utahensis R. F. Maitin 
J. TWEED YI Rydb. 
J. UNCIAUS Greene 
J. VASEYI Engetoi. 
J. XIPHIOIDES E. Meyer 

LUZULA DC. 

L. DIVARICATAS. Wats. 

L. parviflora (Ehrh.) Desv. ssp. 
d. Hult. 

Juncoides d. Cov. 
L. GLABRATA (Hoppe) Desv. 

Juncoides g. Sheld. 
L. INTERMEDIA (Thuill.) A. Nels. 

L. campestris of American authors, 

~ not (L.) DC. 

L. c. (L.) DC. var. c. (E. Meyer) 
Fern. & Wieg. 

L. comosa E. Meyer 

L. raultiflora of American authors, 
not (Retz.) Lejeune 

L. c. (L. )DC. var. m. Celak. 

L. m. ssp. c. (E. Meyer) Hult. 

Juncoides C. (E. Meyer) Sheld. 

J. c . (L. ) Kuntz 

J[. i_. (Thuill.) Rydb. 
L. ORESTERA C. W. Sharsmith 
L. PARVIFLORA (Ehrh.) Desv. var. 

PARVIFLORA Millet W. 

Juncoides p. Cov. 
L. PARVIFLORA (Ehrh.) Desv. var. 

MELANOCARPA (Michx.) Buch. 
L. SPICATA (L.) DC. Spike W. 

L. s. var. nova Smiley 

Juncoides s. Kuntze 
L. SUBCONGESTA (S. Wats.) Buch. Donner W. 

Juncoides s. Cov. 
L. WAHLENBERGII Rupr. 

L. piperi (Cov.) M. E. Jones Wahlenberg W. 

Juncoides p. Cov. 



LILIACEAE. Uly Family 

ALLIUM L. (9, 54, 55) 
A. AASEAE Ownbey 
A. ACUMINATUM Hook. 

A. cuspidatum (Fern.) Rydb. 
A. ANCEPS Kellogg" 
A. ATRORUBENS S. Wats. var. 

ATRORUBENS 
A. ATRORUBENS S. Wats. var. INYONIS 
(M. E. Jones) Ownbey & Aase 

A. i_. M. E. Jones 
A. BIGELOVII S. Wats. 
A. BISCEPTRUMS. Wats. 

A. b. var. utahense M. E. Jones 
A. BRANDEGEl S. Wats. 

A. diehlii (M. E. Jones) M. E. Jones 

A. minimum M. E. Jones 



GEYERI S. Wats. var. TENERUM 
M. E. Jones 

A. arenicola Osterh., not Small 

A. fibrosum Rydb. 

A. rubrum Osterh. 

A. rydbergli Macbr. 
LE"MM0NII S. Wats . 

A. incisum A. Nels. & Macbr., 
not Fomine 

A. scissum A. Nels. & Macbr. 
MACROPETALUM Rydb. 

A. deserticola (M. E. Jones) Woot. 

~ & Standi. 

MACRUMS. Wats. 
MADIDUMS. Wats. 
NEVADENSISS. Wats. var. 

NEVADENSIS 
NEVADENSIS S. Wats. var. 

CRIST ATUM (S. Wats.) 
Ownbey 

A. c. S. Wats. 
PALMERIS. Wats. 
PARVUM Kellogg 

A. modocense Jeps. 
PLATYCAULE S. Wats. 
PUNCTUM Henders. 
ROBBINSONII Henders. 
RUBRUM Osterh. 

A. arenicola Osterh., not Small 

A. fibrosum Rydb. 

A. geyeriS. Wats. var. graniferum 
Henders. 

A. g. var. tenerum M. E. Jones 
SCHOENOPRASUM L. 

A. sibiricum L. 



Lemmons 0, 



I 



Nevada 0. 



Chive 



WILD ONION 
Tapertip O. 



A. s. var. sibiricum (L.) Hartm. 
SIMILLIMUM Henders. 
TEXTILE A. Nels. & Macbr. 

A. aridum Rydb. 

A. reticulatum Eraser, not J. & C. 

~ Presl 

TOLMIEI Baker var. TOLMIEI 

A. cusickii S. Wats. 

A. idahoensis Traub. 

A. pleianthum S. Wats. 
ToTmIEI Baker var. PLATYPHYLLUM 
(Tides.) Ownbey 

A. p. Tides. 
TRTbRACTEATUM Torr. 
VAUDUM S. Wats. 



Textile O. 



Tolmie 0. 



ThreebractI 
Pacific O. 



A. miser Piper 
A. BREVISTYLUM S. Wats. 
A. CAMPANULATUM S. Wats. 

A. austinae M. E. Jones 

A. bidwelliae S. Wats. 

A. bullardii A. Davids. 
A. CERNUUM Roth 

A. £. var. obtusum (Cockerell) 
Cockerell 

A. recurvatum Rydb. 
A. FIBRILLUM M. E. Jones 

A. collinum Dougl. not Guss. 
A. GEYERI S. Wats. var. GEYERI 

A. dictyotum Greene 

A. funic ulosum A. Nels. 

A. pikeanum Rydb. 



Brandegee O. 
Shortstem O. 

Nodding O. 

Blue Mtn. O. 
Geyer O. 



ANDROSTEPHIUM Torr. 

A. BREVIFLORUM S. Wats. 

Brodiaea paysonil A. Nels. 

ANTHERICUM L. 

A. TORREYI Baker 

ASPARAGUS L. 

A. OFFICINALIS L. 

BRODIAEA J. G. Smith 

B. DOUGLASII (Lindl.) S. Wats. 

Hookera d. Piper 

H. grandiflora (Lindl.) Kuntze 

B. g. Macbr. 

Triteleia g. Lindl. 
B. HYACTnTHINA (Lindl.) Baker 

B. dissimulata Peck 

B. lacteum (Lindl.) S. Wats. 

Hesperocordum 1. Lindl. 

H. h. Undl. 

Hookera h. Kuntze 

Triteleia I. Davids. & Mox. 
B. PULCHELLA~(Salisb. ) Greene var. 
PULCHELLA 

B. capitata Benth. 

B. insularls Greene 



FUNNELUl 
F. 



ANTHERICI 



ASPARAGUS 
Garden A. 

BRODIAEA 
Douglas B. 



Hyacinth B. 



Purplehead I 



16 



I 



^ )1.\1'A 



SMILACINA 



I^DIAKA J. G. Smith (con.) 
U. PULCHELLA (con.) 

B. parviflora Torr. 
Dichelostemma p. (Salisb.) Heller 
D. c. Wood. 

D. i. Burnliam 
Dipterostemon c. Rydb. 
D. p. (Torr.) Rydb. 
Hookera c. Kuntze 
H. p. (Toi-r.) Torr. 

B. PULCHELLA (Salisb.) Greene var. 

PAUCIFLORA (Torr.) Mort. 
Dichelosteinma p. Standi. 
Dipterostemon p. Rydb. 
Hookera p. Tides. 

/inlliORTUS Pursh (56) 

t'. AMBIGUUS (M. E. Jones) Ownbey 

C. watsoni M. E. Jones var. u. 

M. E. Jones 

C. ELEGANS Pursh 

C. FLEXUOSUS S. Wats. 
C. GUNNISONI S. Wats. 
C. KENNEDYI Porter 

C. speciosus M. E. Jones 

C. k. var. munzii Jeps. 
C. LETcHTLINII J. D. Hook. 

C. nuttallii Torr. & Gray, not Torr 

C. n. Torr. var. 1. Smiley 

C. n. Torr. var. subalpinus M. E. 
Jones 
C. MACROCARPUS Dougl. 

C. acuminatus Rydb. 

C. cyaneus A. Nels. 

Cm. var. c. Macbr. 
C. NlflDUS Dougl., not Torr. 

C. eurycarpus S. Wats. 

C. euumbellatus A. Nels. 

C. parviflorus Nutt. 

C. umbellatus A. Nels., not Wood 
C. NUTTALLII Torr. var. NUTTALUI, 
not Torr. & Gray 

C. luteus Nutt., not Dougl. 

C. rhodothecus Clokey 

C. watsoni M. E. Jones 
C. NLJTTALLII Torr. var. AUREUS 
(S. Wats.) Ovmbey 

C. a. S. Wats. 
C. NUTTALUI Torr. var. BRUNEAUNIS 
(A. Nels. & Macbr.) Ownbey 
C. b. A. Nels. & Macbr. 
C. discolor Davids. 
. C. STRIATUS Parish 

^WSSIA Lindl. (57) 



DISPORUM SaUsb. (58) 

D. HOOKERI (Torr.) Nichols, var. 
OREGANUM (S. Wats.) 
Q. Jones 
D. o. W. Miller 
Prosartes o. S. Wats. 
D. TRACHYCAR'pUM (S. Wats.) Benth. 
ik Hook. 
D. t. var. subglabrum E. Kelso 
Prosartes t. S. Wats. 



FAIRY BELLS 



Oregon F. 



Wartberrv F. 



EREMOCRINUM M. E. Jones 

E. ALBOMARGINATUM M. E. 

ERYTHRONIUM L. (59) 



Jones 



MARIPOSA 
LILY 



Northwestern 

M. 
Weakstem M. 
Gunnison M. 
Desert M. 



Smokv M. 



Sagebrush M. 



Broadfruit M. 



Sego Lily 



Golden Sego 
Uly 



CAMAS 



C. LEICHTLINU (Baker) S. Wats. ssp. 

SUKSDORFII (Grcenm.) Gould Suksdorf C. 
C. £. Greenm. 
Quamasia s. Piper 
C. QUAMASH (Pursh) Greene ssp. 

QUAMASH Common C. 

C. leichtlinii var. watsonii 

M. E. Jones 
C. teapeae St. John 
Quamasia q. Gov. 
C. QUAMASH (Pursh) Greene ssp. 

BR EVI FLORA Gould 
C. QUAMASH (Pursh) Greene ssp. 
UTAHENSIS Gould 



mrONIA Raf. 

C. UNIFLORA (Schult.) Kunth 



E. GRANDIFLORUM Pursh ssp. 
GRANDIFLORUM 
E. leptopetalum Rydl). 
E. obtusatum Goodding 
E. utahense Rydb. 

E. GRANDIFLORUM Pursh ssp. 

CHRYSANDRUM Applegate 

E. parviflorum Goodding, not E, j 

var. p. S. Wats. 

FRITILLARIA L. (60) 

F. ATROPURPUREA Nutt. 

F. alba Nun. 

F. gracillima Smilev 
F. PINETORUM Davids. 

F. atropurpurea var. p. Johnston 
F. PUDICA (Pursh) Spreng. ~ 

F. dichroa Gandoger 

F. orcgonensis Gandoger 

F. utahensis Gandoger 

Ochrocodon p. Rydl). 
F. RECURVA BentTi. 

LEUCOCRINUM Nutt. 

L. MONTANUM Nutt. 

L. m. var. majus Baker 

ULIUM L. 

L. COLUMBIANUM Hanson 

L. PARVUM Kellogg 

L. UMBELLATUM Pursh 

L. montanum A. Nels. 

LLOYDIA Salisb. 

L. SEROTINA Reichb., as to author, 
not (L.) Sweet 
L. alpina Salisb. 

MUILLA S. Wats. (61) 

M. TRANSMONTANA Greene 

NOUNA Miclix. (9) 

N. BIGELOVII (Torr.)S. Wats. 

N. parryi of Arizona references, 
not S. Wats. 

ORNITHOGALUM L. 

O. UMBELLATUM L. 
POLYGONATUM Adans. 

P. COMMUTATUM (Schutesf.) Dietr. 
SMILACINA Desf. (62) 



FAWNLILY or 
DOGTOOTH 
VIOLET 

Lambstongue F. 



BEADULY 
Queencup B. 



FRITILLARY 
Purplespot F. 



Yellow F. 



Scarlet F. 



STAR LILY 
Common S. 



LILY 

Columbia L. 
Sierra L. 
Western 
Orangecup L. 



ALPLILY 
Common L. 



NOLINA 
Bigelow N. 



STAR OF 

BETHLEHEM 
Common S. 

SOLOMON- 
SEAL 
Great S. 

SOLOMON 
PLUME or 
FALSE SOL- 
OMON SEAL 



S. RACEMOSA (L.) Desf. var. AMPLEXl- 

CAULIS (Nutt.) S. Wats. Fat. S. 



SMILACINA 



SLSYRINCHIU; 



TWISTED 
STALK 



SMILACINA (con.) 

S. RACEMOSA (con.) 

S. r. of western authors, not Desf. 

Vagnera a. Greene 

V. brachypetala Rydb. 

V. r. Morong 
S. STELLATA (L. ) Desf. Starry S. 

Vagnera leptopetala Rydb. 

V. Uliacea (Greene) Rydb. 

V. s. Morong 

STREPTOPUS Michx. (63) 

S. AMPLEXIFOLIUS (L.)DC. var. 

AMERICANUS Schultes 
S. a. of American authors, not DC. 
S. AMPLIxIFOLIUS (L. ) DC. var. 

CHALAZATUS Fassett 
S. AMPLEXIFOLIUS (L.) DC. var. 

DENTICULATUS Fassett 

TOFIELDIA Huds. (64) 

T. GLUTINOSA (Michx.) Pers. ssp. 
MONTANA C. L. Hitchc. 
T. intermedia Rydb. , in part. 
T. GLUTINOSA (Michx.) Pers. ssp. 

OCCIDENTALIS (S. Wats.) 
C. L. Hitchc. 
T. o. S. Wats. 

TRILUUM L. 

T. OVATUM Pursh 

T. caUfornicuiTi Kellogg 

T. crassifloium Piper 

T. scouleri Rydb. 
T. PETIOLATUM Pursh 



Y. KANABENSIS McKelvey 

A hybrid between Y. elata and 
Y. glauca 
Y. SCHIDIGERA Roezl Mohave Y. 

Y. macrocarpa Merriam 
Y. mohavensis Sarg. 
Y. UTAHENSIS McKelvey 

A hybrid between Y. elata and 
Y. glauca 

ZIGADENUS Michx. 

Z. ELEGANS Pursh 

Anticlea e. Rydb. 



DEATH CAM-, 
Mountain D, 



TOFIELDIA 



Foothill D. 



Meadow D. 



Grassy D. 



TRILLIUM 
Pacific T. 



VERATRUM L. 



CALIFORNICUM Dur. 
V. jonesii Heller 
V. speciosum Rydb. 
V. tenuipetalum Heller 
ESCHSCHOLTZIANUM (R. & S.) 
Rydb. 
V. viride of intermountain authors, 
not Ait. 



Idaho T. 

FALSE- 
HELLEBORE 
CaUfomia F. 



A. coloradoensis (Rydb.) Rydb. 

'Z_. c. Rydb. 
Z. PANICULATUS S. Wats. 

Toxicoscordion p. Rydb. 

T. falcatum (Rydb.) Rydb. 

Z^. f. Rydb. 
Z. VENENOSUS S. Wats. var. 
VENENOSUS 

Toxicoscordion arenicola Heller 

T. V. Rydb. 

Z. diegensis A. Davids. 
Z. VENENOSUS S. Wats. var. GRAMI- 
NEUS (Rydb.) Walsh 

Toxicoscordion g. Rydb. 

T. intermedius Rydb. 

Z. g. Rydb. 
Z. VIRESCENS (HBK.) Macbr. (6) 

A. porrifolia (Greene) Rydb. 

Z. p. Greene 
Z. VOTCANICUS Benth. (12) 

Anticlea vaginata Rydb. 



AMARYLLIDACEAE. AmarylUs Family 

AGAVE L. AGAVE 

A. DESERTI Engelm. 

A. consociata Trel. 
A. KATBABENSIS McKelvey 
A. UTAHENSIS Engelm. Utah A. 

A. u. var. discreta M. E. Jones 



Eschscholtz F. 



IRIDACEAE. Iris Family 



XEROPHYLLUM Michx. BEARGRASS 

X. TENAX (Pursh) Nutt. Common B. 

YUCCA L. (65, 66) YUCCA 

Y. AN GUSTISSIMA Engelm. Fineleaf Y. 

Y. BACCATA Torr. var. BACCATA Datil Y. 

Y. BACCATA Torr. var. VESPERTINA 

McKelvey 
Y. BAILEYI Woot. & Standi, var. 
BAILEY! 
Y^. harrimaniae of Arizona authors, 

not Trel. 
Y. standleyi McKelvey 
Y. BAILEYI Woot. & Standi, var. NAVA- 
JOA (Webber) Webber 
Y. n. Webber 
Y. BREVIFOLIA Engelm. var. 
BREVIFOLIA 
Y^. arborescens (Torr.) Trel. 
CListoyucca a. Trel. 
C. b. Rydb." 
Y. BREVIFOLIA Engelm. var. 

JAEGERIANA McKelvey 
Y_. b. var. wolfei M. E. Jones 
Y. ELATA Engelm. Soaptree Y. 

Y. radiosa (Engelm.) Trel. 
Y. verdiensis McKelvey 
Y. GILBERTL\NA (Trel.) Rydb. 

Y. harrimaniae Trel. , in part. 



IRIS L. 

1. MISSOURI ENSIS Nutt. 

I. pelogonus Gooddlng 

SISYRINCHIUM L. 

S. BELLUM S. Wats. 

S. greenei Bickn. 
S. DOUGLASII A. Dietr. 

Olsynium d. Bickn. 

O. grandiflorum (Dougl.) Raf. 

S. g. Dougl., not Cav. 
S. HALOPHILUM Greene 

S. angustifolium of western authors 
in part, not Miller 

S. leptocaulon Bickn. 
S. IDAHOENSIS Bickn. 

S. angustifolium of western authors 
in part, not Miller 

S. oreophilum Bickn, 
S. INPLATUM (Suksd.) St. John 

Olsynium i. Suksd. 

S. grandiflorum of intermountain 
authors, not Cav. 
S. MONTANUM Greene 

S. alpestre Bickn. 

S. angustifolium of Colorado refer- 
ence, not Miller 

S. septentrionale Bickn. 



IRIS 

Rocky Mtn. 1. 



BLUE- EYED 

GRASS 
Western B. 



Douglas B. 



I. 

I 



Colorado B. 



18 



SVKINCHIUM 



AN'EMOPSIS 



SYRINCHIUM L. (con.) 

S. OCCIDENTALE Bickn. 

S. scgetum Bickn. 
S. RADICATUM Bickn. 
S. SARMENTOSUM Suksd. 
S. inalatum A. Nels. 



Montana B. 



DILATATA (Pursh) Hook 

(Cham.) Correll 

H. dilatiformis Rydh. 



var. ALBIFLORA 



Lininorchis borealis of Rydb. , m part 
LEUCO- 



ORCHIDACEAE. Orchid Family (2) 



ireOSaUsb. 

C. BULBOSA (L.) Oakes 
Cytherea b. House 
Cytherea occidentalis (Holz.) Heller 
Calypso o. Heller 

MLLORHIZA Chat. 
C. MACULATA Raf. 

C. grabhamii Cockerell 



C. multiflora Nutt. 
C. MERTENSIA Bong. 
C. STRIATA Lindl. 

C. bigelovii S. Wats. 

C. macaei A. Gray 

C. vreelandii Rydb. 

C. s. var. V. L. O. Williams 
C. TRTfIDA ChatT 

C. corallorhiza (L. ) Karst. 

C 

C 



c . var 
mnata 



coloradensis Cockerell 
R. 



Br. 



FAIRY SLIPPER 
ORCHID 

F. 



CORALROOT 
Spotted C. 



C. WISTERIANA Conrad 

C. ochroleuca Rydb. 

Ipripedium L. 

C. CALCEOLUS L. var. PUBESCENS 
(Willd.) Cornell 

C. parviflorum Salisb. 

C. veganum Cockerell 
C. CATiFORNICUM a. Gray 
C. FASCICULATUM Kellogg 

C. knightiae A. Nels. 
C. MONTANUM Dougl. 

C. occidentalis S. Wats. 

JROPHYTON Heller 

E. AUSTINAE (A. Gray) Heller 
Cephalanthera a. Heller 
Chloraea a. A. Gray 

iPACTIS Sw. 

!•. GIGANTEA Dougl. 

Amesia g. A. Nels. Si Macbr. 
Helleborine g. Druce 
Peramium g. Coult. 
Serapias g. A. A. Eaton 

CODYERA R. Br. 

G. OBLONGIFOUA Raf. 

Peramium decipiens (Hook.) Piper 
G. d. St. John & Const. 
G. mcnziesii Lindl. 

G. REPENS (L.) R. Br. 

FBENARIA Willd. (67) 



H. DILATATA (Pursh) Hook. var. 
DILATA 
Limnorchis d. Rydb. 
L.. convallariaefolia Rydb. , in part 
L. foliosa Rydb. 
C. gracilis Rydb. , in part 
L. grammifolia Rydb. 
L. leptoceratitis Rydb. , in part 



Pacific C. 
Hooded C. 



Early C. 



Wister C. 



LADYSLIPPl'R 

Large Yellow 
L. 



California L. 
Brownie L. 



Mountain L. 



PHANTOM 
ORCHID 
Austin P. 



EPIPACTIS 
Stream E. 



RATTLESNAKE 

PLANTAIN 
Western R. 



Creeping R. 

HABENARIA; 
REIN ORCHID; 
BOG ORCHID 

White B. 



L. d. (Rydb.) Rydb. 
H. DILATATA (Pursh) Hook, v 

STACHYS (Lindl.) Ames 

H. flagelUns S. Wats. 

H. 1_. S. Wats. 

Limnorchis 1. Rvdb. 

L. 1. var. robusta Rydb. 
H. HYTeRBOREA (L.) R. Br. 

H. borealis Cham . 

H. septentrionalis Tides. 

Limnorchis brachypetala Rydb., 
in part 

L. h. Rydb. 

L. viridiflora Rydl). 
H. OBTUSATA (Banks) Richards. 

Lysiella o. Rydl). 
H. SACCATA Greene 

H. purpurascens (Rydb.) Tides. 

Limnorchis brachypetala R\db., 
in part 

L. gracilis Rydb. , in part 

L. p. Rydb. 
H. SPARSIFLORA S. Wats. 

H. laxiflora (Rydb.) Parish 

H. s. var. 1. Correll 

Limnorchis ensifolla Rvdb. 



Milkwhite H. 



Northern 
Green H. 



BRACTEATA 



L. K Rydb. 

L. s. Rydb. 
H. L'NALASCENSIS (Spreng.)S. Wats 

H. cooperi S. Wats. 

Montolivaea u. Rydb. 

Piperia c . Rydb. 

P. u. Rvclb. 
H. VIRIDIS (L.) R. Br. var. 
(Muhl.) A. Gray 

H. b. R. Br. 

Orchis b. Muhl . 

LISTER A R. Br. 

L. BOREALIS Morong 
Ophrys b. Rydb. 
L. CAURINA Piper 

Ophrys c . Rydb. 
L. CONVALLARIOIDES (Sw.) Nutt. 

Ophrys c. W. F. Wrigtit 
L. CORDATA (L.) R. Br. 

L. nephrophylla (Rydb.) Rydb. 

Ophrys c . Rydb. 

0. n. Rydb. 

MALAXIS Soland. ex. Sw. 

M. BRACHYPODA (A. Gray) Fern. 
MicrostyLis b. A. Gray 
_M. monophyllos of American 

authors, not (L.) Lindl, 
M. m. (L.) Sw. 

SPIRANTHES Rich. 

S. PORRIFOLIA Lindl. 

Ibidium p. Rydb. 
S. ROMANZOFFIANA Cham. & Schlecht. 

Ibidium r. House 

1. strictum (Rydb.) House 



Modoc H. 



c;anvon II. 



Alaska R. 



Satvr 11. 



LIST ERA 



Northwestern 
L. 



Northern L. 



ADDERMOUTH 

ORCHID 
Sheath A . 



UADIES- 

TR ESSES 
Creamy L. 

Continental L. 



Class DICOTYLEDONAE. Dicots 
SAURURACEAE. Lizard-tail Family 



ANEMOPSIS Hook. 



YERBA MANSA 



A. CALIFORNICA Hook. var. CALIFORNICA 



ANEMOPSIS 



SALIX 



ANEMOPSIS Hook, (con.) 

A. bolanderi A. DC. 
A. CALIFORNICA Hook. var. SUBGLABRA 
Kelso 



SALICACEAE. Willow Family 



POPULUS L. (7) 

P. ACUMINATA Rydb. 

A hybrid between P. angusti- 
folia X P. sargentii or P. 
fremontii 
P. andrewsii Sarg. 

P. alba"u 

P. ANGUSTIFOLIA James 

P. fortissima A. Nels. & Macbr. 
P. BALSAMIFERA L. 

P. candicans Ait. 
P. tweedyi Britton 
P. DELTOIDES Bartr. 

Commonly planted throughout 
the West 
P. FREMONTU S. Wats. var. 
FREMONTII 
P. arizonlca Sarg. 
P. f. var. a. Jeps. 
P. L var. macdougallii (Rose) Jeps. 
P. f. var. pubescens Sarg. 
P. f. var. toumeyi Sarg. 
P. m. Rose 
P. FREM"0NTIIS. Wats. var. WISLIZENII 
S. Wats. 
P. w. Sarg. 
P. NIGRjTl. var. ITALICA Muenchh. 

Commonly planted throughout 
the West 
P. SARGENTII Dode 

P. besseyana Dode 
P. occidentalis (Rydb.) Britton 
P. TREMULOIDES 

P. aurea Tides. 
P. cercidiphylla Britton 
P. t. var. a. Daniels 
P. t. var. £. Sudw. 
P. TRICHOCARPA Torr. & Gray 
P. hastata Dode 



ASPEN; POPLAR; 
COTTONWOOD 
Lanceleaf C. 



Narrowleaf C. 
Balsam P. 



Eastern C. 



Fremont C. 



Rio Grande C. 
Lombardy P. 

Plains C. 

Quaking A. 

Black C. 



SALIX L. 



WILLOW 



Adapted from the floristic treatment 
by Arthur J. Cronquist prepared for 
the "Illustrated Flora of the Inter- 
mountain Region." 

S. AMYGDALOIDES Anderss. 

S. a. f. piloscioscula Schneid. 

S. a. f. angustissima E. C. Smith 

S. wrightii Anderss. 

S. ARCTICA Pall. 

S. anglorum Schneid. 

S. a. Schneid. var. antiplasta 

Schneid. 
S. brownii Bebb 



Peachleaf W. 



S. caespitosa Kennedy 
S. pallasii Anderss. 
S. petrophila Rydb. 
S. a. var. p. L. Kelso 
S. p. Rydb. var. £. Schneid. 
S. BABYLONICA L. ~ Weeping W. 

Commonly cultivated in the 
West 
S. BEBBIANA Sarg. var. PERROSTRATA 

(Rydb.) Schneid. Bebb W. 

S. p. Rydb. 
S. BRACHYCARPA Nutt. Barrenground W. 

S. stricta (Anderss.) Rydb. 



CASCADENSIS Cockerell 

S. tenera Anderss., not Brown 

COMMUTATA Bebb 

S. c. var. denudata Bebb 
S. c. var. puberula Bebb 
S. c. var. sericea Bebb 



Cascades W. 



Undergreen \ 



DRUMMONDIANA Barratt 

S. bella Piper 

S. coviUei Eastw. 

S. pachnophora Rydb. 

S. Pellita Anderss. 

S. subcoerulea Piper 

S. d. var. b. Ball 

S. d. var. s. Ball 
EXIGUA Nutt. ssp. EXIGUA 

S. argophylla Nutt. 
EXfCUA Nutt. ssp. EXIGUA var. 

STENOPHYLLA (Rydb.)Schneid. 

E. nevadensis S. Wats. 
EXIGUA Nutt. ssp. MELANOPSIS 
(Nutt.) Cronq. ined. 

S. m. Nutt. 

S. tenerrima (Henders.) Heller 



Drummond W 



Coyote W. 





S. m. var. t. Ball 




s. 


GEYERIANA Anderss. 

S. g. var. argentea (Bebb) Schneid. 


Geyer. W. 


s. 


GLAUCA L. 

S. desenorum Rich. 

S. glaucops Anderss. 

S. nudescens Rydb. 

S. pseudolapponum v. Seem. 

S. villosa Hook. 

S. g. L. var. p. Kelso 


Grayleaf W 


s. 


JEPSONII Schneid. 


Jepson W. 


s. 


LAEVIGATA Bebb 


Polished W 


s. 


LASIANDRA Benth. var. LASIANDRA 
S. fendleriana Anderss. 


Pacific W. 



LASIANDRA Benth. var. CAUDATA 
(Nutt.) Sudw. 

S. c. Heller. 

S. c. var. bryantiana Ball & Bracelin 
LASIO'lEPIS Benth. Arroyo W. 

S. bigelovii Torr. 

S. boiseana A. Nels. 

S. 1_. var. b. (Torr.) Bebb 

S. 1. var. braceUnae Ball 

S. sandbergii Rydb. 
LEMMONII Bebb 

S. austinae Bebb 



Lemmons W. 



MONTICOLA Bebb 

S. barclayi Anderss, var. pado- 

phylla (Rydb.) L. Kelso 

S. b. var. pseudomonticola (Ball) 
L. Kelso 

S. cordata Muhl. var. m. L. Kelso 

S. padifolia Rydb. , not Anderss, 

S. padophylla Rydb. 

S. p. Ball 

S. p. Ball var. padophylla Ball 
MYRtTlLIFOLIA Anderss. Blueberry W. 

S. pseudocordata (Anderss.) Rydb. 

S. p. var. aequalis (Anderss.) Ball 

S. pseudomyrsinites Anderss. 

S. p. var. a. Anderss. 
nigra" Marsh "var. VENULOSA 

(Anderss.) Bebb Black W. 

S. gooddingii Ball 

S. g. var. variabilis Ball 

S. n. of western authors, not Marsh 
NTVALiS Hook, var. NIVALIS Snow W, 

NIVALIS Hook. var. SAXIMONTANA 
(Rydb.) Schneid. 

S. s. Rydb. 
ORESTERA Schneid. Sierra W. 

PHYUCIFOLIA L. ssp. PLANIFOLIA 

(Pursh) Hiitonen Tealeai W. 

S. p. Pursh 

S. chlorophylla Anderss. 



20 



;alix 



;AUX L. (con.) 

S. PHYLICIFOLIA L. ssp. PLANIFOLIA 
Hiitonen var. MONICA (Bebb) 
Jeps. 
S. m. Bebb 

S. p. Pursh var. m. Schneid. 
S. RIGIDA Muhl. var. MACKENZIANA 
Cronq. ined. 
S. m. (Hook) Barran 
S. RIGIDA'Muhl. var. WATSONII (Bebb) 
Cronq. ined. 
S. cordata Muhl. , not Michx. 
S. c. var. w. Bebb 



ARCBUTHOBUJM 



UGLANS L. 

J. MAJOR (Torr.) Heller 



Yellow W. 



S. c. var. platyphylla (Ball) L. Kelso 

S. flava Rydb., not Schoepf. 

S. "UguUfoUa (Ball) Ball 

S. lutea Nutt. 

S. c. var. lutea (Nutt) Bebb 

S. r. Nutt. var. p. Ball 

S. h Nutt. var. 1_. Ball 
S. SCOULERIANA Barratt 

S. flavescens Nutt. 

S. nuttalUi Sarg. 
S. WOXfII Bebb var. WOLFll 
S. WOLFII Bebb var. IDAHOENSIS Ball 

S. i. Rydb. 



Q. leptophylla Rydb. 

Q. nitescens Rydb. 

Q. submollis Rydb. 

q| utahensis (A. DC.) Rydb. 

qT v. Rydb. 

Q. v^. var. in. Sarg. 

Q. V. var. s Sarg. 
Q. GRISEA Liebn7. 
Q. TURBINELLA Greene 

Q. dumosa Nutt. var. t. Jeps. 

Q. subturbinella Trel. 
Q. UNDULATA Torr. 

Q . fendleri Liebm . 

Q. obtusifolia (A. DC.) Rydb. , not 
D. Don 

Q. pauciloba Rydb. 



Gray (). 
Shrub Live C). 



Wavyleaf O. 



ULMACEAE. Elm Family 



Scouler W. 



Wolfs W. 



JUGLANDACEAE. Walnut Family 



CELTIS L. 

C. RETICULATA Torr. 

C. douglasii Planch. 
C". laevigata S. Wats. 
C. 1. var. r. L. Benson 
C. rugulosa Rydb. 
C. villosula Rydb. 

ULMUS L. 

U. PUMILA L. 



HACKBERRY 

Netleaf H. 



ELM 
Siberian Elm 



WALNUT 
Arizona W. 



BETULACEAE. Birch Family 



LNUS Hill 




ALDER 


A. OBLONGIFOLIA Torr. 




Arizona A 


A. RHOMBIFOLIA Nutt. 




White A. 


A. TENUIFOLIA Nutt. 




Thinleaf A 


ETULA L. 




BIRCH 


B. OCCIDENTALIS Hook. 




Water B. 


B. fontinalis Sarg. 






B. papyrifera Marsh 


var. 0. Sarg. 




in large 


part 




B. utahensis Britton 







MORACEAE. Mulberry Family 

CANNABIS L. 

C. SATIVA L. 

HUMULUS L. 

H. AMERICANUS Nutt. 

H. lupulus L. var. neomexicanus 
" A. Nels. & Cockerell 

H. n. Rvdb. 



HEMP or 

MARIJUANA 
H. 

HOPS 
American H. 



URTICACEAE. Nettle Family 



B. PAPYRIFERA Marsh var. COMMUTATA 

(Reg.) Fern. Western Paper 

B. 
B. p. var. occidentalis (Hook.) Sarg. , 
in small part 
B. PAPYRIFERA Marsh var. SUBCORDATA 



PARIETARIA L. 

P. FLORIDANA Nutt. 
P. obtusa Rydb. 



PELUTORY 



B. 



(Rydb.) Sarg. 
Rydb. 



)STRYA Scop. 

O. KNOWLTONn Cov. 
O. baileyi Rose 



Northwestern 
Paper B. 



HOPHORNBEAM 
Knowlton H. 



FAGACEAE. Beech Family 

^UERCUS L. OAK 

Q. AJOENSIS MuUer 
Q. CHRYSOLEPIS Liebm. var. 
CHRYSOLEPIS 
^. wilcoxii Rydb. 
Q. CHRYSOLEPIS Uebm. var. PALMERI 
(Engelm.) Sarg. 
Q. dunm Kellogg 
Q. p. Engelm. 
Q. GA'mBELII Nun. 

Q, eastwoodiae Rydb. 
Q. g. Nutt. var. utahensis Garrett 
Q. g. Nutt. ssp. vreelandii A.Camus 
Q. gunnisonii (Torr. & Gray) Rydb. 



P. 


PENSYLVANICA Muhl. 
P. occidentalis Rydb. 




URTICA 


L. 


NETTLE 


U. 


DIOICA L. var. PROCERA (Muhl.) 






Wedd. 


Slim Stinging 
N. 




U. cardiophylla Rydb. 






U. gracilis Ait. 






U. strigosissima Rydb. 




U. 


HOLOSERICEA Nun. 


California N. 


U. 


LYALLI S. Wats. 
U. viridis Rydb. 


Lyall N. 


U. 


SERRA Blume 

U. breweri S. Wats. 





Canyon Live O. 



Palmer O. 



Gambel O. 



LORANTHACEAE. Mistletoe Family 



ARCEUTHOBIUM Bieb. (68, 69, 70) 

A. AMERICANUM Nun. 

Razoumofskya a. Kuntze 

Parasitic of Pinus con- 



DWARF- 

MISTLETOE 
American D. 



torta, jefferyi, ponderosa, 
etc. 



21 



ARCEUTHOBIUM 



ERIOGONUM ' 



ARCEUTHOBIUM Bieb. (con.) 

A. CAMPYLOPODUM Engelm. 
CAMPY LOPODUM 
A. occidentale Engelm. 
Razoumofskya c. Kuntze 



Western D. 



Parasitic on Pinus contorta , 
jeffreyi ponderosa, etc. 
A. CAMPYLOPODUM Engelm. f. ABIETI- 
NUM (Engelm.) GUI 
A. a. Engelm. 

A, douglasii Engelm. var. a. Engelm. 
Razoumofskya a. Abrams 

Parasitic on Abies 
A. CAMPYLOPODUM Engelm. f. BLUMERI 
(A. Nels.) Gill 
A. b. A. Nels. 

Parasitic on Pinus lamber- 
tiana and P. monticola 
A. CAMPYLOPODUM Engelm. f. CYANO- 
CARPUM (A. Nels.) Gill 
A. c. Coult. & A. Nels. 
Razoumofskya c. A. Nels. 

Parasitic on Pinus albi- 
caulis, aristata, flexilis, 
etc. 
A. CAMPYLOPODUM Engelm. f. DIVARI- 
CATUM (Engelm.) GUI 
A. d. Engelm. 
Razoumofskya d. Cov. 

Parasitic on Pinus edulis 
and monophylla 
A. CAMPYLOPODUM Engelm. f. LARICIS 
(Piper) Gill 
A. douglasii Engelm. var. 1. M. E. 

Jones 
A. L St. John 
Razoumofskya 1. Piper 

Parasitic on Abies and 
Larix 
A. CAMPYLOPODUM Engelm. f. MICRO- 
CARPUM (Engelm.) GUI 
A. douglasii Engelm. var. m. 
Engelm. 

Parasitic on Picea 
A. CAMPYLOPODUM Engelm. f. TSUGEN- 
SIS (Rosend.) Gill 
Razoumofskya t. Rosend. 

Parasitic on Tsuga 
A. DOUGLASU Engelm. Douglas D. 

Razoumofskya d. Kuntze 

Parasitic on Abies, Picea, 
and Pseudotsuga 
A. VAGINATUM (Willd.) Presl 
Razoumofskya v. Kuntze 

Parasitic on Pinus contorta, 
jeffreyi, and ponderosa 
A. VAGINATUM (Willd.) Presl f. CRYPTO- 
PODUM (Engelm.) GUI 
A. c. Engelm. 

A. robustum Engelm. in A. Gray 
Razoumofskya c. Cov. 
R. r. Kuntze 

Parasitic on Pinus ponderosa 
and P. jeffreyi 

PHORADENDRON Nutt. (71) MISTLETOE 

P. BOLLEANUM (Seem.) Eichler var. 
CAPITELLATUM (Torr.) 
Kearney & Peebles 
P. c. Torr. 

Parasitic on Juniperus 
P. BOLLEANUM (Seem.) Eichler var. 

DENSUM (Torr.) Fosb. Dense M. 

P. d. Torr. 

Parasitic on Juniperus 
P. BOLLEANUM (Seem.) Eichler var. 

PAUCIFLORUM (Torr.) Fosb. 
P. p. Torr. 

Parasitic on Abies 
22 



P. CALIFORNICUM Nutt. var. 
CALIFORNICUM 
Parasitic on Acacia and 
Prosopis 
P. CALIFORNICUM Nutt. var. DISTANS 

Trel. 
P. FLAVESCENS (Pursh) Nutt. var. 

MACROPHYLLUM Engelm. 
P. coloradense Trel. 
P. longispicum Trel. 
P. 1. var. cyclophyllum Trel. 
P. m. Cockerell 
P. m. var. circulare Trel. 
P. m. var. jonesii Trel. 

Parasitic on Populus 
and Salix 
P. FLAVESCENS (Pursh) Nutt. var. 
PUBESCENS Engelm. 
P. engelmannii Trel. 

Parasitic on Populus and 
others 
P. FLAVESCENS (Pursh) Nutt. var. 

VILLOSUM (Nutt.) Engelm. 
P. f. var. torrentosum Engelm. 
P. V. Nutt. 

Parasitic on Quercus 
P. JUNIPERINUM Engelm . var^! 
JUNIPERINUM 
Parasitic on Juniperus 
osteosperma 
P. JUNIPERINUM Engelm . var. LIGATUM 
(Trel.) Fosb. 
P. L Trel. 

Parasitic on Juniperus 
occidentalis 



California M. 



Juniper M. 



SANTA LACEAE. Sandalwood Family 

COMANDRA Nutt. 

C. PALLIDA A. DC. 



COMANDRA 
Common C, or 
Bastard Toad- 
flax 



C. umbellata of western authors, 
not (L.) Nutt. 



POLYGONACEAE. Buckwheat Family 

CHORIZANTHE R. Br. ex. Benth. (72) 

C. BREVICORNUTorr. ssp. BREVICORNU 
C. BREVICORNUTorr. ssp. SPATHULATA 
(Small) Munz 
C. s. Small 
C. CORIACEA Goodm. 

C. lastarriaea Parry 

C. 1. var. californica (H. Gross) 

Goodm. 
Lastarriaea chilensis of American 

authors, not Remy 
L. c. ssp. californica H. Gross 
C. CO'RRUGATA (Torr.) Torr. & Gray 

Acanthogonum c. Torr. 
C. RIGIDA (Torr.) Torr. & Gray 

Acanthogonum r. Torr. 
C. THURBERl (A. Gray) S. Wats. 

Centrostegia t. A. Gray 
C. WATSONITorr.~& Gray 

ERIOGONUM Michx. (73,74) ERIOGONUM 

E. ACAULE Nutt. 

E. caespitosum Nutt. ssp. a. S. 

Stokes 
E. c. var. a. R. J. Davis 
E. ALATUM Torr". ssp. ALATUM Winged E. 

E. ALATUM Torr. ssp. TRISTE (S. Wats.) 
S. Stokes 
E. t. S. Wats. 



ERIOGONUM 



KRIOGONUM 



ERIOGONUM Michx. (con.) 

E. AMPULLACEUM J. T. llowt-U 

E. mohavense S. Wats. ssp. a. 
S. Stokes 
E. ARCUATUM Grt-ene 
E. bakeri Greene 
E. jamesii Benth. var. a. S. Stokes 



CORYMBOSUM Bontli. 
E. L'ffusum Nutt. ssp. 



C^orvmlK'd I-^ 



S. Stokes 



ssp. b. S. Stokes 

var. llavescens of Manuals, 



Matted E. 



S. Wats. 
E. ARETIOIDES Barneby 
E. AUREUM M. E. Jones 

E. fruticosum A. Nels. 
E. microthecum Nutt. ssp. a. 
S. Stokes 
E. BAILEYIS. Wats. var. BAILEYI 
E. demissum S. Stokes 
E. d. var. romanuiii S. Stokes 
E. restioides Gandoger 
E. salicornioides Gandoger 
E. vimineum Dougl. ssp. b. S. Stokes 
E^. v^. var. b. R.J. Davis, mistakenly 
attributed to S. Wats, in 
Davis' "Flora of Idaho" 
_E. v. var. porphyreticunn S. Stokes 
E. V. var. r. (Gandoger) S. Stokes 
E. V. var. s. S. Stokes 
E. BAiLe'yIS. Wats. var. BRACHYANTHUM 
(Gov.) Jeps. 
E. b. Gov. 

E. vimineum Dougl. var. b. S. Stokes 
E. BATLeYI S. Wats. var. TOMENTOSUM 

S. Wats. 
E. BATEMANI M. E. Jones 
E. BIGOLOR M. E. Jones 

E. microthecum Nutt. ssp. b. 
S. Stokes 
E. BREVICAULE Nutt. 

E. campanulatum Nutt. ssp. b. 

S. Stokes 
E. sabulosum M. E. Jones 
E. CAESPITOSUM Nutt. 
E. andinum Nutt. 
E. CA"mPANULATUM Nutt. 

E. brevicaule ssp. c. S. Stokes 
E. GERNUUM Nutt. ssp. CERNUUM Nodding E. 

E. CERNUUM Nutt. ssp. ACUTANGULUM 
(Gandoger) S. Stokes, possibly 
a synonym to E. colUnum 
S. Stokes 
E^. thurberi Torr. var. a. Gandoger 
E. CERNUUM Nutt. var. TENUE Torr. 
& Gray 
E. c. ssp. t. S. Stokes 
E. c. var. umbraticum Eastw. 
E. CERNUUM Nutt. ssp. VIMINALE 

S. Stokes 
E. CHRYSOCEPHALUM A. Gray ssp. 
CHRYSOCEPHALUM 
E^. £. ssp. bannockense S. Stokes 
E. b. R. J. Davis, mistakenly 

attributed to S. Stokes 
E. CHRYSOCEPHALUM A. Gray ssp. 

ALPESTRE S. Stokes 
E. CHRYSOCEPHALUM A. Gray ssp. 
CUSICKU (M. E. Jones) 
S. Stokes 
E. £. M. E. Jones, not Gandoger 
E. CHRYSOCEPHALUM A. Gray ssp. 
DESERTORUM Maguire 
E. d. R. J. Davis, mistakenly 

attributed to Macguire 
E. CLAVELLATUM Small 
E. GLUTEI Rydb. 
E. COLLINUM S. Stokes 

E. praebens Gandoger 
E. GOMPOSITUM Dougl. Northern E. 

E. johnstonii S. Stokes 



E. DARROVll Kearney 

E. DAVISIANUM S. Stokes 

E. DEFLEXUM Torr. ssp. DEFLEXUM 

E. DEFLEXUM Torr. var. BRACHY- 

PODU.M (Torr. & Gray) Munz 
E. b. Torr. & Gray 
E. d. ssp. b. S. Stokes 
H. DE"FLEXUM T"orr. ssp. EXALTATUM 
(M. E. Jones) S. Stokes 
E. C-. M. E. Jones 
E. DET- LEX UM Torr. ssp. INSIGNE 
(S. Wats.) S. Stokes 
E. i_. S. Wats. 
E. turbinatum Small 

ULTRUM 



ssp. 



DEFLEXUM Torr. 
S. Stokes 
DIVARICATUM Hook. 
DIVERGENS Small 

E. corymbosum var. divaricatum 



E. 



Torr. & Gray 
E. effusum Nutt. ssp. divaricatum 
S. Stokes 
DOUG LASH Benth. Douglas E. 

E. caespitosum ssp. d. S. Stokes 
E. c. var. d. M. E. Jones 
DUDLEYIANUM S. Stokes 
EFFUSUM Nutt. ssp. EFFUSUM 
EFFUSUM Nutt. ssp. DURUM S. Stokes, 

a var. of E. corymbosum 
EFFUSUM Nutt. sFp. NELSONI 

(L. O. WilUams) S. Stokes 
E. n. L. O. WilUams 
EFFUSUM Nutt. ssp. ORDICUUXTUM 
S. Stokes, a var. of 
E. corymbosum 
EFFUSUM Nutt. ssp. SALINUM 
(A. Nels.) S. Stokes 
E. s. A. Nels. 
EFfUSUM Nutt. var. SHANDSll 
S. Stokes, possibly not 
distinct from E. leptocladon 
Torr. & Gray" 
ELATUM Dougl. Rush E. 

ESMERALDENSE S. Wats. var. 

ESMERALDENSE 
ESMERALDENSE S. Wats. var. 

TOIYABENSE J. T. Howell 
FASCICU LATUM Benth. ssp. POLI- 
FOLIUM (Benth.) S. Stokes 
E. f. of Intermountain authors, not 

Benth . 
E. f_. var. p. Torr. & Gray 
FASCICULATUM Benth. var. REVO- 
LUTUM (Goodding) S. Stokes 
E. r. Goodding 
FILICAULE S. Stokes 

FLAVUM Nutt. var. FLAVUM Yellow E. 

FLAVUM Nutt. var. CRASSIFOLIUM 
Benth. 
E. f. ssp. c. S. Stokes 
FL"EXUM M. E. Jones var. FLEXUM 
E. glandulosum of some western 
authors, not Nutt. 
FLEXUM M. E. Jones var. FERRONIS 

M. E. Jones 
FRUTICULOSUMS. Stokes 
GLANDULOSUM (Nutt.) Nutt. 
E. trichopes Torr. ssp. g. 
S. Stokes 
GORDONI Benth. 

E. trinervata Small 
HEERMANIl Dur. & Hilg. var. 

ARGENSE (M. E. Jones) Munz 
E. sulcatum S. Wats. var. a. 
M. E. Jones 
HEERMANIl Dur. & Hilg. ssp. 

HEERMANU Mohave E. 



23 



ERIOGONUM 



ERIOGONUM 



ERIOGONUM Michx. (con.) 

E. HEERMANII Dur. & Hilg. ssp. 

HUMILIUS S. Stokes 
E. HEERMANII Dur. & Hilg. ssp. 

SULCATUM (S. Wats.) S. 
Stokes 
E. s. S. Wats. 
E. HERACLEOIDES Nutt. 

E. h. ssp. angustifolium (Nutt.) 
" "" S. Stokes 

E. HOLMGRENII Reveal 
E. HOOKERI S. Wats. 

E. deflexum Torr. ssp. h. 

S. Stokes 
E. d. var. gilvum S. Stokes 
E. HOWE"LlII S. Stokes var. HOWELLII 



Wyeth E. 



Holmgren E . 



Desert 
Trumpet E. 



Kennedy E. 



Inyo E. 



E. HOWELLII S. Stokes var. SUBRACE- 

MOSUMS. Stokes 
E. INFLATUM Torr. & Frem. var. 

INF LATUM 

E. INFLATUM Torr. & Frem. var. 
DEFLATUM Johnston 
E. glaucum Small 
E. JAMESII Benth. var. FLAVESCENS 
S. Wats. 
E. j. ssp. f. S. Stokes 
E. vegetius A. Nels. 
E. JONESII S. Wats. 
E. KENNEDYI Porter 
E. KINGII Torr. & Gray 
E. LACHNOGYNUMTorr. 
E. LATENS Jeps. 
E. LEMMONI S. Wats. 
E. LEPTOCLADONTorr. & Gray 
E. effusum ssp. 1. S. Stokes 
E. pallidum Small 
E. e. ssp. p. S. Stokes 
E. LE"FrOPHYLLUM (Torr.) Woot. & 

Standi. 
E. LOBBIITorr. & Gray. var. LOBBII Gramte E. 

E. LOBBIITorr. & Gray var. ROBUSTUM 
(Greene) S. Stokes 
E. r. Greene 
E. L0"GANUM A. Nels. 

E. chrysocephalum ssp. 1. S. Stokes 
E. MACULATUM Heller 

E. angulosum of the Intermountam 

authors 
E^. a. ssp. m. S. Stokes 
E. a. var. m. Jeps. 
E. a. var. patens Gandoger 
E. a. var. pauciflorum Gandoger 
E. a. var. rectipes Gandoger 
E. MARIFOLIUM Torr. & Gray 
E. MEARNSU Parry var. MEARNSU 
E. microthecum Nutt. ssp. m. 
S. Stokes 
E. MEARNSU Parry var. PULCHRUM 
(Eastw.) Kearney & Peebles 
E. p. Eastw. 

E, microthecum Nutt. ssp. p. 
S. Stokes 
E. MICROTHECUM Nutt. ssp. 

MICROTHECUM 
E. MICROTHECUM Nutt. var. CONFER- 
TIFLORUM (Benth.) Torr. & 
Gray 
E. c. Benth. 

B. rn. ssp. c. S. Stokes 
E. MICROTHECUM Nutt. var. CRISPUS 
(L. O. WilUams) S. Stokes 
E. c. L. O. Williams 
E. MICROTHECUM Nutt. var. EXPANSUM 

S . Stokes 
E. MICROTHECUM Nutt. var. FRISCANUM 
(M. E. Jones) S. Stokes 
E. f. M. E. Jones 



Mountain E. 



Slenderbush E. 



MICROTHECUM Nutt. var. IDAHOENSE 
(Rydb.) S. Stokes 
E. i_. Rydb. 
MICROTHECUM Nutt. ssp. INTER- 
MEDIUM S. Stokes 
MICROTHECUM Nutt. ssp. LAXI- 
FLORUM (Nutt.) S. Stokes 
E. L Nutt. 
MICROTHECUM Nutt. var. MACDOUGALll 
(Gandoger) S. Stokes 
E. m. Gandoger 
MONTTcOLA S. Stokes 

NIDULARIUM Gov. Birds-nest E. 

E. vimineum Dougl. ssp. n. 
" S. Stokes 

E. V. var. n. R. J. Davis, mistak- 
enly attributed to S. Stokes 
NTVEUM Dougl. var. NIVEUM Snow E. 

NIVEUM Dougl. var. DICHOTOMUM 

(Dougl.) Peck, mistakenly attri- 
buted to S. Stokes in his Flora 
of Oregon 
E. d. Dougl. 
E. n. ssp. d. S. Stokes 
E^. n. var. d. R. J. Davis, mistaken- 
ly attributed to S. Stokes 



NODOSUM Small ssp. NODOSUM 
NODOSUM Small var. KEARNEYI 
(Tides.) S. Stokes 
E. k. Tides. 
NODOSUM Small ssp. MONOENSE 

S. Stokes 
NOVONUDUM Peck 
NUDICAULE (Torr.) Small ssp. 

NUDICAULE 
NUDICAULE (Torr.) Small ssp. 

ANGUSTUM (M. E. Jones) 
S. Stokes 
E. medium Rydb. 
NUDICAULE (Torr.) Small ssp. 

GARRETTI S. Stokes 
NUDICAULE (Torr.) Small ssp. 

OCHROFLORUMS. Stokes 
NUDICAULE (Torr.) Small ssp. 
PARLE YENS E S. Stokes 
NUDICAULE (Torr.) Small ssp. 
PUMILUM (S. Stokes) 
S. Stokes 
NUDUM Dougl. var. NUDUM 

E. latifoUum J. E. Smith ssp. n. 
S. Stokes 
NUDUM Dougl. var. PURIFLORUM 
Benth. 
E, saxicola Heller 
E. latifolium J. E. Smith ssp. s. 

S. Stokes 
E. sulphureum Greene 
E. 1. ssp. s. S. Stokes 
NUMMULAR E~M. E. Jones 
NUTANS Torr. & Gray var. NUTANS 

E. rubiflorum M. E. Jones 
NUTANS Torr. & Gray var. BREVI- 
PEDICELLATUMS. Stokes 
OCHROCEPHALUMS. Wats. ssp. 

OCHROCEPHALUM 
OCHROCEPHALUMS. Wats. ssp. 
ANEMOPHILUM (Greene) 
S. Stokes 
E. a. Greene 
OCHROCEPHALUMS. Wats. ssp. 
CALCAREUMS. Stokes 
E. o. var. c. Peck 
OCHROCEPHA'lUMS. Wats. var. 
GRACILIPES (S. Wats.) 
J. T. Howell 
E. g. S. Wats. 
E. kennedyi ssp. g. S. Stokes 



Sonoran E. 



Barestem E. 



Woolly E. 



24 



ERIOGONUM 



ERIOGONUM 



ERIOGONUM Michx. (con.) 

E. OSTLUNDI M. E. Jones 

E. tenellum of Utah i-eferences, not 



o. S, Stokes 
OVALIFO- 



Wirestem E. 
Piper E. 



Torr. 
E. tenellum Torr. ssp 
E. OVAL! FOLIUM Nutt. ssp 
UUM 

Nutt. Cushion E, 

E. o. var. nevadense Gandoger 
E. OVALfPOUUM Nutt. var. CELSUM 
A. Nels. 
E. ochroleucum Small 
E. o. ssp. o. S. Stokes 
E. o. var. o. Peck 
E. OVAUFOUUM Nutt. var. DEPRESSUM 
Blankinship 
E. d. Rydb. 
E. OVALIFOLIUM Nutt. ssp. EXIMIUM 
(Tides.) S. Stokes 
E. e. Tides. 
E. OVAUFOUUM Nutt. var. PURPUREUM 
(Nutt.) Dur. 
E. p. Benth. 
E. 0. ssp. p. S. Stokes 
E. o. var. utahense Gandoger 
E. orthocaulon Small 
E. OVAUFOUUM Nutt. var. VINEUM 
(Small) Jeps. 
E. o. ssp. V. S. Stokes 
E. V. Smalf 
E. PARRYI A. Gray 

E. deflexum ssp. p. S. Stokes 
E. PHARNACEOIDES To"rr. 
E. PIPERI Greene 

E. flavum ssp. p. S. Stokes 
E. PLUMATELLA Dur". & HUg. Yucca E. 

E. palmeri (Torr. & Gray) S. Wats. 
E. PUBERULUMS. Wats. var. PUBERULUM 
E. PUBERULUM S. Wats. var. VENOSUM 

S. Stokes 
E. RACEMOSUM Nutt. Redroot E. 

E. orthocladon Torr. 
E. r. var. o. S. Stokes 
E. RAMOSISSIMUlvl Eastw. 

E. eastwoodae M. E. Jones 
E. RETJIFORME Torr. & Frem. ssp. 

RENIFORME 
E. RENIFORME Torr. & Frem. var. 
COMOSUM M. E. Jones 
E. c. M. E. Jones 
E. RE"NIFbRME Torr. & Frem. ssp. 
PUSILLUM (Torr. & Gray) 
S. Stokes 
E. p. Torr. & Gray 
E. RHODANTHUM A. Nels. & Kennedy 
E. ROSENSE A. Nels. & Kennedy 
E. RUBRICAULE Tides. 

E. trichopes Torr. var. r. S. Stokes 
E. laetum S. Stokes 
E. SALSUGINOSUM (Nutt.) Hook. 
E. SESSILE S. Stokes 

E. fiUforme L. O. Williams 
E. SHOCKLEYI S. Wats. ssp. SHOCKLEYI 
E. SHOCKLEYI S. Wats. ssp. CANDIDUM 
(M. E. Jones) S. Stokes 
E. pulvinatum Small 
E. SHOCKLEYI S. Wats. ssp. LONGI- 

LOBUM (M. E. Jones) S. Stokes 
E. U M. E. Jones 
E. SIMPSONI Benth. 

E^. effusum ssp. s. S. Stokes 
E. SPATHULATUM A. Gray ssp. 

SPATHULATUM 
E. SPATHULATUM A. Gray var. 

PANGUICENSE (M. E. Jones) 
S. Stokes 
E. SPATHULATUM A. Gray ssp. SPATH- 
ULIFORME (Rydb.) S. Stokes 
E. s. Rydb. 



Kidneyleaf E. 



SPERGULINUM A. Gray var. REDDING- 

lANUM (M. E. Jones) J. T. Howell 
E. s. ol Intcrmountain authors, not 

A. Gray 
Oxytheca r. M. E. Jones 
SPHAEROCEPHALUM Dougl. var. 

SPHAEROCEPHALUM Rock E. 

E. fascicuUfoliurn A. Nels. 
E. s. var. f. S. Stokes 
SPHAEROCEPHALUM Dougl. vai . 
GENICULATUM (Nutt.) 
S. Stokes 
E. g. Nutt. 
SPHAEROCEPHALUM Dougl. var. 
HALIMIOIDES (Gandoger) 
S. Stokes 
E. h. Gandoger 
SPHAEROCEPHALUM Dougl. var. 

MEGACEPHALUM (Nutt.) Peck, 
mistakenly attributed to 
S. Stokes 
E. s. ssp. m. S. Stokes 
E. cupreum Gandoger 
SPHAEROCEPHALUM Dougl. var. 

MINIMUM (Small) R. J. Davis, 
mistakenly attributed to 
S. Stokes 
E. m. Small 
E. s. ssp. m. S. Stokes 
SPHAEROCEPHALUM Dougl. var. 
SERICOLEUCUM (Greene) 
S. Stokes 
E. s. Greene 
STRICtUM Benth. ssp. STRICTUM 
STRICTUM Benth. var. ANSERINUM 
(Greene) R. J. Davis, mis- 
takenly attributed to S. Stokes 
E. a. Greene 
E. proliferum Torr. & Gray ssp. a. 



E. 



Munz 
s. ssp. a. S. Stokes 
flavissimum Gandoger 
ovalifolium ssp. f. S. Stokes 
"CUSICKII 



STRICTUM Benth. var. 

(Gandoger) S. Stokes 
E. c. Gandoger, not M. E. Jones 
E. s. var. "cusickianum" in R. J. 
Davis' Flora of Idaho 
STRICTUM Benth. var. LACHNO- 
STEGIUM Benth. 
E. L Rydb. 
STRICTUM Benth. ssp. PROLIFERUM 
(Torr. & Gray) S. Stokes 
E. p. Torr. & Gray 
SUBRENIFORME S. Wats. 
TENELLUM Torr. ssp. COTTAMI 

S. Stokes, is probably a var. 
of E. ostlundi M. E. Jones 



THOMASII Torr. Thomas E. 

THOMPSONAE S. Wats. 

THYMOIDES Benth. ssp. CONGESTUM 

S. Stokes 
TRICHOPES Torr. ssp. TRICHOPES Lmle Desert 

Trumpet 
E. trichopodum Torr. 
TRTcHOPES Torr. ssp. MINUS (Benth.) 
S. Stokes, would be better 
treated as a var. of E. inflatum 
Torr. & Frem. 
E. fusiforme Small 
UMBELLATUMTorr. ssp. 
UMBELLATUM 
E. neglectum Greene 
E. u. var. intectum A. Nels. 



Sulfur E. 



umbelUferum Small 
u. var. u. S. Stokes 



25 



ERIOGONUM 



POLYGONUM 



ERIOGONUM Michx. (con.) 

E. UMBELLATUM Torr. ssp. ARIDUM 

(Greene) S. Stokes Dryland E. 

E. a. Greene 

E. u. var. a. R. J. Davis, mistak- 
enly attributed to S. Stokes 
E. azaeleastrum Greene 
E. prattenianum Dur. & Hilg. 
E. reclinatum Greene 
E. UMBELLATUM Torr. ssp. COVILLEI 
(Small) Munz 
E. c. Small, not E. ursinum S. Wats. 

var. c. S. Stokes 
E. u. var. polypodum S. Stokes, not 
E. p. Small 
E. UMBELLATUlvl Torr. var. MAJUS Hook. 
E. heracleoides var. subalpinum 
(Greene) R.J. Davis, 
mistakenly attributed to 
S. Stokes 
E. rydbergii Gandoger 
E. subalpinum Greene 
E. u. ssp. £. S. Stokes 
E. u. var. s. M. E. Jones 
E. u. var. glabratum S. Stokes 
E. UMBELLATUM Torr. var. MONO- 

CEPHALUM Torr. & Gray, not 
of the California or Washington 
references 
E. porteri Small 
E. u. var. p. S. Stokes 
E. UMBELLATUM Torr. ssp. STELLATUM 

(Benth.)S. Stokes Longray E. 

E. s. Benth. 

E. u. var. s. M. E. Jones 
E. croceum Small 
E. u. var. c. S. Stokes 
E. u. var. modocense of Idaho 

not Greene 



E. WATSONII Torr. & Gray 

E. cernuum ssp. tenue var. multi- 
pedunculatum S. Stokes, 
a taxon applied to a hybrid 
between E. watsonii and E. 
vimineum Dougl. var. 
commixtum (Greene) 
S. Stokes 
E. deflexum ssp. w. S. Stokes 
E. d. var. w. R. J. Davis, mistak- 
enly attributed to S. Stokes 
E. WETHERILUI Eastw. 
E. WRIGHTII Torr. ssp. TRACHYGONUM 
(Torr.) S. Stokes 
E. t. ssp. w. S. Stokes 
E. w. var. t. Jeps. 
E. WRIGHTII Torr. ssp. SUBSCAPOSUM 
(S. Wats.) S. Stokes 



Wrights 
wheat t 



references, 
smalUanum Heller 
S 



var. s. S. Stokes 
E. biumbellatum Rydb. 
E. cognatum Greene 
E. u. ssp. c. S. Stokes 
E. fernssi A. Nels. 
E. u. ssp. f. S. Stokes 
E. UMBELLATUM Torr. ssp. SUBARIDUM 
(S. Stokes) Munz 
E. u. ssp. stellatum var. s. S. Stokes 
E. UMBELLATUM Torr. var. TOLMIE- 

ANUM (Hook.) M. E. Jones 
E. UMBELLATUM Torr. var. TORREY- 

ANUM (A. Gray) M. E. Jones Donner E. 
E. t_. A. Gray 
E. VILUFLORUM A. Gray var. 

VILLIFLORUM 
E. VILLIFLORUM A. Gray var. 

TUMULOSUM Barneby 
E. VIMINEUM Dougl. ssp. VIMINEUM Broom E. 
B. V. var. divergens Gandoger 
E. V. var. oregonense Gandoger 
E, V. var. rigescens Gandoger 
E. VIMINEUM Dougl. var. 

CALIFORNICUM Gandoger 
E^. v. var. multiradiatum S. Stokes 
E. VIMINEUM Dougl. var. COMMIXTUM 
(Greene) S. Stokes 
E. c. Greene 
E. VIMIN'EUM Dougl. var. DENSUM 

(Greene) S. Stokes, is a var. 
of E. nidularium Cov. 
E. VlMINEUMlbougl. var. SHOSHON- 
ENSE (A. Nels.) S. Stokes 
E. s. A. Nels. 
E. VIMINEUM Dougl. ssp. JUNCINEL- 
LUM (Gandoger) S. Stokes 
E. VISCIDULUMJ. T. Howell 
E. WAHSATCHENSE M. E. Jones 



E. ZIONISJ. T. Howell var. ZIONIS 
E. ZIONISJ. T. Howell var. COCCINEUM 
J. T. Howell 

OXYRIA Hill 

O. DIGYNA (L.) Hill 
Rumex d. L. 

OXYTHECA Nutt. 

O. DENDROIDEA Nutt. var. 
DENDROIDEA 
Ei"iogonum d. S. Stokes 
O. d. var. foUosa (Nutt.) M. E. 

Jones 
a f_. Nutt. 
O. DENDROIDEA Nutt. var. HILLMANI 
S. Stokes 
Eriogonum d. var. h. S. Stokes 
O. LUTEOLA Parry 

Eriogonum spinescens (Parry) 

S. Stokes 
Gymnogonum s. Parry 
O. PERFOLIATA Torr. & Gray 

Eriogonum p. S. Stokes 
O. WATSONU Torr. & Gray 



WATSONU Torr. 

Eriogonum cuspidatum S. Stokes 



POLYGONUM L. (75) 

P. AMPHIBIUM L. var 
Coleman 



STIPULACEUM 



P. a. var. natans Michx. 

P. a. var. hartwrightii (A. Gray) 

P. n. A. Eat! 

P. n. f. h. Stanford 

Persicaria a. S. F. Gray 

Persicaria h. Greene 
P. AUSTINAE Greene 

P. douglasii Greene var. a. M. E. 
Jones 
P. AVICULARE L. var. AVICULARE 

P. a. var. angustissimum Meisn. 

P. heterophyllum Lind. f. 

P. ii. var. rubescens (Small) R. J. 
Davis 

P. neglectum Bess. 

P. r. Small 
P. AVICULARE L. var. ERECTUM Roth 
P. AVICULARE L. var. UTTORALE 
(Link) W.D.J. Koch 

P. L Link 

P. buxiforme Small 
P. BISTORTOIDES Pursh var. 
BISTORTOIDES 

Bistorta b. Small 



Watson O. 



Austin K. 



American 
Bistort 



26 



■OLYGONLIM 



RIIMI-.X 



OLYGONUM L. (con.) 

P. BISTORTOIDES Pursh var. LINEARI- 
FOLIUM (S. Wats.) Small 
Bistorta 1. Greene 
P. BISTORTOIDES Pursh var. OBLONGI- 

FOLIUM (Meisn.) St. John 
P. COCCINEUM Muhl. var. COCCINEUM 

P. emersum (Michx.) Britton 
P. muhlenbergii (Meisn.) S. Wats. 
Persicaria c. Greene 
Persicaria m. Small 
P. COCCINEUM Muhl. f. NATANS (Wieg.) 
Stanford 
P. muhlenbergii (Meisn.) S. Wats. 
f. n. Wieg. 
P. COCCINEUM Muiil. var. RIGIDULUM 
(Sheld.) Stanford 
P. r. Sheld. 
P. COCCINEUM Mulil. var. TERRESTRE 
Willd. 
P. c. var. pratincola (Greene) 

Stanford 
P. c. f. t^. Stanford 
P. CONFERTIFOUUM Nutt. ex Piper 

P. watsonii in part, not Small 
P. CONVOLVULUS L. 

Bilderdykia c. Durn. 
Tiniaria c. Webb. & Moq. 
P. CUSPIDATUM Sieb. & Zucc. 



Bigrool Ladys- 
thumb 



DuUseed 
Cornbind 



P. PHYTOLACCAEFOLIUM Meisii. 

Aconogonum p. Small 
P. alpinum of American authors, 
not All. 
P. POLYCNEMOIDES Jaub. Ik Spach. var. 

OLIVERI Jaub. & Spach. 
P. POLYGALOIDES Meisn. 
P. PROLIFICUM (Small) Robins 

P. ramosissimum Michx. var. p. 
Small 
P. PUNCATATUM Ell. var. 

PUNCATATUM (74) 
P. acre HBK. , not Lam. 
Persicaria p. Small 
P. PUNCATATUM Ell. var. LEPTO- 

STACHYUM (Meisn.) Small 
P. PUNCATATUM Ell. var. CONFERTl- 

FLORUM (Meisn.) Fassett 
P. RAMOSISSIMUM Michx. 
P. SHASTENSE Brewer 
P. SPERGULARIAEFORME Meisn. 
P. VIVIPARUM L. 



Bistorta v. S. F. Gray 
P. WATSONII S"mall 

P. unifolium Small 



Pokeweed 
Fleeceflower 



Pnlygala K. 



Dotted S. 



Bushv K. 



Viviparous 
Bistort 

Watson K. 



Japanese 
Fleeceflower 



PTEROSTEGIA Fisch. & C. A. Meyer 

P. DRYMARIOIDES Fisch. & C. A. Meyer 
P. diphylla Nutt. 



Sawatch K. 



P. DAVISIAE Brew. 

P. DOUGLASn Greene var. DOUGLASII Douglas K. 

P. consimile Greene 

P. emaciatum A. Nets. 
P. DOUGLASn Greene var. JOHNSTONU 
Munz 

P. sawatchense Small 
P. DOUGLASU Greene var. LATIFOLIUM 
(Engelm.) Greene 

P. buxiforme var. montanum 
(Small) R.J. Davis 

P. m. (Small) Greene 
P. ENGEllMANNn Greene 
P. ERECTUM L. 
P. ESOTERICUM Wheeler 
P. EXSERTUM Small 
P. HETEROSEPALUM Peck & Ownbey 
P. HYDROPIPER L. 

P. h. var. projectum Stanford 

Persicaria h. Opiz 



Erect K. 



Marshpepper S. 



P. HYDROPIPEROIDES Miclix. 
P. KELLOGGII Greene 
P. LAPATHIFOLIUM L. var. 
LAPATHIFOUUM 

P. incarnatum Ell. 

P. nodosum Pers. 

Persicaria i_. Small 

Persicaria 1. S. F. Gray 
P. LAPATHIFOLIUM L. var. INCANUM 
(Schmidt) Koch 

P. 1. Schmidt 

P. tomentosum Schrank 

Persicaria i. S. F. Gray 

Persicaria t. Bickn. 
P. LAPATHIFOLIUM L. var. 

SALICIFOUUM Sibth. 
P. MAJUS (Meisn.) Piper 
P. MINIMUM S. Wats. 

P. torreyi S. Wats. 
P. PENSYLVANICUM L. 

Persicaria p. Small 
P. PERSICARL\ L. 

Persicaria maculosa S. F. Gray 
Persicaria p. Small 



Swamp S. 
Kellogg K. 

Curlytop Ladys- 
thumb 





P. microphylla Nutt. 




RUMEX 


L. (75) 


DOCK; SORREL 


R. 


ACETOSELLA L. 


Sheep S. 


R. 


ALTISSIMUS Wood 

R. brittanic a of American authors, 
in part, not L. 


Great D. 


R. 


ANGIOCARPUS Murbeck 

R. acetosella L. ssp. a. Murbeck 




R. 


CALIFORNICUS Rech. f. 

R. saUcifoIius Weinm. var. 

denticulatus Torr. 




R. 


CONGLOMERATUS Murr. 


Clustered D. 


R. 


CRISPUS L. 


Curly D. 


R. 


CUNEIFOUUS Campd. 




R. 


DENSIFLORUS Osterh. 
R . bakeri Greene 
R. occidentale of Arizona refer- 
ences, not S. Wats. 




R. 


FENESTRATUS Greene 




R. 


FUEGINUS Phil. 

R. maritinus Meissn., not L. 

R. m. of American authors, not L. 

R. m. L. var. f. Dusen 

R. m. var. athrix of Intermountain 

authors, not St. John 
R. persicarioides of Intermountain 


Golden D. 



Broadleaf K . 

Pennsylvania S. 

Spotted Ladys- 
thumb 



authors, not L. 
R. HYMENOSEPALUS Torr. Canaigre 

R. arizonicus Britton 

R. salinus A. Nels. 

R. h. var. s. Rech. f. 

R. tuberosus A. Nels. 
R. LACUSTRIS Greene 
R. MEXICANUS Meisn. Mexican D. 

R. m. var. strictus Peck 

R. salicifolius Weinm. 
R. OBTUSIFOLIUS L. ssp. AGRESTIS 

(Fries) Danser Bitter D. 

R. o. of American authors, not L. 
R. OCCIDENTAUS S. Wats., not of 

Arizona references Western D. 

R. o. var. procerus (Greene) 

~ ~ J. T. Howell 

R. p. Greene 



27 



RUMEX 



ATRIPLL.'. 



RUMEX L. (con.) 

R. PATIENTIA L. Patience D. 

R. PAUCIFOLIUS Nutt. ssp. PAUCIFOLIUS Mountain S. 
R. PAUCIFOLIUS Nutt. ssp. 

GRACILESCENS (Rech. f.)Rech.l. 

R. p. var. minusculus J. T. Howell 
R. SALIcflFOLIUS Weinm. Willow D. 

R. SUBALPINUS M. E. Jones 

R. pycnanthus Rech. f. 
R. TRIANGULIVALVIS (Danser) Rech. f . 

R. salicifolius ssp. t. Danser 
R. UfAHENSIS Rech. f. 

R. mexicanus Meisn., in part 
R. VENOSUS Pursh Veiny D. 



CHENOPODIACEAE. Goosefoot Family (/b) 



ALLENROLFEA Kuntze 

A. OCCIDENTALIS (S. Wats.) Kuntze 

ATRIPLEX L. (7tia, 76b, 76c) 

A. ARGENTEA Nutt. ssp. ARGENTEA 
A. volutans A. Nels. 



IODINE BUSH 
I. 



SALTBUSH 



Obione a. Moq. 
A. ARGENTEA Nutt. ssp. ARGENTEA var. 
CAPUT -MEDUSAE (Eastw.) Fosb. 
A. c . Eastw. 
A. ARGENTEA Nutt. ssp. ARGENTEA var. 
HILLMANI M. E. Jones 
A_. h. Standi. 
A. ARGENTEA Nutt. ssp. EXPANSA (S. Wats.) 
Hall & Clements 
A. e. S. Wats. 

A. e. var. mohavensis M. E. Jones 
A. rydbergi Standi . 
A. BONNEVILLENSIS C. A. Hanson 

Probably a hybrid between A. canescens 

X A. falcata 
A. nuttalliiS. Wats., of Nevada 
reference, in part 
A. CANESCENS (Pursh) Nutt. Fourwing S. 

A. nuttallii S. Wats., as originally 
defined by S. Wats., 
in part 
A. occidentalis (Torr. & Frem.) D. 

Dietr. 
A. tetraptera (Benth.) Rydb. 
Obione c . Moq. 
0.0. Moq. 
q . r. Benth . 
Pterchiton c. Nutt. 



P. o. Torr. & Frem. 

CONFERTIFOLIA (Torr. & 

S. Wats. 

A. coUina Woot . & Standi 

A . spinosa (Moq . ) D 



Frem .) 



Shadscale 



Dietr. 
A. subconferta Rydb. 
Obione c. Torr. & Frem. 
0. s. Moq. 



CORRUGATAS. 
A. nuttallii S. 



Wats. 
Wats. var. 



c . A. Nels. 



A. CUNEATA A. Nels. 

A. acanthocarpa (Torr.) S. Wats. 

var. c . M. E . Jones 
A. c_. ssp. introgressa C. A. Hanson 
A. nuttallii S. Wats. ssp. c. Hall 
& Clements 
A. DIOECA (Nutt.) Macbr. 
A. endolepis S. Wats. 
A. ovata Clem. & Clem. 
A. suclileyana Rydb. 
Endolepis d. Standi. 
E. 0. Rydb". 
E. suckleyi Torr. 
A. ELEGANS (Moq.) D. Dietr. ssp. 

FASCICULATA (S. Wats.) 
Hall & Clements 
A. f. S. Wats. 



FALCATA (M. E. Jones) Standi. 

A. nuttalliiS. Wats., of Nevada 
reference, in part 

A. n. var. anomala M. E. Jones 

A. n. ssp. f. Hall & Clements 

A. n. var.^. M. E. Jones 
GARDNERl (Moq.) D. Dietr., as the 
original author, not Standi. 

A. eremicola Osterh. 

A. fruticulosa Osterh., not Jeps. 

A. gordoni Hook. 

A. nuttalliiS. Wats., as originally 
defined by S. Wats. , 
in part 

A. n. ssp. g. (Moq.) Hall & Clements 

A. n. var. g. (Moq.) R.J. Davis 

A. pabularis A. Nels. var. e. A. Nels. 

Obione g. Moq. 
GARRETTU Rydb. 

A. canescens ssp. g. Hall & Clements 

A. c. var. g. L. Benson 
GR'acFLIFLORA M. E. Jones 



HORTENSIS L. 
A. nitens Schk. 



HYMENELYTRA (Torr.) S. Wats. 

Obione h. Torr. 
LENTIFORMIS (Torr.) S. Wats. 

Obione 1 . Torr. 
NAVAJOENSIS C. A. Hanson 

A. garrettii of Arizona authors, 
not Rydb. 
OBOVATA Moq. 

A. jonesii Standi. 



Garden Orad 



Desertholly i 



BigS. 





A. sabulosa M. E. Jones, not Rouy 




A. 


PARRYIS. Wats. 


Parry S. 


A. 


PATULA L. var. PATULA 


Fat -hen S. 


A. 


PATULA L. var. HASTATA (L.) 
A. Gray 
A. carnosa A. Nels. 
A. halimoides Raf. 
A. h. L. 

A. lapathifolia Rydb. 
A. p. ssp. h. Hall & Clements 
A. subspicata (Nutt.) Rydb. 


Spearleaf S 



A. PHYLLOSTEGIA (Torr.) S. Wats. 

A. covillei Macbr. 

A. draconis M. E. Jones 

A. p. var. d. Fosb. 

Endolepis c. Standi. 

E. p. Rydb". 

Obione p. Torr. 
A. PLEIANTHA W. A. Weber 
A. POLYCARPA (Torr.) S. Wats. 

Obione p. Torr. 
A. POWELLl S. Wats. 

A. nelsoni M. E. Jones 

A. philonitra A. Nels. 
A. PUS'lLLA (Torr.)S. Wats. 

Obione p. Torr. 
A. ROSEA L.~ 

A. spatiosa A. Nels. 
A. SACCARIAS. Wats. 

A. argentea var. cornuta (M. E. 
Jones) M. E. Jones 

A. c. M. E. Jones 

A. expansa S. Wats. var. c. Standi. 

A. truncata (Torr.) A. Gray var. s. 
M. E. Jones 
A. SEMIBACCATA R. Br. 

A. flagellaris Woot. & Standi. 
A. SERENANA A. Nels. 

A. bracteosa (Dur. & Hilg.) S. Wats., 
not Traut. 

Obione b. Dur. & Hilg. 
A. TENUISSIMA A. Nels. 

A. greenei A. Nels. 
A. TORREYI (S. Wats.) S. Wats. 

A. lentiformis ssp. t. Hall & Clements 

A. 1. var. t. MacM. 



Cattle S. 



Tumbling Ora 



28 



IPLEX 



SALICORNIA 



Wedgescalf S. 



GOOSE FOOT; 
PIGWEED 

Lambsquarters 



IPLEX L. (con.) 
A. TORREYI (con.) 

Obione t. S. Wats. 
A. TRIDENTATA Kumze 

A. gardncri var. I. Macbr. 

A. nunallii S. WaTs. , of Utah 
reference, in part 

,A. n. ssp. t. Hall & Clements 

A. n. var. t. R. J. Davis 

A. n. var. utahensis M. E. Jones 

A. pabularis A. Neis 
A. TRIiNCATA (Torr.) A. Gray 

A. t. var. stricta A. Gray 

A. subdecumbens M. E. Jones 

Obione t. Torr. 
A. WELSHIl C. A. Hanson 
A. WOLFIS. Wats. 



;IA All. BASSIA 

HYSSOPIFOLIA (Pall.) Kumze Fivehuok B. 

EchinopsUon h. iMoq. 

\\ L. BEET 

B. VULGARIS L. 

NOPODIUM L. (82, S3) 

C. ALBESCENS Small 
C. ALBUM L. var. ALBUM 

C. lanceolatum Muhl. 
C. ALBUM L. var. POLYMORPHUM Aellcn 
C. AMBROSIOIDES L. Wormseed G. 

C. ARIDUM a. Nels. 
A. wolfii Rydb. 
C. ATROVIRENS Rydb. 
C. BERLANDIERI Moq. ssp. 

BERLANDIERI PitsecdG. 

C. BERLANDIERI Moq. ssp. ESAUAE 

Aellen 
C. BERLANDIERI Moq. ssp. PLATY- 

PHYLLUM (Issler) Ludw. 
C. p. Issler 
C. BERLXnDIERI Moq. var. SINUATUM 

(Murr.) WaW. 
C. BERLANDIERI Moq. var. 

ZSCHACHEI (Murr.) Murr. 

C. z. Murr. 
C. BOTRYS L.~ 

C. CAPITATUM (L.) Asch. 

Blitum c. L. 
C. CHENOPODIOIDES (L.) Aellen var. 

CHENOPODIOIDES RedG. 

C. crassrfolium Horn. 

C. rubrum L. 
C. CHENOPODIOIDES (L.) Aellen var. 

DEGENIANUM (Aellen) Aellen 
C. CHENOPODIOIDES (L.) Aellen var. 

LENGYELLANUM (Aellen) Aellen 
C. DESSICATUM A. Nels. var. DESSICATUM 

C. oblongifolium (S. Wats.) Rydb. 

C. pratericola Rydb. ssp. d. Aellen 
C. DESSICATUM A. Nels var. LEPTO- 
PHYLLOIDES (Murr.) Wahl. 

C. pratericola Rydb. 

C. p. var. 1. Aellen 
C. FOLIOSUM (Moen.) Asch. 

Blitum virgatum L. 

C. V. Jess. 
C. FREMONTII S. Wats. FremontG. 

Botrys f. Lunell 
C. GIGANTOSPERMUM Aellen Mapleleaf G. 

C. hybridum of American authors, 
not L. 
C. GLAUCUM L. var. CLAUCUM Oakleaf G. 

C. GLAUCUM L. var. PULCHRUM Aellen 



r. SALINUM (Si.mill.) 
Aellen 



C. GLAUCUM L. 
Boivin 

C^ g_. ssp. ^ 

C. s. Standi. 
C. HIANS^S. Wats. 
C. HUMILE Hook. 

Botrys h. Lunell 
C. 1NCANUM"(S . Wais.) llL-lk-r 

C. fremontii var. i. S. Wat' 
C. INCOGNITUM Wahl . ~ 



c. 


LEPTHOPHYLLUM Nutt. 
C. inamoenum Standi. 


not Moc). 


Slimleaf G 


c. 


MURALE L. 




Nettleleaf 


c. 


NEVADENSE Standi. 






c. 


OVERl Aellcn 

Blitum hastatum Rydb. 






c. 


PALMERI Standi. 

C. arizonicum Standi. 







STRICTUM Roth var. GLAUCOPHYLLUM 

(Aellen) Wahl. 
SUBGLABRUM (S. Wats.) A. Nels. 

C. leptophyllum var. s. S. Wats. 
WATSONI A. Nels. 



Jerusalemoak 

G. 
Blite G. 



CORLSPERMUM L. 

C. EMARGINATUM Rydb. 
C. HYSSOPIFOLIUM L. 

C. imbricatum A. Nels. 

C. marginale Rydb. 
C. NlTlDUM Kit. 
C. VILLOSUM Rydb. 

CYCLOLOMA Moq. 

C. ATRIPLICIFOLIUM (Spreng.) Coult. 

EUROTIA Adans. 

E. LANATA (Pursh) Moq. var. LANATA 
E. LANATA (Pursh) Moq. var. 

SUBSPINOSA (Rydb.) Kearney 
& Peebles 
E. s. Rydb. 

GRAYIA Hook. & Arn. 

G. BRANDEGEI A. Gray 
G. SPINOSA (Hook.) Moq. 

G. polygaloides Hook. & Arn. 

HALOGETON C. A. Meyer 

H. GLOMERATUS (Bieb.) C. A. Meyer 

KOCHIA Roth 

K. AMERICANA S. Wats. var. 
AMERICANA 

K. AMERICANA S. Wats. var. VESTITA 
S. Wats. 

K. V. Rydb. 
K. CALIF"bRNlCAS. Wats. 

K. americana var. c. M. E. Jones 
K. SCOPARIA (L.) SchradT 

K. trichophylla Stapf. 

MONOLEPIS Schrad. 

M. NUTTALLIANA (Schult.) Greene 

M. PUSILLA Torr. 

M. SPATHULATA A. Gray 

NITROPHILA S. Wats. 

N. OCCIDENTALIS (Nutt.) Moq. 
Glaux acutifolia Heller 

SALICORNIA L. 



BUGS E ED; 
TICKSEED 

Hyssopleaf T. 



WINGED 

PIGWEED 
W. 

WINTERFAT 
Common W. 



Bush W. 



HOPSAGE 
Spineless H. 
Spiny H. 



HALOGETON 
H. 

SUMMER 
CYPRESS 

Green molly 
S . ; Red Sage 

Gray A. 

Californica S. 

Belvedere S. 



MONOLEPIS 

Nutlall M. 



GLASS WORT: 
SAMPHIRE: 
PICKLKWEED 



29 



SALICORNIA 



ABROl 



SALICORNIA L. (con.) 

S . EUROPAEA L. ssp. RUBRA 



(A. Nels.) Bre 


itung 




Marshfire, 
or Rocky 
Mtn. G. 


S. r. A. Nels. 








S. UTAHENSIS Tides. 






Utah G., or 
S. 


SALSOLA L. 






RUSSIAN - 
THISTLE 


S. KALIL. var. TENUIFLORA T 


^usch. 


R. 


S. pestifer A. Nels. 








SARCOBATUS Nees. 






GREASEWOOD 


S. VERMICULATUS (Hook 


.) Torr 


. var. 




VERMICULATUS 




Black G. 


Fremontia v. Torr. 








S. VERMICULATUS (Hook 


) Torr. 


var. 





BAILEYI (Cov.) Jeps. 
S. b. Cov. 

SUAEDA Forsk. 

S. DEPRESSA (Pursh)S. Wats. var. 
DEPRESS A 

Dondia d. Britton 
S. DEPRESSAlPursh) S. Wats. var. 
ERECTA S. Wats. 

Dondia e. A. Nels. 

D. calceoliformis (Moq.) Rydb. 

S . e_. A. Nels. 
S. FRUTICOSA (L.) Forsk. 

Dondia f. Druce 

D. interniedia (S. Wats.) Heller 

D. moquini (Greene) A. Nels. 

sT K S. Wats. 

S. m. Greene 
S. NIGRA"(Raf .) J. F. Macbr. 

Dondia dilfusa (S . Wats . ) Heller 

p. n. Standi. 

S . d'. S. Wats. 

S. maritima S. Wats 
S. OCCIDENT A LIS S. Watt 

Dondia o. Heller 



Bailey G. 

SEEPWEED 
Pursh S. 



A. CRUENTUS L. 

A. FIMBRIATUS (Torr.) Benth. var. 

FIMBRIATUS 
A. FIMBRIATUS (Torr.) Benth. var. 

DENTICULATUS (Torr.) 

Uline & Bray 
A. venulosus S. Wats. 
A. GRAECIZANS L. 

A. blitoides S. Wats. 
A. HYBRIDUS L. 
A. LEUCOCARPUS S. Wats. 

A. caudatus of American 

Authors, not L. 
A. PALMERI S. Wats. 
A. POWELLII S. Wats. 
A. PUBESCENS (Uline & Bray) Rydb. 
A. RETROFLEXUS L. 
A. TORREYI (A. Gray) Benth. 

A. prtnglei S. Wats. 
A. WRIGHTII S. Wats 

TIDESTROML\ Standi. 

T. LANUGINOSA (Nutt.) Standi. 

Cladothrix 1. Nutt. 
T. OBLONGIFOLIA (S. Wats.) Standi. 

Cladothrix o. S. Wats. 



Tumblewe 
A. 

Slim A. 
Love -lies 
bleeding 



Palmer A 
Powell A. 



Red root A 



Wright A. 

TIDESTR( 

lA 
Woolly T 

Honeyswei 

T. 



Alkali S. 



NYCTAGINACEAE. Four -o'clock Family (86) 



ABRONIA luss. 



SAND- \ 
VERBEIi 



not Dumort . 



Western S. 
Desert S. 

Torrey S. 

Bush S. 



A. CRUX-MALTAE Kellogg 

Tripterocalyx c. Standi. 
A. CYCLOPTERA A. Gray 

Tripterocalyx c. Standi. 

T. wootonii Standi. 
A. ELLIPTICA A. Nels. 

A. bakeri Greene 



S. SUFFRUTESCENS S. Wats. 

Dondia s. Heller 
S. TORRE YANA S. Wats. var. TOR - 
REYANA 
Dondia t. Standi. 
S. TORREYANAS. Wats. var. 

RAMOSISSIMA (StancU.) Munz 
Dondia r. Standi . 
S. r. Johnst. 

ZUCKIA Standi. 

Z. ARIZONICA Slandl. 



AMARANTHACEAE. Amaranth Family (84) 

ACANTHOCHITON Torr. 
A. WRIGHTII Torr. 

Amaranthus acanthochiton Sauer 



A. fragrans Nutt. 

A. glabra Rydb. 

A. glabrifolia Standi. 

A. ramosa Standi. 
FRAGRANS Nutt . 

A. nudata Rydb. 

A. speciosa Buckl, 
M EL LIE ERA Dougl . 

A. lanceolata Rydb. 
MICRANTHUS Torr. var. 

Tripterocalyx m. Hook. 
MICRANTHUS Torr. var. 
M. E. Jones 

Tripterocalyx p. Standi 



var. e. Heimerl 



Snowball S 



MICRANTHUS 



PEDUNCULATUS 



AMARANTHUS L. (85) 

A. ALBUS L. var. ALBUS 

A. graecizans of authors, not L. 
A. ALBUS L. var. PUBESCENS (UUne & 
Bray) Fern. 
A. graecizans var. p. Uline & Bray 
A. ARENICOLA Johnston ~ 

A. torreyi (A. Gray) Benth. in small 
pa rt . 
A. CALIFORNICUS (Moq.)S. Wats. 
A. carneus Greene 
A . albomarginatus Uline Si Bray 



AMARANTH 



A. NANA S. Wats. var. NANA 

A. n. var. lanciformis M. E. Jones 
A. NANA~S. Wats. var. COVILLEI 
(Heimerl) Munz 

A. c . Heimerl 

A. n. Gov., not S. Wats. 

A. n. ssp. c . Munz 
A. ORlicIJLATA"Standl . 
A. POGONANTHA Heimerl 

A. angulata M. E. Jones 
A. PUMILA Rydb. 

A. sparsifolia Standi . 
A. SALSA Rydb. 

A. fallax Heimerl 
A. TURBINATA Torr. 

A. exalata Standi. 

A. latiuscula Greene 
A. UMBELLATA Lam. 

A. rotundifolia Gaertn. 



Bearded S. 



Pink S . 



30 



CI,AYr(.)NlA 



■. lUSS. (c'Dll.) 

_. \ILLOSA S. Wjts. 

IONIA L. 

A. CHOISYI Standi. 

A. glabra Standi., not Kuiitze 

"Wedeha g. Standi. 

Wedeliella g. Cockerell 
A. INCARNATA L. 

Wt'delia i. Kiintze 

WedehelTa i_. Cockerull 

llHAAVIA L. 

3. ANNULATA Gov. 

Anulocaulis a. Standi. 



B. COULTERI (Hook, i.) S. 
B. watsoni Standi. 



Wats 



ALLlON'lA 



Trailing A. 



SPIDERLING 
Wetltaf S. 



Coulter S. 



LEISOLENA Torr. 

Acleisanthes nummularia M. E. Jones 



Anulocaulis I. Standi. 
Jones 
Wats.) Standi 



B. n_. M. E. 
TORREYANA (S 
WRIGHTII A. Gray 

B. bracteosa S. Wats. 



Torrey S. 
Wright S. 



MIDIUM S. Wats. 

H. ALIPESS. Wats. var. ALIPES 
H. ALIPES S. Wats. var. PALLIDUM C. L. 
Porter 

BILLS L. 

M. BIGELOVII A. Gray var. 
BIGELOVII 
Hesperonia b. Standi. 
M. BIGELOVII A.~Grayvar. ASPERA 
(Greene) Munz 
Hesperonia a. Standi. 
M. a. Greene 
M. 



FOUR -0' - 
CLOCK 

Bigelow F. 



GELOVII A. Gray var 


RETRORSA 




(Heller) Munz 




Wishbune 
plant 


Hesperonia g. Standi. 






H. 1. Standi. 






H. r. Standi. 






M. glutinosa A. Nels. , 


not Kuntze 




M. Iimosa A. Nels. 






M. r. Heller 







C). COMATUS (Small) Wiallierby 

AUionia c . Small 

A. melanotncha Standi, 

A. pratensis Standi . 
(). GLXBER S. Wats. 

All ion ia g. Kunizc 
O. LINEARIS (Pursh) Robin-, var. 
LINEARIS 

Allionia bodini (llolzinger) Morong 

A. decumbens (Nutt.) Spreiig. 

AT diffusa Heller 

A. divaricata Rydb. 

A. glandulifera A. Nels. 
X 1_. Pursh 

A. pinetorum St.iiKll . 
O. LINEARIS (Pursh) Robins, var. 

DECIPIENS (Standi.) Kearney 
& Peebles 

Allionia d . Standi . 
O. NYCTAGINEUS (Michx.) Sweet 

Allionia n . Michx. 
O. PUMILUS (Standi.) Standi. 

Allionia |\ichyphylla Slandl. 

A. pumilus Stantll . 

SELINOCARPUS A. Gray 

S. DIFFUSUS A. Gray 

S. d. ssp. nevadensis Standi . 



AIZOACEAE. Carpetweed family 

MOLLUGO L. 

M. VERTICILLATA L. 

SESUVIUM L. 

S. VERRUCOSUM Raf. 

S. sessile of western authors, 
not Pers. 

TRIANTHEMA L. 

T. PORTULACASTRUM L. 



MOON POD 
M. 



CARPETWEED 
C. 



SEA 
PURSLANE 



HORSE - 

PURSLANE 
Desert H. 



PORTULACACEAE. Purslane Family (87,8,S) 



M. 
M. 



M. FROEBELII (Behr) Greene var. 

FROEBELII 

Oxybaphus f. Behr 

Quamoclidion f. Standi. 

M. FROEBELII (Beh7) Greene var. 

GLABRATA (Standi.) Jeps. 
Quamoclidion f. Standi, ssp. g. 
Standi. ~ 

JALAPA L. 

LAEVIS (Benth.) Curran 
M. californica A. Gray 
Hesperonia c . Standi . 
H. cedrosensis Standi . 
~H^ 1_. Standi. 
Oxybaphus 1. Benth. 
Quamoclidion 1. Rydb. 
\1. MULTIFLORA (forr.) A. Gray 

Quamoclidion m. Torr. 
M. OXYBAPHOIDES (A. Gray) A. Gray 
AUioniella o. Rydb. 
Quamoclidion o. A. Gray 
M. PUDiCA Barneby" 

CAPIIUS L'Her. 

O. COCCINEUS Torr. 

Allionia c. Standi. 
Mirabilis c. Benth. & Hook. 



CALANDRINIA HBK. 



ROCK 
PURSLANE 



Common F. 



Colorado F . 



C. CILIATA (Ruiz ik Pavon) DC. var. 

MENZIESII (Hook.) Macbr. 

Redmaids R. 
C. elegans Spach. 
Talinum m. Hook. 

CALYPTRIDIUM Nutt. (84) 

C. MONANDRUM Nutt. 
C. PARRYI A. Gray var. NEVADENSIS 
J. T. Howell 
C. parryi of Nevada references, not 
A. Gray 
C. ROSEUM S. Wats. 

CLAYTONLA L. SPRING 

BEAUTY 
C. LANCEOLATA Pursh LanceleafS. 

C. rosea of Intermountain authors, 

not Rydb. 
C. multicaulis A. Nels,, not Kuntze 
C. multiscapa Rydb. 
C. MEGARHIZA (A. Gray) Parry var. 

MEGARHIZA ' Alpine S. 

C. MEGARHIZA (A. Gray) Parry var. 
BELLIDIFOLIA (Rydb.) 
C. L. Hitchc. 
C. b. Rydb. 



31 



CLAYTONIA 



ARENARI 



Nevada S. 



LEWIS lA 



Columbia L. 



Kellogg L. 



Least L. 



CLAYTONIA L. (con.) 

C. NEVADENSIS S. Wats. 
C. UMBELLATA S. Wats. 
C. obovata Rydb. 

LEWISIA Pursh (90) 

L. BRACHYCALYX Engelm. 

L. brachycarpa S. Wats. 

Oreobroma b. (Engelm.) Howell 
L. COLUMBIANA 7Howell) Robins. 

Calandrinia c. Howell 

L. eastwoodiana Purdy 

Oreobroma c. Howell 
L. KELLOGGII K.~ Brand. 

Oreobroma k. Rydb. 
L. MAGUIREI Holmgren 
L. PYGMAEA (A. Gray) Robins, var. 
PYGMAEA 

Calandrmia grayi Britton 

Oreobroma p. Howell 

O. g. Rydb." 
L. PYGMAEA (A. Gray) Robins, var. 
NEVADENSIS (A. Gray) 
Fosb. Nevada L. 

CoUandrinia n. A. Gray 

L. minima (A. Nels.) A. Nels. 

L. n. Robins. 

Oreobroma n. Howell 

O. m. A. Nels. 
L. REDIVTVA Pursh ssp. REDIVIVA Bitterroot L. 

L. alba Kellogg 
L. REDIVIVA Pursh ssp. MINOR (Rydb.) 
Holmgren 

L. m. Rydb. 

L. r. var. m. Munz 
L. TRTph"YLLA (S7 Wats.) Robins. Threeleaf L. 

Erocallis t. Rydb. 

Oreobroma t. Howell 

MONTIA L. MONTIA 

M. ARENICOLA (Henders.) Howell 
Claytonia a. Henders. 
Limnia a. Rydb. 
M. CHAMISS(5l (Ledeb.) Dur. & Jacks. 

as to authors, not Tides. Water M. 

Claytonia c. Ledeb. 
C. chamissonis Eschsch. 



PERFOLIATA (con.) 

C. rubra (Howell) Tides. 
Limnia d. Rydb. 



humifusa (Howell) Rydb. 



M. 



L. membranacea Rydb. 

I. r. Heller 

M. d. Suksd. 

M. h. Howell 

M. r. Howell 
PE"RF0LIATA (D. Donn) Howell var. 
PARVIFLORA (Dougl.) Jeps. 

Claytonia p. Dougl. 

C. p. D. Donn var. p. (Dougl.) Torr. 

Limnia p. (Dougl.) Rydb. 

L. viae (A. Nels.) Heller 

M. p. (Dougl.) Howell 

M. V. A. Nels. 
PE"RF0LIATA (D. Donn) Howell var. 
UTAHENSIS (Rydb.) Munz 

Claytonia u. Tides. 

C. p. var. u. Poelln. 
M. SIBIRiCA (L.)'Howell 

Claytonia asarifolia Bong. 

C. bulbifera A. Gray 

C. s. L. 

Limma bracteosa Rydb. 

L. b. (A. Gray) Heller 

L. s. Haw. 

M. ^. (A. Gray) Howell 
M. SPATHULATA (Dougl.) Howell var. 

EXIGUA (Torr. & Gray) Robins. 

Claytonia e. Torr. & Gray 

C. s. of Intermountain authors, not 
Dougl . 

Limnia e. Heller 

L. s. Heller 

M. e. Jeps. 



CrunocalLis c. (Eschsch.) Rydb. 
M. c. (Eschsch.) Greene 
CORDrpOLIA (S. Wats.) Pax & 
K. Hoffm. 
Claytonia c. S. Wats. 
C. asarifolia A. Gray, not Bong. 



Limnia c . Rydb. 
Montia a. Howell 

Gray) Greene 
A. Gray 



M. HALLII (A 

Claytonia h 

M. dipetala Suksd. 

M. fontana of manuals, not L. 

M. stenophylla Rydb. 
M. LINEARIS (Dougl.) Greene 

Claytonia 1. Dougl. 

Montiastrum 1. Rydb. 
M. PARVIFLORA (Moc.) Greene 

Claytonia filicaulis Dougl. 

C. p. Moc. 

M. obtusata Heller 

~ Rydb. 

Donn) Howell var. 



Littleleaf M. 



PORTULACA L. 

P. MUNDULA Johnst. 
P. OLERACEA L. 

P. RETUSA Engelm. 

SPRAGUEA Torr. 

S. UMBELLATA Torr. var. 
UMBELLATA 
Calyptridium nudum Greene 
C. u. Greene 
S. caespitosa Rydb. 
S. eximia Rydb. 
S. n. Howell 
S. panlculata Kellogg 

S. UMBELLATA Torr. var. 

CAUDICIFERA A. Gray 
Calyptridium u. var. c. Jeps. 
S. multiceps Howell 

TAUNUM Adans. 

T. BREVIFLORUM Torr. 

T. brachvipodium S. Wats. 
T. PARVIFLORUM Nutt. 
T. VALIDULUM Greene 



PORTU LAC 



Common 
Purslane 



PUSSY PAV 
Umbellate 



Mt. Hood F 



FAMEFLO' 



Prairie F. 



Naiocrene p 
M. PERFOLIATA~(D 

PERFOLIATA 

Claytonia p. D. Donn 

Limnia carnosa (Greene) Heller 

L. cuprea Heller 

L. p. Haw. 
M. PERFOLIATA (D. Donn) Howell var. 
DEPRESSA (A. Gray) Jeps. 

Claytonia d. Suksd. 

C. p. var. d. Poelln. 



Miner's lettuce 



CARYOPHYLLACEAE. Pink Family (91) 

ACHYRONYCHIA Torr. & Gray 
A. COOPERI Torr. & Gray 



AGROSTEMMA L. 

A. GITHAGO L. 


CORN-COC 
C. 


ARENARIA L. (92) 

A. ABERRANS M. E. Jones 
A. rusbyi Greene 


SANDWORl 



32 



1 \ \RIA 



LYCHNIS 



KIA L. (con.) 
. ACULEATA S. Wats. 

A. salmonensis Henders. 

~ AMERICANA 



ssp. 



. CAPILLARIS Poir 

Maguire Fescue S. 

A. c. of American authors, not 
~ " Poir. 

A. c. ssp. formosa (Fisch.) 

Maguire, not A. f. 
Fisch. 
A. f. of American authors, not 
~ ~ Fisch. 

. CONGESTA Nutt. var. CONGESTA BalUiead S. 
. CONGESTA Nutt. var. CEPHA- 
LOIDES (Rydb.) Maguire 
A. c. Rydb. 
. CONGESTA Nutt. var. 

CHARLESTONENSIS Mag-uire 
. CONGESTA Nutt. var, UTHOPHILA 
Rydb. 
A. c. var. expansa Maguire 
A. r. Rydb. 
. CONGESTA Nutt. var. PROLIFERA 
Maguire 
A. burkei Howell, in part, as to 

Oregon and Washing- 
ton authors 
A. c. var. subcongesta (S, Wats.) 
S. Wats. , in part, as 
to Oregon and Wash- 
ington authors 
. CONGESTA Nutt. var. SIMULANS 

Maguire 
. CONGESTA Nutt. var. SUBCON- 
GESTA (S. Wats.) S. Wats. 
A. burkei Howell, in part, as to 

Intermountain authors 
. CONGESTA Nutt. var. WHEELER- 

ENSIS Maguire 
. EASTWOODIAE Rydb. var. 
EASTWOODIAE 
A. fendleri A. Gray var. e. 
Harrington 
. EASTWOODIAE Rydb. var. ADENO- 

PHORA Kearney & Peebles 
. FENDLERI A. Gray var. FENDLERI FendlerS. 
. FENDLERI A. Gray var. BREVI- 

FOLLA (Maguire) Maguire 
. FENDLERI A. Gray var. TWEEDYI 
(Rydb.) Maguire 
A. t_. Rydb. 
FILIORUM Maguire 
FRANK LINII Dougl. 

HOOKERI Nutt. var. HOOKERI Hooker S. 

A. franklinii var. h. Rydb. 
~ DESERTORUM 



A. LANUGINOSA (con.) 

A. mearnsii Woot. Si Standi. 

A. polycaulos Rydb. 

A. s. A. Gray 

A. s. var. m. Kearney & Peebles 

A. s. var. cinerascens Robins 
A. LATERIFLORA L. 

Moehringia 1_. Fenzl 
A. MACRADENIA S. Wats, 
MACRADENIA 

A. congesta var. m. 

~ Wilts. 



Blunt leaf S. 



ssp. 

M. E. Jones 
ssp. MACRA- 



A. MACRADENIA S. 

DENIAvar. PARISHIORUM 
Robins. 
A. MACRADENIA S. Wats. ssp. 
FERRISIAE Abrams 
A. MACROPHYLLA Hook. 

Moehringia m. Torr. 
A. NUTTALUI Pax'ssp. NUTTALLII Nuttall S. 

A. n. var. graciUpes M. E.Jones 
Alsinopsis occidentalis Heller 
A. NUTTALUI Pax ssp. FRAGILIS 

Maguire & Holmgren 
A. NUTTALLII Pax ssp. GRACILIS 

(A. Gray) Maguire 
A. OBTUSILOBA (Rydb.) Fern. 
A_. laricifolia of American 
authors, not L. 
A. obtusa Torr. 
A, sajanensis of American 

authors, not Willd. 
Alsinopsis obtusiloba Rydb. 
A. RUBELLA (Wahl.) Smith 

A. aequicaulis (A. Nels.) A. Nels. 

A. quadravalvis R. Br. 

A. propinqua Rich. 

A. verna of American authors, 

not L. 
A. V. var. a. A. Nels. 
Alsinopsis p. Rydb. 
Alsinopsis q. Rydb. 
Alsinopsis v. Cockerell 
A. SERPYLLIFOLIA L. 
A. STENOMERES Eastw. 



Thymeleaf S. 



HOOKERI Nutt, var 

Maguire 
KINGII (S. Wats.) M. E. Jones ssp. 

KINGII Kings S. 

Stellaria k. S. Wats. 
KINGII (S. Wats.) M. E. Jones ssp. 
KINGUvar. GLABRESCENS 
(S. Wats.) Maguire 
A. fendleri var. g. S. Wats. 
KINGII (S. Wats.) M. E. Jones ssp. 

COMPACTA (Cov.) Maguire Compacts. 
A. c. Cov. 
KINGir(S. Wats.) M. E. Jones ssp. 

PLATEAUENSIS Maguire 
KINGII (S. Wats.) M. E. Jones ssp. 

ROSEA Maguire 
KINGII (S. Wats.) M. E. Jones ssp. 
UlNTAHENSIS (A. Nels.) 
Maguire Uinta S. 

A. aculeata var. u. Peck 
A. u. A. Nels. 
LANUGINOSA (Michx.) Rohrb. ssp. 
SAXOSA (A. Gray) Maguire 
A. confusa Rydb. 



CERASTIUM L. 

C. ARVENSE L. 

C. campestre Greene 

C. occidentale Greene 

C. oreophilum Greene 

C. scopulorum Greene 

C. strictum L. 
C. BEERINGIANUM Cham. & Schlecht. 

C. buffumae A. Nels. 

C. earlei Rydb. 

C. pilosum Greene 

C. pulchellum Rydb. 

C. variabile Goodding 
C. BRACHYPODUM (Engelm.) Robins. 

C. nutans Raf. var. b. Engelm. 
C. NUTANS Raf. 

C. longipedunculatum Muhl. 
C. VISCOSUM L. 

C. glomeratum Thuill. 
C. VULGATUM L. 

C. v. var. hirsutum Fries 

GYPSOPHILA L. 

G. PANICULATA L. 

HOLOSTEUM L. 

H. UMBELLATUM L. 

LOEFLINGIA L. 

L. SQUARROSA Nutt. 

LYCHNIS L. 

L. ALBA Mill. 

L. vespertina Sibth. 



MOUSE- EAR 

CHICKWEED 
Starry C. 



Sticky C. 
BigC. 

GYPSOPHILA 
Babysbreath G. 



CAMPION 
Evening C . 



33 



LYCHNIS 

LYCHNIS L. (con.) 

L. APETALA L. ssp. MONTANA (S. Wats.) 
Maguire 
L. a. of Intermountain authors, not L. 
L. m. S. Wats. 
Wahlbergellia a. Fries 
W. m. Rydb. ~ 
L. CORONARIA (L. ) Desr. Rose C. 

L. DRUMMONDII (Hook.) S. Wats. var. 

DRUMMONDII Drummond C. 

Wahlbergellia d. Rydb. 
L. DRUMMONDU (Hook.) S. Wats. var. 
STRIATA (Rydb.) Maguire 
L. s. Rydb. 
Wahlbergellia £. Rydb. 
L. KINGII S. Wats. ~ Kings C. 

WahlbergelUa k. Rydb. 



STELLAR 



NAILWORT 
Rocky Mtn. N. 
Creeping N. 



PEARLWORT 



Arctic P. 



SOAPWORT 
Bouncing Bet 



PARONYCHIA Adans. (93) 

P. PULVINATA A. Gray 
P. SESSILIFLORA Nutt. 

P. brevicuspis (A. Nels.) Rydb. 

P. brevispina (A. Nels.) Rydb. 

P. s. var. brevicuspis A. Nels. 

SAGINA L. 

S. OCCIDENTALIS S. Wats. 

Alsinella o. Greene 
S. SAGINOIDES~(L.) Karst. var. 
HESPERIA Fern. 
S. Unnaei of American authors, 

not Presl 
S. s. of western authors, not (L.) 
Karst. 

SAPONARIA L. 

S. OFFICINALIS L. 

SCOPULOPHILA M. E. Jones 

S. RIXFORDII (Brand.) Munz & Johnst. 
Achyronychia r. Brand. 
Eremolithia r. Jeps. 
S. nitrophiloides M. E. Jones 



SILENE L. (94) SILENE 

S. ACAULIS L. ssp. SUBACAULESCENS 
(F. N. WilUams) C. L. 
Hitchc. & Maguire Moss S. 

S. a. of American authors, not L. 
S. a. var. s. Fern. & St. John 
S. ANTIRRHINA L. Sleepy S. 

S. a, var. depauperata Rydb. 
S. a. var. vaccarifolia Rydb. 
S. ARMERIA L. 

S. CLOKEYIC. L. Hitchc. & Maguire 
S. CUCUBALUS Wibel 

S. latifolia (Ivlill.) Britt. & Rendl. 
S. DOUGLASII Hook. var. DOUGLASU Douglas S. 
S. Columbiana Howell 
S. d. var. macrocalyx Robins. 
S. lyallii S. Wats. 
S . m . Howell 
S. muiticaule Nutt. 
S. DOUGLASII Hook. var. VILLOSA 
C. L. Hitchc. & Maguire 
S. MENZIESn Hook. ssp. MENZIESII Menzies S. 
Anotites m, Greene 
A. jonesii Greene 
S. stellarioides Nutt. 
S. MENZIESn Hook. ssp. MENZIESII 
var. VISCOSA (Greene) 
C. L. Hitchc. & Maguire 
Anotites halophila Greene 
A. macilenta Greene 
A. V. Greene 
S. ME"NZrESII Hook. ssp. DORRU (Kellogg) 
C. L. Hitchc. & Maguire 
Anotites d. Greene 



Sweetwilliam S. 
Clokey S. 
Bladder S. 



MONTANA S. 
S. m. var 
S. m. var 

mo'ntana S. 

var. 



Wats. ssp. MONTANA 
rigidula Richards, 
viscida Henders. 



Parry S, 



Wats. ssp. MONTANA 
SIERRAE C. L. Hitchc. 
& Maguire 
MONTANA S. Wats. ssp. BERNARDINA 
(S. Wats.) C. L. Hitchc. & 
Maguire 
S. b. S. Wats. 
S. shockleyi S. Wats. 
NOCTIFLORA L. Nightflowf 

NUDA (S. Wats.) C. L. Hitchc. & 
Maguire ssp. NUDA 
Lychnis n. S. Wats. 
S. pectinataS. Wats. 
S. p. var. subnuda Robins. 
NUDA"(S. Wats.) C. L. Hitchc. & 

Maguire ssp. INSECTIVORA 
(Henders.) C. L. Hitchc. & 
Maguire 
S. i. Henders. 
OR EGANA S . Wats . 
S. gormanii Howell 
S. filisecta Peck 
S. o. var. f. Peck 
PARRYI (S. Wats.) C. L. Hitchc. & 
Maguire 
Lychnis p. S. Wats. 
S. tetonensis A. Nels. 



S. d. Kellogg 



34 



PETERSONII Maguire var. PETERSONII 
PETERSONII Maguire var. MINOR 

C. L. Hitchc. & Maguire 
RECTIRAMEA Robins. 
REPENS Patrin ssp. AUSTRALE 

C. L. Hitchc. & Maguire 
S, r. of American authors, in part, 
not Patrin 
SARGENTII S. Wats. 

S. watsonii Robins. 
SCAPOSA Robins, var. SCAPOSA 
SCAPOSA Robins, var. LOBATA 

C. L. Hitchc. & Maguire 
SCOULERI Hook. ssp. SCOULERI Scouler 
SCOULERI Hook. ssp. HALUI 

(S. Wats.) C. L. Hitchc. 

& Maguire 
S. h. S. Wats. 
SCOULERI Hook. ssp. PORINGLEI 

(S. Wats.) C. L. Hitchc. 

& Maguire var. LEPTOPHYLLA 

C. L. Hitchc. & Maguire 
SPALDINGII S. Wats. ssp. ANDERSONII 

(Clokey) C. L. Hitchc. & 

Maguire 



SPERGULA L. SPURRY 

S. ARVENSIS L. Corn S. 

SPERGULARIA J. & C. Presl (95) SANDSPUR 

S. ATROSPERMA R. P. Rossb. 
S. MARINA (L.) Griseb. Saltmarsh' 

S. canadensis Greene 

S. salina J. &C. Presl 

S. sparsiflora (Greene) A. Nels. 

Tissa s. (J. & C. Presl) Greene 

T. s. Greene 
S. RUBRA'(L.)J. & C. Presl Red S, 

Tissa r. Britton 

STELLARIA L. STARWORl 

S. CALYCANTHA (Ledeb.) Bong. var. 
FLORIBUNDA (Fern.) Fern. 
S. borealis Bigel. var. f. Fern. 
S. CALYCANTHA (Ledeb.) Bolig ssp. 

INTERIOR Hult. Northerns. 

Alsine alpestris (Fries) Rydb. 
A. borealis (Bigel.) Britton 
A. c. Rydb. 
S. b. Bigel. 



I 



xU 



AC^I'ILI-OIA 



lUA L. (con.) 
. i^ALYCANTHA (Ledeb.) Bong. var. 
ISOPHYLLA (Fern.) Fern. 
S. borealis Bigel. var. i. Fern. 
S. CRIspA Cham . & Schlechl." 

Alsine c. Holz. 
S. JAMESIAn7\ Torr. 

Alsine curcisii Rydb. 
A. glutinosa Heller 
S. LONGl FOLIA Muhl. 
Alsine 1. Britton 
S. LONGIPES~Goldie 
Alsine 1. Cov. 



Tuber .S. 



Longstalk S. 



ACTA I- A L. 

A. RUBRA (An.) Willd. ssp. 
(Null.) Hull. 
A. a. Null. 
A. eburnea Rydb. 
A. spicata var. a. lor 
A. viridinora Greene 



AKGLl'l A 



A. 1. var. laela (Richards. )S. Wats. 

A. 1. var. stricta (Richards.) Rytlb. 

A. 1. Richards. 

A. strictillora Rydb. 

S. 1_. Richards. 
MEDIA (L.) Cyrill. Chickweed 

Alsine m. L. 
NITENS Nutt. 

Alsine n. Greene 



. OBTUSA Engelm. 

Alsine o. Rose 

A. palnieri Rydb. 

A. polygonoides Greene 
. UMIelLATA Turcz. 

Alsine baicalensis Cov. 

S. gonomischa Boiv. 

;CARIA Medic . (9) 
V. SEGETAUS (Neck) Garcke 
Saponaria vaccaria L. 
V. V. Britton 
V. vulgaris Hort. 



NYMPHAEACEAE. Waterlily Family 



ADONIS L. 

A. ANNUA L. 

ANEMONE L. 

A. CYLINDRICA A. Gray 
A. DRUMMONDIIS. Wats. 
A. MULTIFIDA Poir. 

A. giobosa Nutt. 

A. lithophila Rydb. 

A. m. var. g. Torr. Ki Grav 

A. stylosa A. Nels. 

A. tetonensis Porter 
A. PARVIFLORA Michx. 
A. PATHNS L. var. MULTIFIDA 
Pritzel 

A. hirsutissima MacM.. in nuiue 
only, not Clematis 
hirsutissima Pursh 

A. ludoviciana Nutt., as to tins 

species, not Clematis 
hirsutissima Pursh as 



BANI'JilvHRY 



WesUTii li. 



ADONIS 
Plie.isants -eye 



AN I'M* 
Candle 
Drumm 
Patific 



)N1', 
A. 



ArLiu A. 



is{iiiet lower 



SOAPWORT 
Cow S. 



HAR J. E. Smith 



J. POLYSEPALUM Engelm. 

N. luteuni (L.) Sibth. & Smith ssp 

p. Beal 
Nymiphaea p. Greene 
Nymphozanthus p. Fern. 

llPHAEA L. 

N. ODORATA Ait. 



COW LILY; 
YELLOW 
POND LILY 

Rocky Mtn. C. 



WATERLILY 
American W. 





Nuttall erroneously 




applied Pursh's name 




A. nuttalliana A . DC. 




A. patens L. var. n. A. Gray 




A. p. var. wolfgangia (Bess.) 




Regel 




Pulsatilla hirsutissima Britton, a; 




to Nuttall's species, 




not Pursh's 




P. 1. Heller 




P. n. Spreng. 




P. w. Bess. 


A. 


QUINQUEFOLIA L. var. OREC^>NA 




(A. Gray) Robinson 




A. o. A. Gray 




A. piperi Britton 


A. 


ZEPHWA A. Nels. 



CERATOPHYLLACEAE. Hornwoit Family 



TLATOPHYLLUM L. 
■. DEMERSUM 



HORNWORT 
H. 



Oregon Wood A. 



AQUILEGIA L. (96) COLUMBINE 

A. CAERULEA James var. CAERLtLliA, 

often spelled coerulea Cnlora<lo C. 

A. CAKRULEA James var. ALPINA 
A. Nels. 
A. c. ssp. a. Payson 
A. oreopltila Rydb. 
A. piersoniana L. O. Williams 
A. CA~ERULHA James var. 



RANUNCULACEAE. Crowfoot Family 

)NITUM L. MONKSHOOD 

A. COLUMBLANUM Nutt. M. 

A highly variable species with 
numerous ecological and growth 
forms, none of which seem 
worthwhile to recognize 
taxonomically 
atrocyaneum Rydb. 
bakeri Greene 



A. 



OCHRO- 
LEUCA Hook, 
var. leptocera (Nutt.) 



A. 
A. 
A. 
A. 
A. 

A. 

A. insigne Greene 
A. lutescens A. Nels. 
A. patens Rydb. 
A. porrectum Rydb. 
A. subcaesium Greene 



c. var. b. Harrington 
divaricatum Rydb. 
glaberrimum Rydb . 
helleri Greene 



A. Nels. 
A. L Nutt. 
A. CAERULEA James var. PINETORUM 
(Tides.) Payson 
A. c. ssp. p. Payson 
A. p. Tides. 
A. CIIRYSANTHA A. Gray var. 

CHRYSANTHA 
A. CHRYSANTHA A. Gray var. 
RYDBERGII Munz 
A. thalictrifolia Rydb., notSihott 
& Kotscliy 
A. DESERTORUM (M. E. Jones) 
Cocke re 11 
A. lormosa Fisch. var. tl. M. E. 
Jones 
A. ELEGANTUUX Greene 



Ckdden C. 



Wesurnred C. 



AQUILEGIA 



AQUILEGIA L. (con.) 

A. FLAVESCENSS. Wats. var. 
FLAVESCENS 
A. depauperata M. E, Jones 
A. formosa Fisch. var. f. Frye 
& Rigg. as to the 
author, not Hook. f. 
or Peck 
A. FLAVESCENSS. Wats. var. 

MINIANA Macb. & Payson 
A. FORMOSA Fisch. var. FORMOSA 

A. Columbiana Rydb. 
A. FORMOSA Fisch. var. TRUNCATA 
(Fisch. & C. A. Mey.) 
Baker 
A. f. ssp. t. Payson 
A. r. Fisch^ & C. A. Mey. 
A. MICRANTHA Eastw. var. 
MICRANTHA 
A. ecalcarata Eastw. ssp. m. 
A. e. var. m. Payson 
A. lithophila Payson 
A. navajonis A. Nels. 
A. pallens Payson 
A. rubicunda Tides. 
A. MICRANTHA Eastw. var. MANCO- 
SANA Eastw. 
A. eastwoodiae Rydb. 
A. m. Cockerell 
A. SCOPULORUM Tides, var. 
SCOPULORUM 
A. s. ssp. perplexana Clokey 
A. SCOPULORUM Tides, var. CAL- 

CAREA (M. E. Jones) Munz 
A. caerulea var. c. M. E. Jones 
A. s. f. c. Tides. 
A. SHOCK LEyT Eastw. 

A. formosa ssp. caelifax Payson 
A. f^. ssp. dissecta Payson 



DELPHINIl 



Yellow C. 



Sitka C. 



California C. 



CALTHA L. 

C. LEPTOSEPALA DC. 

C. chelidonii Greene 

C. rotundifolia (Huth) Greene 



MARSHMARIGOLD 
ElksUp M. 



CLEMATIS; 
VIRGIN'S BOWER 



CLEMATIS L. (97) 

C. AUREA A. Nels. & Macbr. 

Possibly this should be C. 
orientaUs L. , an occasion- 
ally introduced species in 
this area, escaping from 
cultivation 
C. COLUMBIANA (Nutt.) Torr. & Gray Columbian C. 
Atragene c. Nutt. 
A. grosseserrata Rydb. 
A. occidentalis Rydb. , not 

Hornem. 
C. occidentalis Hornem. 



C. HIRSUTISSIMA Pursh var. 
HIRSUTISSIMA 



Anemone h. MacM. in name only, 
but not as this spe- 
cies, see A. patens, 
p. 34 ~ 

C. douglasii Hook. 

C. eriophora Rydb. 

C. jonesii Rydb. 

C. wyethii Nutt. 

Pulsatilla h. Britton, in name 

only, but not as this 
species, see Anemone 
patens, p. 35. 



Douglas C. 



Viorna d. Cockerell 


V. 


e. 


Rydb. 


V. 


h. 


Heller 


V. 


]• 


Rydb. 


V. 


w 


Rydb. 



C. HIRSUTISSIMA Pursh var. SCOTTII 
(Porter & Coult.) Erickson 
C. douglasii Hook. var. s. Coult. 
C. s. Porter & Coult. 
Viorna s. Rydb. 
C. LIGUSTICLFOLIA Nutt. var. 

LIGUSTICIFOLIA 
C. UGUSTICIFOLIA Nutt. var. 
BREVIFOLIA Nutt. 
C. b. Howell 

C. PSELIDOALPINA (Kuntze) A. Nels. 

Atragene p. Rydb. 

A. tenuiloba (A. Gray) Britton 

C. p. var. t. A. Gray 

DELPHINIUM L. (98) 

D. AJACIS L. 

D. ANDERSONI A. Gray var. 
ANDERSONI 

D. coelestinum Rydb., not 



Scott C. 



Western V. 



Rocky Mtn. C 



LARKSPUR 
Rocket L. 



Anderson L. 



Franchet 
D. ANDERSONI A. Gray var. COGNATUM 
(Greene) R.J. Davis 
D. a. ssp. c. Ewan 
D. c. Greene 

D. megacarpum A. Nels. & Macbr. 
D. BARBEYI (Huth) Huth Barbey L. 

D. attenuatum (M. E. Jones) Rydb. 
D. subalpinum (A. Gray) A. Nels. 

Little L. 



BURKEI 

, not Salisb. 

DISTICHI- 



Burks L. 



sum L. 



D. BICOLOR Nutt. 

D. helleri Rydb. 
D. BURKEI Greene var 
D. simplex Dougl 
D. BURKEI Greene var, 

FLORUM Hook. 
D. b. ssp. d. Ewan 
D. aUstichum Geyer 
D. strlctum A. Nels. 
D. CYANOREIOS Piper 
D. DEPAUPERATUM Nutt. 
D. DIVERSIFOUUM Greene var. 
DIVERSIFOLIUM 
DIVERSIFOLIUM Greene var. 
HARNEYENSE (Ewan) 
R.J. Davis 
D. d. ssp. h. Ewan 
GE"yERI Greene 
GLAUCUMS. Wats. 

D. scopulorum A. Gray var. g. 

A. Gray 
D. s. ssp. occidentale (S. Wats.) 
Abrams 
NELSONI Greene ssp. NELSONI 
D. dumetorum Greene 
D. menziesii of Intermountain 

authors, not DC. 
D. pinetorum Tides. 
D. NEHsONI Greene ssp. UTAHENSIS 
(S. Wats.) Ewan 
D. leonardi Rydb. 
D. NUTTALLIANUM Pritz. 

D. pauciflorum Nutt., not D. Don 
D. OCCIDENTALE (S. Wats.) S. Wats, 
var. OCCIDENTALE 
D. abietorum Tides. 
D. multiflorum Rydb. 
D. reticulatum (A. Nels.) Rydb. 
D. OCCIDENTALE (S. Wats.) S. Wats. 

var. CUCULLATUM (A. Nels.) 
R. J. Davis 
D. c. A. Nels. 
D. o. ssp. c. Ewan 
D. PARISHII A. Gray Parish L. 

D. amabile Tides. 



D 



D 



Geyer L. 
Sierra L. 



Nelson L. 



Nuttall L. 



Duncecap L. 



DEL 



.MVC 



PAE' 



RAN 



D. coelestinum Rydb. 
D. POLYCLADON Eastw. 
D. SCAPOSUM Greene 
D. SONNEI Greene 



not Franchet 



Tall Mountain 1 



36 



)ELPHINIUM 



RANUNCLlHiS 



)ELPHINIUM L. (con.) 

D. STACHYDEUM (A. Gray) Tides. Rocky Mm. L. 
D. L'MATILLENSE Ewan 
D. VIRESCENS Nutt., cited in Graham's 
Uinta Basin Study 

lYOSURUS L. (8, 99) MOUSETAIL 

M. ARISTATUS Benth. ssp. ARISTATUS 
M. ARISTATUS Benth. ssp. MONTANUS 
(Campbell) Stone 
M. minimus L. ssp. m. Campbell 
M. CUPULATUS S. Wats. ~ 
M. MINIMUS L. ssp. MINIMUS Tiny M. 

M. MINIMUS L. ssp. MAJOR (Greene) 
Campbell var. CLAVI- 
CAULIS (Peck) Campbell 
M. c. Peck 



PAEONIACEAE. Peony Family 



NL 


A L. 


PEONY 


P. 


BROWNII DoLigl. 


Browns P. 


JNC 


:ULUS L. (100) 


BUTTERCUP; 
CROWFOOT 


R. 


ACRIFORMIS A. Gray var. 






AESTIVALIS L. Benson 


Sharp B. 


R. 


ACRIFORMIS A. Gray var. 

MONTANENSIS (Rydb.) 
L. Benson 
R. m. Rydb. 

R. occidentalis Nutt. var. m. 
L. Benson 




R. 


ACRIS L. 


Tall B. 


R. 


ADONEUS A. Gray var. ADONEUS 




R. 


ADONEUS A. Gray var. ALPINUS 






(S. Wats.) L. Benson 


Alpine B. 




R. stenolobus Rydb. 





R. AUSMAEFOLIUS Geyer var. 

ALISMELLUS A. Gray 
R. a. Greene 
R. ALTSMAEFOUUS Geyer var. 

DAVISU L. Benson 
R. AUSMAEFOLIUS Geyer var. 

HARTWEGII (Greene) Jeps. 
R. a. of Intermountain authors, 

not Geyer 
R. arnoglossus Greene 
R. h. Greene 
R. AlISMAEFOUUS Geyer var. 
MONTANUS S. Wats. 
R. caltliaeflorus Greene 
R, 



Dwarf Plajnleaf C. 



ungmculatus Greene 
R. ANDERSONII A. Gray 
Beckwithia a. Jeps. 
B. austinae Jeps. 
R. AqTjATILIS L. var. CAPILLACEUS 
(Thuill.) DC. 
Batrachium a. Wimm. var. c. 
Garrett ~ 

B. trichophyllum (Chaix) F. Schultz 
R. t_. Chaix 
R. AQUATILIS L. var. HISPIDULUS 
E. Drew 
Batraclnum grayanum (Freyn) Rydb. 
R. a. of American authors, in a 
large part, not L. 
R. _g. Freyn 
R. AQUATILIS L. var. PORTERI 
(Britton) L. Benson 
R. p. Bntton 
R. ARVENSIS L. Corn B. 

R. CARDIOPHYLLUS Hook. var. 
CARDIOPHYLLUS 
CARDIOPHYLLUS Hook. var. SUB- 
SAGITTATUS (A. Gray) 
L. Benson 
R. s. Greene 



Anderson B. 



Hairleaf Water C. 



R 



CIRCINATUS Sibth. var. SUBRIGIDUS 
(W. Drew) L. Benson 
B. c. Reichenb. 
R.^. W. Drew 
CYMBALARIA Pursh var. SAXI- 

MONTANUS Fern. Rocky Mm. li. 

Halerpestes c. Greene 
R. c. of western authors, not 
Pursh 
ESCHSCHOLTZI Schlecht. var. 

ESCHSCHOLTZII Eschscholt B. 

R. helleri Rydb. 
R. e. var. h. L. Benson 
ESCHSCHOLTZII Schlecht. var. 

EXIMIUS (Greene) L. Benson 
R. e. Greene 
R. saxicola Rydb. 
ESCHSCHOLTZII Schlecht. var. 

OXYNOTUS (A. Gray) Jeps. 
R. o. A. Gray 
ESCHSCHOLTZII Schlecht var.SUKS- 

DORFII (A. Gray) L. Benson Suksdorf B. 
s. A. Gray 

ESCHSCHOLTZII Schlecht. var. 
TRISECTUS (Eastw.) 
L. Benson 
R. t. Eastw. 
FLABELLARIS Raf. 

R. delphimfolius Torr. 
FLAMMULA L. var. FILIFORMIS 
Michx.) Hook. 



Creeping 
Spearwort 



R. 



R. reptans L. 

R. f. var. intermedia Hook. 
FLAMIvIULA L. var. OVA LIS (Bigcl.) 
L. Benson 
R. f. of western authors, not L. 
R. f. var. samolifolius (Greene) 

L. Benson 
R. reptans L. var. strigulosus 

Fern. 
R. s. Greene 
GLABERRIMUS Hook. var. 

GLABERRIMUS 
GLABERRIMUS Hook. var. 

ELLIPTICUS (Greene) Greene 
R. e. Greene 
GLABERRIMUS Hook. var. RECON- 
DITUS (A. Nels. & Macbr.) 
L. Benson 
R. triternatus A. Gray 
R. r. A. Nels. & Macbr. 
GMELTnII DC. var. HOOKERI (D.Don) 
L. Benson 
R. purshii Richards. 
GM ELI Nil DC. var. LIMOSUS (Nutt.) 
Hara 
R. g. of Intermountain authors, in 

a large part, not DC. 
R. ]_. Nutt. 
INAMOENUS Greene var. INAMOENUS 

R. micropetalus Rydb. 
INAMOENUS Greene var. ALEO- 

PHILUS (A. Nels.) L. Benson 
R. a. A. Nels. 
R. utahensis Rydli. 
JOVIS A. Nels. 
JUNIPERINUS M. E. Jones 
Beckwithia j. Heller 



Sagebrush B. 



LONGIROSTRIS Godr. 

Batrachium 1. F. Schultz 
MACOUNII Britton 

R. rivalaris Rydb. 
OCCIDENTALIS Nutt. var. ULTRA- 
MONTANUS Greene 

R. alceus Greene 

R. u. Heller 



Longbeak B. 



37 



RANUNCULUS 



RANUNCULUS L. (con.) 

R. OCCIDENTALIS Nutt. 
Henders. 
R. ciUosus Howell 



ROEMERIA 



BERBERIDACEAE. Barberry Family 



var. DISSECTUS 



OREOGENES Greene 
R. coUomae L. Benson 
Benson 



BERBERIS L. (9, 102) 

B. FREMONTII Torr. 
Mahonia f. Fedde 



R. ORESTERUS L 
R. ORTHORHYNCHUS Hook, var 
PHYLLUS A. Gray 



Pennsylvania B. 



Creeping B. 



PLATY- 

Great Straight 
Beak B. 
R. maximus Greene 
R. o. of Intermountain authors, 

not Hook. 
R. p. A. Nels. , as to the original 
author, not Piper 
R. PEDATIFIDUS J. E. Smith var. 

A F FINIS (R. Br.) L. Benson 
R. a. R. Br. 
R. PENSYLVANICUS L. 
R. RANUNCULINUS (Nutt.) Rydb. 

Cyrtorhyncha r. Nutt. 
R. REPENS L. var.llEPENS 
R. REPENS L. var. GLABRATUS DC. 
R. REPENS L. var. PLENIFLORUS 

Fern. 
R. SCELERATUS L. var. MULTIFIDUS 
Nutt. 
R. eremogenes Greene 
R. s. of Intermountain authors, 

not L, 

R. s. var. e. Garrett 

R. TESXiCULATUS Crantz 

R. UNCINATUS D. Don var 

R. UNCINATUS D. Don var 

FLORUS (Torr.) L. 
R . bongardii Greene 
R. lyallii (A. Gray) Rydb 



Odostemon f. Rydb. 
B. HAEMATOCARPA Woot. 

B. nevinii A. Gray var. 
B. REPENS Lindl. 

Mahonia r. G. Don 

Odostemon r. Cockerell 



h. L 



BARBERRY 
Fremont B. 



Red B. 
Benson 

Creeping B. 



COB 



COF 



UNCINATUS 
PARVI- 
Benson 



PAPAVERACEAE. Poppy Family 

ARCTOMECONTorr. & Frem. BEAR POPPY 

A. CALIFORNICA Torr. & Frem. 
A. HUMILIS Gov. 
A. MERRIAMU Gov. Desert B. 

ARGEMONE L. (103) PRICKLY POP 

A. ARIZONICA G. B. Ownbey 
A. CORYMBOSA Greene ssp. ARENICOLA 

G. B. Ownbey 
A. MUNITA Dur. & Hilg. ssp. ARGENTEA 
G. B. Ownbey 
A. platyceras of California authors, 
not Link & Otto 
A. MUNITA Dur. & Hilg. ssp. ROTUN- 
DATA (Rydb.) G. B. Ownbey 
A. hispida of Intermountain authors, 

not A. Gray 
A. platyceras of Nevada references. 



A. p. var 



not Link & Otto 
h. Prain, of Inter- 
mountain authors, 
A. h. A. Gray 



THALICTRUM L. (%) 
T. ALPINUM L. 

T. a. var. hebetum Boivin 
T. duriusculum Greene 
T. elegantulum Greene 
T. leiophyllum Greene 
T. monoense Greene 
T. FENDLERl Engelm. 

T. polycarpum (Torr.) S. Wats. 
T. stipitatum Rydb. 
T. OCCIDENTALE A. Gray var. 
PALOUENSE St. John 
T. heterophyllum Nutt., not 

Lejeune 
T. megacarpum Torr. 
T. o. of Intermountain authors, 

not A. Gray 
T. o. var. m. St. John 
T. SPARSlFLORUlvi Turcz. 

T. s. var. nevadensis Boivin 
T. s. var. saximontanum Boivin 
T. utahensis Rydb. 
T. VENULOSUtvftrel. 

T. confine Fern. var. columbi- 

anum (Rydb.) Boivin 
T. confine Fern. var. greene- 
anum Boivin 

TRAUTVETTERIA Fisch. & C. A. Meyer 
T. CAROLINIENSIS (Walt.) Vail 
T. fimbriata Greene 
T. grandis Nutt. 
T. media Greene 
T. saniculifoUa Greene 

TROLLIUS L. 

T. LAXUS Salisb. 

T. albiflorus (A. Gray) Rydb. 



MEADOW-RUE 
Alpine M. 



A. r. Rydb. 
A. POLYANTHEMOS (Fedde) G.B. Ownbey 
A. albiflora Rydb., not Hornem. 
A. intermedia of Intermountain 
authors, not Sweet 
A. mexicana of Intermountain 
not L. 

Colorado, 



authors, 
A. platyceras of Utah, 



Fendler M. 



and Wyoming authors, 
not Link & Otto 



CANBYA Parry 

C. AUREA S. 



Wats. 



GOLDEN POPP 
California Poppj 



Veiny M. 



ESCHSCHOLZIA Cham. 

E. CALIFORNICA Cham. 

Exceedingly variable, about 
70 species have been proposed 
by E. L. Greene and Fedde 
(104, 105) 
E. leptrandra Greene 
E. nevadensis Fedde 

Desert G. 
Mexican G 
Little G. 



ro 



GLOBEFLOWER 
American G. 



E. GLYPTOSPERMA Greene 
E. MEXICANA Greene 
E. MINUTIFLORA S. Wats. 
E. ludens Greene 
E. micrantha Greene 
E. minuscula Greene 



PAPAVER L. 

P. RADICATUM Rottb. 

P. alpinum of manuals, not L. 

P. nudicaule L. var. r. DC. 
P. RHOEAS L. 

PLATYSTEMON Benth. 

P. CALIFORNICUS Benth. 

ROEMERIA Medic. 

R. REFRACTA (Stev.) DC. 



f 



ARA 



POPPY 



Corn P. 



PLATYSTEMON 
Creamcup P. 



38 



, DA LIS 



ARABIS 



FUMARIACEAE. Fumitory Family 

;ORYDAUS MecUc. (106) CORYDALIS 

C. AUREA Wilkl. var. AUREA Goklcn C. 

Capnoidcs a. Kuntze 
C. AUREA WilldT var. OCCIDENTALIS 
Engelm. 
Capnoides montanum (Engelm.) 

Britton 
CorydaUs a. ssp. o. G. B. Ownbey 



Cm. Engelm. 
CA'SEANA a. Gray ssp. 

Capnoides c. Greene 
CASEANA a. "Gray ssp. 



CASEANA 



Fitweed C. 



BRACHYCARPA 



(Rydb.) G. B. Ownbey 
Capnoides b. Rydb. 

C. CASEANA A. "bray ssp. CUSICKIl 
(S. Wats.) G. a. Ownbey 

Capnoides c. Heller 
Corydalis c. S. Wats. 
C. idahoensis Fedde 

)ICENTRA Bernh. 

D. UNI FLORA Kellogg 
BikukuUa u. Howell 
Diclytra u. Greene 

•UN4ARIA L. 

F. OFFICINALIS L. 



CRUCIFERAE. Mustard Family 

LYSSUM L. 

A. ALLYSOIDES L. 

A. DESERTOBUM Stapf. f. 



BLEEDING- 
HEART 
Steershead 



FUMITORY 
Drug F. 



A LYSSUM 
Pale A. 



RABIDOPSIS (DC.) Heynh. , as to the author, 
not Schur 
A. THA LIANA (L. ) Heynh. , as to the 

author, not Schur, or Britton Mouse-ear 
Cress 
Arabis t. L. 
Sisymbrium t. A. Gray 



iRABIS L. (107) 

A. COBRENSIS M. E. Jones 

A. canescens Nutt. , not Brocchi 

A. crypta A. Nels. 
A. DA"v1DSONII Greene 

A. brucae M. E. Jones 

A. cognata Jepson 
A. DE"MISSA Greene var. DEMISSA 

A. aprica Osterh. 

A. rugocarpa Osterh. 
A. DEMISSA Greene var. LANGUIDA Roll, 
A. DEMISSA Greene var. RUSSEOLA Roll, 
A. DIVARICARPA A. Nels. 

A. oblanceolata Rydb. 

A. stokesiae Rydb. 
A. DRUMMONDU A. Gray 

A. connexa S. Wats. 

A. oxyphylla Greene 

A. pliilonipha A. Nels. 
A. FETiDLERI (S. Wats.) Greene var. 

FENDLERI 

A. FENDLERI (S. Wats.) Greene var. 

SPATIFOLLA (Rydb.) Roll. 

A. s. Rydb. 
A. FERNALDIANA Roll. var. 

FERNALDIANA 
A. FERNALDIANA Roll. var. STYLOSA 

(S. Wats.) Roll. 
A. GLABRA (L.) Bernh. var. GLABRA 



ROCK CRESS 



Drummond R. 



Fendler R. 



Towermustard 
R. 



Turritis g. L. 



A. GLABRA (L.) Bernli. var. 

FURCATIPILIiS Hopkins 
A. IIIRSUTA (L.) Scop. var. (ILABRATA 
Torr. Si Gray 
A. rupestris Nutt. 
A. HIRSUTA (L.ySeop. var. PYCNOCARPA 
(Hopkins) Roll. 
A. ovata of Intermountain authors, 

not (Pursh) Poir. 
A. p. Hopkins 
A. HOUBOELLII Hornem. var. PHNDULO- 
CARPA (A. Nels.) Roll. 
A. p. A. Nels. 
A. HOTbOELLII Hornem. var. PINETORUM 
(Tides.) Roll. 
A. tUvaricarpa var. p. Boivin 
A. p. Tides. 
A. HOIbOELLII Hornem. var. RETRO- 
FRACTA (Graliam) Rydb. 





A. caduta A. Nels. 




A. exilis A. Nels, 




A. h. of Intermountain authors, in 




large part, not Hornem. 




A. ligmpes A. Nels. 




A. r. Graham 




A. rhodantha Greene 




A. secunda Howell 




A . r . Graham var . s . Jeps . 


A. 


INYOENSIS Roll. 


A. 


LEMMONI S. Wats. var. LEMMONI Lemmons R 




A. egglestonii Rydb. 




A. kennedyi Greene 




A. latifolia (S. Wats.) Piper 


A. 


LEMMONI S. Wats. var. DEPAUPER- 




ATA (A. Nels. & Kennedy) 




Roll. 




A. d. A. Nels. & Kennedy 


A. 


LEMMONI S. Wats. var. DREPANO- 




LOBA (Greene) Roll. 




A. d. Greene 


A. 


LIGNIFERA A. Nels. 


A. 


LYALUI S. Wats. Lyall R. 




A. drummondi var. 1. jeps. 




A. d. var. oreophila (Rydb.) 



Littleleal R. 



Nuttall R. 



Hopkins 
A. o. Rydb. 
A. MICROPHYLLA Nutt. var. MICRO- 

PHYLLA 
A. MICROPHYLLA Nutt. var. MACOUNII 
(S. Wats.) Roll. 
A. densicauUs A. Nels. 
A. m. S. Wats. 
A. NUTTALLII Robins. 
A. PENDULINA Greene 

A. diehUi M. E. Jones 
A. nevadensis Tides. 
A. setulosa Greene 
A. PERENNANS S. Wats. 

A. eremophila Greene 

A. gracilenta Greene 

A. PLATYSPERMA A. Gray var. 

PLATYSPERMA Pioneer R. 

A. PLATYSPERMA A. Gray var. 

HOWELLII (S. Wats.) Jeps. 
A. h. S. Wats. 
A. platyloba Greene 
A. PUBERULA Nutt. 

A. arida Greene 
A. beckwithii S. Wats. 
A. sabulosa M. E. Jones 
A. PULCHRA M. E. Jones var. PULCHRA 
A. PULCHRA M. E. Jones var. 

GRACILIS M. E. Jones 
A. PULCHRA M. E. Jones var. 

MUNCIENSIS M. E. Jones 
A. PULCHRA M. E. Jones var. PALLENS 
M. E. Jones 
A. formosa Greene 



39 



REPANDA 
GREENEI Jeps. 



SPARSIFLORA 



ARABIS 



ARABIS L. (con.) 

A. REPANDA S. Wats. var. 

A. REPANDA S. Wats. var. 

A. SCHISTACEA Roll. 

A. SELBYI Rydb. 

A. SHOCKLEYI Munz 

A. SPARSIFLORA Nutt. var 

A. arcoides A. Nels. 

A. peramoena Greene 

A. s. var. p. Roll. 
A. SPARSlFLORA~Nutt. var. SUBVILLOSA 
(S. Wats.) Roll. 

A. elegans A. Nels. 

A. perelegans A. Nels. 
A. SUFFRUTESCENS S. Wats. 

A. duriuscula Greene 

ATHYSANUS Greene 

A. PUSILLUS (Hook.) Greene 

Thysanocarpus p. Hook. 

BARBAREA R. Br. (108) 

B. ORTHOCERAS Ledeb. var. 

ORTHOCERAS 

B. americana Rydb. 
Carape a. Cockerell 

B. ORTHOCERAS Ledeb. var. 

DOLICHOCARPA Fern. 



CARDARIA Desv. (110) 

C. DRABA (L.) Desv. 
Lepidium d. L. 
C. PUBESCENS (C. A. Meyer) Roll. var. 



DESCURAINa ( 



WHITETOP 
Pepperweed 



LongstaLk H 
W. 



airy 



Woody R. 



WILDCABBAGE 



Thickstem W. 



WINTERCRESS 
Erectpod W. 



51C 


:a l. 


MUSTARD 


B. 


CAMPESTRIS L. 


Bird Rape 


B. 


HIRTA Moench 

B. alba (L.) Rabenh., not Gilib. 
Sinapis a. L. 


White M. 


B. 


JUNCEA (L.) Coss. 
Sinapis j. L. 


India M. 


B. 


KABER (DC.) Wheeler var. PINNATI- 
FIDA (Stokes) Wheeler 
B. arvensis Rabenh., not L. 
B. sinapistrum Boiss. 
Sinapis a. L. 
S. a. var. p. Stokes 




B. 


NIGRA (L.) Koch 
Sinapis n. L. 


Black M. 



CAMELINA Crantz 

C. MICROCARPA Andrz. 

CAPSELLA Medic. 

C. BURSA -PAST ORIS (L.) Medic. 
Bursa b. Britton 
Thalspi b. L. 



CAMELINA 



SHEPHERDS 

PURSE 
S. 



CARDAMINE L. (109) BITTERCRESS 

C. BELLIDIFOLIA L. var. PACHYPHYLLA 

Gov. & Leib. 
C. BREWERI S. Wats. 

C. foliacea Greene 

C. hederaefoUa Greene 

C. modocensis Greene 

C. vallicola Greene 
C. CORDIFOUA A. Gray Heartleaf B. 

C. uintahensis F. J. Herm. 
C. CORDIFOLIA A. Gray var. INCANA 



A. Gray 
C. cardiophylla Rydb 
C. infausta Greene 
C 



not Greene 



_ i_. (A. Gray) A. Nels. 
C. LYALLII S. Wats. 

C. cordifoUa var. 1. A. Nels. & 
Macbr. 
C. OCCIDENTALIS (S. Wats.) Howell 

C. neglecta Greene 
C. PARVI FLORA L. 
C. PENSYLVANICA Muhl. 

C. multi flora Rydb. 



ELONGATA Roll. 

C. p. of American authors, nol 

C. A. Meyer 
Hymenophysa p. of American 

authors, not 

C. A. Meyer 

CAULANTHUS S. Wats. (HI) 

C. COOPERI (S. Wats.) Payson 

Thelypodium c. S. Wats. 
C. CRASSICAULIS (Torr.) S. Wats. 

Euklisia c. Rydb. 

Streptanthus c. Torr. 
C. GLABER (M. E.~Jones) Rydb. 

C. crassicauUs var. g. M. E.Jones 
C. GLAUCUS S. Wats. 
C. MAJOR (M. E. Jones) Payson 

C. procerus Rydb., not S. Wats. 
Streptanthus m. Jeps. 

C. PILOSUS S. WatT. 

Streptanthus p. Jeps, 

CHLOROCRAMBE Rydb. 

C. HASTATA (S. Wats.) Rydb. 
Caulanthus h. S. Wats. 

CHORISPORA DC. CHORISPORA 

C. TENELLA (Pall.) DC. 

CONRINGIA Adans . HARESEAR 

C. ORIENTALIS (L.) Dumort Treacle H. 

DESCURAINIA Webb & Berth. (112) TANSYMUSTA 

D. CALIFORNICA (A. Gray) 

O. E. Schulz California T. 

Sisymbrium c. S. Wats. 
Sophia leptostylis Rydb. 
D. OBTUSA (Greene) O. E. Schulz ssp. 

OBTUSA 
D. OBTUSA (Greene) O. E. Schulz ssp. 

BREVISILIQUA Detl. 
D. PINNATA (Walt.) Britton var. 

FILIPES (A. Gray) Peck 

D. p. ssp. U Detl. 
Sophia f. Heller 

S. gracilis Rydb. 
D. PINNATA (Walt.) Britton ssp. GLABRA 
(Woot. & Standi.) Detl. 
Sophia g. Woot. & Standi. 
D. PINNATA 7Walt.) Britton var. HALIC- 
TORUM (Cockerell) Peck 
D. h. O. E. Schulz 
D. p. ssp. h. Detl. 
Sophia h. Cockerell 
D. PINNATA 7Walt.) Britton ssp. INTER- 
MEDIA (Rydb.) Detl. 
D. i. Daniels 
Sisymbrium i. Garrett 
Sophia i. Rydb. 
D. PINNATA TWalt.) Britton ssp. 

MENZIESII (DC.) Detl. 
D. m. O. E. Schulz 
Sophia californica (Torr. & Gray) 
Rydb. 
D. PINNATA (Walt.) Britton var. 

NELSONII (Rydb.) Peck 
D. p. ssp. n. Detl. 
Sophia n. Rydb. 
D. PINNATA 7WaIt.) Britton var. PARADISA 
(A. Nels. & Macbr.) Peck 
D. p. O. E. Schulz 
D. p. ssp. p. Detl. 
Sisymbrium p. A. Nels. & Macbr. 
Sophia p. A. Nels. & Macbr. 



li 



40 



)|-„st:URAINIA 



DRABA 



■M'ljRAlNlA Webb & Berth, (con.) 

D. PINNATA (Walt.) Britton ssp. PAYSONII 

Detl. 
D. RICHARDSONII (Sweet) O. E. Schulz 

ssp. RICHARDSONII Richardson T. 

Sisymbrium r. Sweet 
Sophia r. Rydb. 
D. RICHARDSONU (Sweet) O. E. Schulz 
ssp. INCISA (Engelm.) Detl. 
D. 1. Britton 
Sisymbrium i_. Engelm. 
S. leptophyllum (Rydb.) A. Nels. & 

Macbr. 
Sophia i. Greene 
Sophia 1. Rydb. 
Sophia sorrei Greene 
D. RICHARDSONII (Sweet) O. E. Schulz 
var. MACROSPERMA O. E. 
Schulz 
D. r. ssp. procera (Greene) Detl. 
Sisymbrium hartvvegianium of 

American authors, not 
Fourn. 
S. p. K. Schum. 
Soptiia brevipes Rydb. 
Soplua h. Greene 
Sopliia p. Greene 
D. RICHARDSONU (Sweet) O. E. Schulz 
var. VISCOSA (Rydb.) Peck 
D. r. ssp. V. Detl. 
D. rydbergii O. E. Schulz 
Sisymbrium caUforrucum S. Wats. 
S. V. Blanks. 
Sophia c. Rydb. 
D. SOPHD\ (L. ) Webb Flixweed T. 

Sisymbrium s. L. 
Sophia s. Britton 
Sophia parviflora Standi. 



IPLOTAXIS DC. 

D. MURALIS (L.) DC. 

Sisymbrium m. L. 

ITHYRAEA Harv. (II?,) 

D. CALIFORNICA Harv. 

Biscutella c. Brew. & S. Wats. 
D. WISLIZENI ETigelm. 

D. griffithsU Woot. & Standi. 

D. w. var. g. Payson 

RABA L. (114) 

D. APICULATA C. L. Hitchc. 

D. ARGYREA Rydb. 

D. ARIDA C. L. Hitchc. 

D. ASPRELLA Greene var. KAIBABENSIS 

C. L. Hitchc. 
D. ASPRELLA Greene var. STELLIGERA 

O. E. Schulz 
D. ASTEROPHORA Payson 
D. AUREA M. Vahl 

D. auseiformis Rydb. 
D. decumbens Rydb. 
D. luteola Greene 
D. uber A. Nels. 
D. BRACHYSTYLIS Rydb. 
D. BREWERI S. Wats. 
D. CRASSA Rydb. 
D. CRASSIFOLIA R. Grah. var. 
CRASSIFOLIA 
D. parryi Rydb. 
D. CRASSIFOLIA R. GraJi. var. 

NEVADENSIS C. L. Hitchc. 
D. CUNEIFOUA Nutt. var. CUNEIFOLIA 

D. helleri Small 
D. CUNEIFOLLA Nutt. var. INTEGRI- 
FOLIA S. Wats. 
D. i. Greene 



WALL ROCKET 
Stinking W. 



SPECTACLEPOD 
California S. 



Wishzenus S. 



DRABA 



Golden D. 



DENSIFOLIA Nutt. 

D. caeruleoniontana Payson & 
~ St. John 

globosa Payson 

mulfordae Payson 

pectinata (S. Wats.) Rydb. 

nelsonii Macbr. & Payson 



Rockcress D. 



sphaerula Macbr. 8i Payson 
D. DOUGLASII A. Gray var. DOUGLASII 
D. DOUGLASII A. Gray var. CROCKERI 
(Lemmon) C. L. Hitchc. 
D. c. Lemmon 
D. FLADNIZENSIS Wulfen Arctic D. 

D. pattersonii O. E. Schulz 
D. INCERTA Payson 

D. laevicapsula Payson 
D. LA'NCEOLATA Royle Lanceolate 

D. cana Rydb. 
D. valida Goodding 
D. LE"MM0NII S. Wats. var. 

INCRASSATA Roll. 
D. LONCHOCARPA Rydb. 

D. nivalis Lilj. var. elongata 
■~ S. Wats. 

D. MAGUIREIC. L. Hitchc. var. 

MAGUIREI 
D. MAGUIREI C. L. Hitchc. var. 
BUR K EI C. L. Hitchc. 
D. NEMOROSA L. Woods D. 

D. NIVALIS Lilj. var. EXIGUA 

(O. E. Schulz) C. L. Hitchc. 
D. n. of Intermountain authors, 
not Li Ij . 
D. OLIGOSPERMA Hook. 

D. andina (Nutt.) A. Nels. 

D. glacialis of American authors, 

not Adams . 
D. saximontanus A. Nels. 
D. PAYSONII Macbr. var. PAYSONII Payson D. 

D. PAYSONII Macbr. var. TRELEASII 

(O. E. Schulz) C. L. Hitchc. 
D. novolympica Payson & St. John 
D. PECTINIPILA Roll. 
D. PRAEALTA Greene 

D. Columbiana Rydb. 
D. lapilutea A. Nels. 
D. yellowstonensis A. Nels. 
D. QUTiDRICOSTATA Roll. 
D. RECTIFRUCTA C. L. Hitchc. 

D. montana S. Wats., not Bergeret 



D. REPTANS (Lam.) Fern. var. REPTANS 
D. REPTANS (Lam.) Fern. var. 

MICRANTHA (Nutt.) Fern. 
D. coloradensis Rydb. 
D. m. Nutt. 

D. r^ f. m. C. L. Hitchc. 
D. REPTANS (Lam.) Fern. var. 

STELLIFERA (O. E. Schulz) 
C. L. Hitchc. 
D. cuneifolia var. californica Jeps. 
D. SOBOLIFERA Rydb. 

D. uncinalis Rydb. 
D. SPECTABILIS Greene 
D. SPHAEROIDES Payson var. 

SPHAEROIDES 
D. SPHAEROIDES Payson var. CUSICKII 
(Robins.) C. L. Hitchc. 
D. c. Robins. 
D. STENOLOBA Ledeb. var. NANA 

(O. E. Schulz) C. L. Hitchc. 
D. aitida Greene 
D. s. of Intermountain authors, 
not Ledeb. 
D. SUBALPINA Goodman & C. L. Hitclic. 

D. oreibata Payson, in part 
D. VENTOSA A. Gray 
D. VERNA L. 
D. ZIONENSIS C. L. lUtchc. 



41 



ERUCA 



ERUCA Mill. 

E. SATIVA Hill 

Brassica eruca L. 
E. e. Britton 

ERYSIMUM L. {>i, US) 

E. ARGILLOSUM (Greene) Rydb. 
Cheiranthus a. Greene 
C. aridus A. Nels. 
Cheirinia ji_. (Greene) Rydb. 
C. a. (A. Nels.) Rydb. 
E. asperum of Intermountain 
authors, in part, 
(Nutt.) DC. 



LEPIDIUM 



Rocket Salad 



WALLFLOWER 



not 



E. capitatunn (Dougl.) Greene var. 
a. (Greene) R.J. Davis 
E. CAPITATUM (Dougl.) Greene var. 
CAPITATUM 
Cheiranthus c. Dougl. 
C. elatum (Nutt.) Greene 
Cheirinia amoena (Greene) Rydb. 
C. brachycarpa Rydb. 
C. e. Rydb. 
C. oblanceolata Rydb. 



Coastal W. 



wheeleri (Rothr.) Rydb. 
asperum of Intermountain 



authors in part, not 
(Nutt.) DC. 
E. e. Nutt. 
E. 'o~. Rydb. 
E. w. Rothr. 
E. CAnXATUM (Dougl.) Greene var. 
WASHOENSIS G. Rossb. 
Cheirantlius occidentalis of S. Wats., 
and Cheirinia 0. of Tides., 
are synonyms to E. o. of 
Intermountain authors, not 
(S. Wats.) Robins. 
E. CHEIRANTHOIDES L. Treacle W. 

Cheiranthus c. Heller 
Link 



Cheirinia c . 
E. INCONSPICUDm (S. Wats.) MacMiU. 

Cheirinia i. Rydb. 

E. parviflorum Nutt., not Pers. 
E. NIVALE (Greene) Rydb. 

Cheiranthus n. Greene 

Cheirinia n. Rydb. 



Smallflower W. 



radicata (Rydb.) Rydb. 



E. r. Rydb. 

E. PERENNE (S . Wats.) Abrams 
Cheiranthus p. Greene 
Cheiruiia nevadensis Heller 
E. capitatum var. p. R.J. Davis 
E. n. Heller 

E. REPANDUM L. 

Cheirinia r. Link 



Spreading W. 



EUCLIDIUM R. Br. 

E. SYRIACUM (L.) R. 



Br. 



GLAUCOCARPUM Roll. 

G. SUFFRUTESCENS (Roll.) Roll. 
Thelypodium s. Roll. 

HALIMOLOBUS Tausch (116) 

H. DIFFUSA (A. Gray) O. E. Schulz 

var. JAEGERI (Munz) Roll. 
H. d. of Intermountain authors, 
not (A. Gray) O. E. 
Schulz 
Sisymbrium d. var. j. Munz 
H. VIRGATA (Nutt J O. E.^Schulz 

Arabidopsis stenocarpa (Rydb.) 

Rydb^ 
A. v^ Rydb. 

Arabis brebneriana A. Nels. 
PUosella s. Rydb. 
P. V. Rydb. 



42 



HUTCHINSIA R. Br. 

H. PROCUMBENS (L.) Desv. 

IDAHOA A. Nels. & Macbr. 

I. SCAPIGERA (Hook.) A. Nels. & Macbr. 

ISATIS L. 

I. TINCTORIA L. 

LEPIDIUM L. (117) 

L. CAMPESTRE (L.) R. Br. 
L. DAVISII Roll. 

L. montanum Nutt. ssp. d. C. L. 



WOAD 
Dryers W. 

PEPPER WEE 
Field P. 



Hitchc . 
L. DENSIFLORUM Schrad. 

L. apetalum of Intermountain 

authors not Willd. 
L. rude rale of Intermountain 

authors, not L . 
L. texanum Buckl., a synonym under 
~ L. ruderale 

L. DENSIFLORUM Schrad. var. 

BOURGEAUANUM (Thell.) 
C. L. Hitchc. 
U b . Thell . 
L. DENSIFLORUM Schrad. var. 

ELONGATUM (Rydb.) Thell. 
L. e. Rydb. 
L. simile Heller 
L. DENSIFLORUM Schrad. var. 

PUBICARPUM (A. Nels.) Thell. 
L.£^ A. Nels. 
L. DENSIFLORUM Schrad. var. RAMOSUM 
(A. Nels.) Thell. 
L. r. A. Nels. 
L. DICTYOTUM A. Gray 
L. FLAVUM Torr. 
L. FREMONTII S. Wats. 
L. LASIOCARPUM Nutt. var. 

LASIOCARPUM 
L. LASIOCARPUM Nutt. var. 

GEORGINUM (Rydb.) D. L. 
Hitchc . 
L. g. Rydb. 
L. LATIFOLIUM L. 

L. MONTANUM Nutt. ssp. MONTANUM 
L. brachybotryum Rydb. 
L. phiJonitrum A. Nels. & Macbr. 
L. utaviense Regel 
L. MC5nTANUM Nutt. var. ALPINUMS. 
Wats. 
L. heterophyllum M. E. Jones 
L. m. ssp. a. C. L. Hitchc. 
L. scopulorum M. E. Jones, in 
part. 
L. MONTANUM Nutt. var. ALYSSOIDES 
(A. Gray) M. E. Jones 
L. a. A. Gray 

L. m. ssp. a. C. L. Hitchc. 
L. MC5nt"ANUM Nutt. var. CANESCENS 
(Thell.) C. L. Hitchc. 
L. albiflorum A. Nels. & Kennedy 
L. MONTANUM Nutt. ssp. CINEREUM 

(C. L. Hitchc.) C. L. Hitchc. 
L. m. var. canescens f. c. C. L. 
Hitchc . 
L. MONTANUM Nutt . ssp. DEMISSUM 

C. L. Hitchc. 
L. MONTANUM Nutt. var. EASTWOODIAE 
(Woot.) C. L. Hitchc. 
L. e. Woot. 

L. m. ssp. alyssoides var. e. 
~ C. L. Hitchc. 

L. MONTANUM Nutt. var. GLABRUM 
C. L. Hitchc. 
L. iTb ssp. £_. C. L. Hitchc. 
L. MONTANUM Nutt. var. HETEROPHYLLUM 
(S. Wats.) C. L. Hitchc. 
L. m. ssp. h. C. L. Hitchc. 
L. scopulorum M. E. Jones, in part. 



Prairie P. 



Desert P. 



: )1UM 



NAS'H'K HUM 



L. MONTANUM Nult. vaf. INTHGRIFOLIUM 
(Nutt.) C.L. Hitchc. 
L. i. Nutt. 

L. M_. ssp. i_. C. L. Hitchc. 
L. utahcnsis M. E. Jones 
L. zionis A. Nels. 

L. MONTANUM Nutt. var. JONESII 
(Rydb.) C. L. Hitchc. 
L. j_. Rydb. 

L. m. ssp. J. C. L. Hitchc. 
L. tortum L. O. Williams 

L. MONTANUM Nutt. vaf. 

PAPILLIFERUM (Hendt-r.) 

C. L. Hitchc. 
L. m. ssp. p. C. L. Hitchc. 
L. pTa. NeFs. & Macbr. 

L. NANUM S. Wats. 

L. PERFOLIATUM L. Claspmg P. 

L. PUBESCENS Desv. 



L. VIRGINICUM L. Var. Medium (Greene) 
C. L. Hitchc. 
L. idahoense Heller 
L. m. Greene 

L. VIRGINICUM L. var. PUBESCENS 
(Greene) C. L. Hitchc. 
L. hirsutum Rydb. 
L. mcnziesii DC. 

LESQUERELLA S. Wats. (118, 11^)) 

L. ALPINA (Nutt.) S. Wats. 
L. parvula Greene 



BLADDERPOD 



L. ARIZONICA S. Wats. Arizona B. 

L. BARNEBYI Maguire 

L. CALCICOLA Roll. 

L. CINEREAS. Wats. 

L. CONDENSATA A. Nels. 

L. FENDLERI (A. Gray) S. Wats. Fendler B. 

L. stenophylla (A. Gray) Rydb. 
Vesicaria f. A. Gray 
V. s. A. Gray 

L. GARRETTII Payson 

L. GORDONII (A. Gray) S. Wats. 

L. HEMIPHYSARIA Maguire 

L. HITCHCOCKII Munz ssp. 

HITCHCOCKII Hitchcock B. 

L. HITCHCOCKII Munz ssp. CONFLUENS 
Maguire & Holmgren 

L. HITCHCOCKII Munz ssp. RUBICUNDULA 
(Roll.) Maguire & Holmgren 
L. £. Roll. 

L. INTERMEDIA (S. Wats.) Heller 
L. alpina var. i. S. Wats. 



L. KlNi.lIS. Wats. var. NF. \ ,\l Ji'NSIS 
Mjjiuirc & llolnii^rcii 

L. LATII-OLIA A. Nels. 

L. LUDOVICIANA (Nutt.) S. Wats. 
L. argenica (Pui'sh) MucM. 
L. macnunii Greene 
L. rosea Greene 
L. versicolor Greene 
Vesicaria 1. DC. 

L. MACROCARPA A. Nels. 

L. MULTICEPS Maguire 

L. OCCIDENTALIS (S. Wa!s.)S. Wats, 
ssp. OCCIDENTALIS 

L. OCCIDENTALIS (S. Wats.)S. Wats, 
ssp. CUSICKII (M. E. Jones) 
Maguire & Holmgren 
L. c . M. E. Jones 

L. OCCIDENTALIS (S. Wats.) S. Wats. ssp. 
CUSICKII (M.E. Jones) Maguire 
& Holmgren var. PARVIFLORA 
Maguire & Holmgren 

L. OCCIDENTALIS (S. Wats.) S. Wats. ssp. 
DIVERSIFOLIA (Greene) Maguire 
Si Holmgren 
L. d. Greene 

L. OCCIDENTALIS (S. Wats.) S. Wats. ssp. 
DIVERSIFOLIA (Greene) Maguire 
Si Holmgren var. CINERASCENS 
Maguire & Holmgren 

L. PALMERIS. Wats. 

L. gordonii var. sessilis S. Wats. 
L. tenella A. Nels. 

L. PAYSONII Roll. 

L. PROSTRATA A. Nels. 

L. RECTIPES Woot. & Standi. 

L. montana of Intermountain authors, 
not (A. Gray) S. Wats. 

L. SHERWOODll Peck 

L. SUBUMBELLATA Roll. 

L. UTAHENSIS Rydb. 

L. WARDII S. Wats. 



MALCOLMIA R. Br. 

M. AFRICANA (L.) R. Br. 
Hesperis a. L. 



Palmer B. 



Ward B. 



NASTURTIUM R. Br. 



WATER- 
CRESS 



L. KINGIIS. Wats. var. KINGII 

L. KINGIIS. Wats. var. CORDIFORMIS 
Physaria c. Roll. 



Kings B. 



N. OFFICINALE R. Br. W. 

N. nasturtium -aquatic um (L.) Karst. 
Radicula n-a. Britt. 8i Rend. 
Rorippa n-a. Schinz Si Thell. 
Sisymbrium n-a. L. 



43 



PARRYA 



SISYMBRRJM 



PHOENICAULIS 



PARRYA R. Br. 

P. NUDICAULIS (L.) Kegel. 

P. RYDBERGII Botsch. 

P. platycarpa Rydb., not Hook. 
~ r. & Thomas 

PENNELUA Nieuwl. 

P. MICRANTHA (A. Gray) Nieuwl. 
Heterothrix m. Rydb. 
Thelypodium m. S. Wats. 



PHOENICAULIS Nutt. (107) 

P. CHEIRANTHOIDES Nutt. ssp. 

CHEIRANTHOIDES Wallflower P. 

Arabis menziesii (Hook.) A. Nels. 
A. m. var. lata A. Nels. & Macbr. 
Parrya c . Jeps. 
P. m. Greene 
Phoenicaulis m. Steud. 

P. CHEIRANTHOIDES Nutt. ssp. GLABRA 
(Jeps.) Abrams 
Parrya c. var. g. (Jeps.) Jeps. 
P. menziesii (Hook.) Greene var. 
g^ Jeps. 

P. CHEIRANTHOIDES Nutt. var. 

LANUGINOSA (S. Wats.) Roll. 
Arabis menziesii (Hook.) A. Nels. 

var. 1. A. Nels. 
A. pedicellata A. Nels. 
Parrya m. var. 1. S. Wats. 
P. p. Tides. 
Phoenicaulis c. ssp. 1. Abrams 

P. EURYCARPA (A. Gray) Abrams 
Anelsonia e. Macbr. & Payson 
Draba e. A. Gray 
Parrya e. Jeps. 



PHYSARIA (Nutt.) A. Gray (120) TWINPOD 

P. AUSTRALIS (Payson) Roll. 

P. didymocarpa (Hook.) A. Gray, 

in part 
P. d. var. a. Payson 

P. CHAMBERSU Roll. var. CHAMBERSII 
P. didymocarpa (Hook.) A. Gray, 

in part 
P. newberryi Rydb. , in part 

P. CHAMBERSII Roll. var. MEMBRANACEA 
Roll. 

P. CONDENSATA Roll. 

P. GRAHAMII Morton 

P. NEWBERRYI A. Gray Newberry T. 

P. didymocarpa (Hook.) A. Gray 
var. n. M. E. Jones 

P. OREGONAS. Wats. 



POLYCTENIUM Greene (121) 

P. FREMONTII(S. Wats.) Greene 
Braya pectinata Greene 
Smelowskia f. S. Wats. 



RORIPPA Scop. 



YELLOWCB 



R. ALPINA (S. Wats.) Rydb. 
Radicula a. Greene 

R. CURVISILIQUA (Hook.) Bess. 
Nasturtium c. Nutt. 
N. lyratum Nutt. 
Radicula c. Greene 
R. 1_. (NuTt.) Greene 
Rorippa 1. Greene 

R. ISLANDICA (Oeder) Barb. var. 
HISPIDA (Desv.) Butters 
& Abbe 

Radicula h. Heller 

R. pacifica of Intermountam 

authors, not (Howell) 
Greene, a synonym to 
the Pacific coast species 
of R. islandica var. 
occidentalis (S. Wats.)Burters 
& Abbe 

Radicula terrestre of Intermountain 

authors, not (R. Br.) Woot. 
& Standi., a synonym, in a 
large part, to R. i. var. 
occidentalis 

Rorippa h. Britton 



R. palustris of Western authors, not 

(Moench.) Bess., a synonym 
to the typical R. islandica 

R. OBTUSA (Nutt.) Britton var. OBTUSA Obtuse 

Fieldcre 
Nasturtium o. Nutt. 
Radicula o. Greene 

R. OBTUSA (Nutt.) Britton var. INTEGRA 
(Rydb.) Vict. 
Radicula curvipes (Greene) Greene 
R. i. Heller 
Rorippa c . Greene 
R. i_. Rydi). 

R. SINUATA (Nutt.) A. S. Hitchc. 
Nasturtium s. Nutt. 
Radicula s . Greene 

R. SPHAEROCARPA (A. Gray) Britton 
Nasturtium s. A. Gray 
Radicula s. Greene 



SIBARA Greene 



S. DESERTl (M. E. Jones) Roll. 
Arabis d. Abrams 
Thelypodium d. M. E. Jones 



SISYMBRIUM L. (122) 

S. ALTISSIMUM L. 

Norta a. Britton 



Tumblemus 
tard 



44 



51V\1I5RIUM 



Tiii-,i.YPf)ninM 



1, MURIUM L. (con.) 

s. AMBIGUUM (S. Wats.) Payson 
Thelypodium a. .S. Wats. 

^. ELEGANS (M. E. Jones) Payson 
Strepthanthus wyomlngensis A. 

NeTT. 
Thelypodiopsis bakeri Rydb. 
T.^ Rydb. 
T. w. Rydb. 
Thelypodium b. Greene 
T. e. M. E. Jones 

S. IRIO L. 

Norta i. Britton 



STREPTANTHELLA Rydb. 

S. LONGIROSTRIS (S. Wars.) Rydb. 
Arabis 1. S. Wats. 
Streptantlius 1. S. Wats. 
Thelypodium 1. Jeps. 



STREPTANTHUS Nutt. 



S. CORDATUS Nutt. 

S. coloradoensis A. Nels. 



S. crassifolius Greene 



S. OLIGANTHUS Roll. 



TWISTFLOWER 
Hearileaf T. 



S. LINIFOLIUM Nutt. 

Schoenocrambe decumbens Rydb. 

S. 1. Greene 

S. pinnata Greene 

S. K var. p. A. Nels. 

S. OFFICINALE (L.) Scop. 
Erysimum o. L. 



iLOWSKIA C. A. Meyer (121, 123) 

S. CALYCINA C. A. Meyer var. 
AMERICANA (Regel & 
Herder) Roll. 
S. a_. Rydb. 
S. c. of American authors, not 

C. A. Meyer 
S. Imeariloba Rydb. 

S. HOLMGRENII Roll. 

liNLEYA Nutt. (124) 

S. ALBESCENS M. E. Jones 

S. CONFERTIFLORA (Robins.) Howell 
S. annua M. E. Jones 
S. rara A, Nels. 
S. vlridiflora Nutt. var. c. Robins. 

S. PINNATA (Pursh) Britton var. 
PINNATA 
S. arcuata Rydb. 
S. canescens Rydb. 
S. glauca Rydb. 

S. PINNATA (Pursh) Britton var. 
GIBBEROSA Roll. 

S. PINNATA (Pursh) Britton var. 

INTEGRIFOLIA (James) 
Roll. 



SMELOWSKIA 



PRINCESPLUME 
Arizona P. 



Desert P. 



Wholeleaf 
Desert P. 



S. 1. James 

S. VIRIDIFLORA Nutt. 

S. collina M. E. Jones 



WLLYELLA Rydb. 

S. WRIGHTII (A. Gray) Rydb. var. 
WRIGHTII 
Thelypodium w. A. Gray 

S. WRIGHTII (A. Gray) Rydb. var. 

TENELLUM (M. E. Jones) 
Payson 
Thelypodium w. var. t. M. E. Jones 



SUBULARIA L. 

S. AQUATICA L. 

THELYPODIUM Endl . (HI) 



AWLWORT 
Water A. 

THELYPODY 



T. CRISPUM Greene 

T. brachycarpum of Intermountain 
authors, not Torr. 

T. EUCOSMUM Robins. 

T. FLEXUOSUM Robins. 

T. HOWELLIIS. Wats. Var. 

HOWELLll Howell T. 

Streptanthus h. M. E. Jones 
Thelypodiopsis h. O. E. Schulz 

T. HOWELLIIS. Wats. var. SPECTABILIS 
Peck 

T. INTEGRIFOLIUM (Nutt.) Endl. 

Pleurophragma gracilipes (Robins.) 

Rydb. 
P. i_. Rydb. 
P. platypodum Rydb. 
T. affine Greene 
T. g. Rydb. 
T. lilacinum Greene 
T. 1. var. subumbellatum Payson 
T. rhomboideum Greene 
T. r. var. g. Payson 

T. LACINIATUM (Hook.) Endl. 
T. leptosepalum Rydb. 
T. neglectum M. E. Jones 

T. LACINL«iTUM (Hook.) Endl. var. 

MILLEFLORUM (A. Nels.) 
Payson 
T. m_. A. Nels. 

T. LASIOPHYLLUM (Hook. & Arn.) Greene 
var. UTAHENSIS (Rydb.) Jeps. 

Caulanthus 1. Payson of Intermountain 
authors, a synonym to T. 
I. of Intermountain authors, 
not (Hook. & Arn.) Greene 

T. u. Rydb. 

C. 1. var. u. Payson 

T. SAGITTATUM (Nutt.) Endl. 
Streptanthus £. Nutt. 
T. macropetalum Rydb. 
T. nutlallii S. Wats. 
T. ovalifolium Rydb. 
T. palmeri Rydb. 
T. paniculatum A. Nels. 
T. torulosum Heller 



45 



THLASPI 



FENDLEREL 



THLASPI L. (125) 

T. ARVENSE L. 



PENNYCRESS 
Field P. 



T. FENDLERI A. Gray var. FENDLERI Blue P. 
T. alpestre of American authors, 

not L. 
T. callfornlcum S. Wats. 
T. glaucum A. Nels. 
T. g. var. hesperium Pays. 
T. purpurascens Rydb., in part 

T. FENDLERI A. Gray var. COLORADENSE 
(Rydb.) Maguire 
T. c_. Rydb. 
T. purpurascens Rydb. , in part 

T. FENDLERI A. Gray var. TENUIPES 
Maguire 



THYSANOCARPUS Hook. 

T. AMPLECTENS Greene 

T. CURVIPES Hook. var. CURVIPES 
T. foliosus Heller 



POLANISIA Raf. (128) CLAMMYV 

P. DODECANDRA (L.) DC. sap. DODE- 

CANDRA var. TRACHYSPERMA 
(Torr. & Gray) litis Roughseed 

Jacksonia t. Greene 
P. t^. Torr~ & Gray 

WISLIZENLA Engelm. 

W. REFRACTA Engelm. 

W. meLilotioides Greene 
W. r. var. m. Johnst. 



RESEDACEAE. Mignonette Family 

OLIGOMERIS Camb. 

O. LINIFOLIA (Vahl) Macbr. 
Dipetalla I. Tides. 
O. subulara Webb 
Reseda 1. Vahl 



DROSERACEAE. Sundew Family 



The species listed below in this family have not been collecl , 
in the Intermountain Region. They are listed in Tidestrom' 
Flora. 



T. CURVIPES Hook. var. ERADIATUS 
Jeps. 

T. LACINIATUS Nutt. var. LACINIATUS 

T. LACINIATUS Nutt. var. CRENATUS 
(Nutt.) Brew. 
T. c. Brew. 



CAPPARIDACEAE. Caper Family (126) 



CLEOME L. 



C. LUTE A Hook. 

Peritoma I. Raf. 



BEEPLANT 
Yellow B. 



C. PLAT YCARPA Torr. 

C. SERRULATA Pursh B. 

C. s. var. angusta (M. E. Jones) 
Tides. 

Peritoma a. Rydb. 

P. s. DC." 
C. SPARSIFOLLA S. Wats. 

Carsoma s. Greene 



CLEOMELLADC. (127) 

C. BREVIPES S. Wats. 
C. HILLMANII A. Nels. 

C. grandiflora (S. Wats.) Cov. 

C. macbrideana Payson 
C. OBTUSIFOLIA Torr. & Frem. 

C. taurocranos A . Nels. 
C. PALMERANA M. E. Jones 

C. cornuta Rydb. 

C. nana Eastw. 
C. PARVIFLORA A. Gray 

C. gracilis K. Brand. 
C. PLOCASPERMA S. Wats. 

C. oocarpa A. Gray 

C. stenosperma Cov. 

OXYSTYLIS Torr. & Frem. 

O. LUTEATorr. & Frem. 



CLEOMELLA 
Hillman C. 



Palmer C. 



DROSERA L. 

D. ANGLICA Huds. 

D. longlfolia of western authors, 
not L. 
D. ROTUNDIFOLIA L. 



SUNDEW 
English S. , 



Roundlea i 



CRASSULACEAE. Stonecrop Family (129) 

DUDLEYA Britton & Rose (9) DUDLEYA : 

D. ARIZONICA Rose Arizona D, 

D^. pulverulenta (Nutt.) Britton & 
Rose ssp. a. Moran 
Echeveria a. Kearney & Peebles, 

not Hort. 
E. p. Nutt. ssp. a. Clokey 

SEDUM L. STONECRl 

S. DEBILE S. Wats. 

Gormania d. Britton 
S. OBTUSATUM A. Gray 

Gormania o. Britton 
S. RHODANTHUM A. Gray Redpod S. 

Clementsia r. Rose 
S. ROSEA (L. ) Scop. ssp. INTEGRIFOLIUM 
(Raf.) Hult. 

Rhodiola i. Raf. 

R. polygama (Rydb.) Britton & Rose 

S". i_. A. Nels. 

S. p. Rydb. 
S. STENOPETALUM Pursh Wormleaf 

S. douglasii Hook. 



TILLAEA L. 

T. AQUATICA L. 

Tillaeastrum a. Britton 



PIGMY-WI 
Common F 



SAXIFRAGACEAE. Saxifrage Family (130) 
FENDLERA Engelm. & A. Gray 



F. RUPICOLA A. Gray 

F. tomentella Thornb. 

FENDLERELLA Heller 

F. UTAHENSIS (S. Wats.) Heller 
Whipplea u. S. Wats. 



FENDLEF 

BUSH 
Cliff F. 



FENDLEB 
Utah F. 



46 



CHERA 



PHI LADE LPHUS 



CHERA L. (5, 131) 
H. CYLINDRICA Dougl. var. ALPINA 
S. Wats. (132) 



ALUMROOT 



H. 
H. 



Blank. 

var. ovalifoUa (Nutt.) 



Wheelock 
H. o. Nutt. 

H. o. var. a. Rosend. 
CYLINDRICA Dougl. var. GLABELLA 
(Torr. & Gray) Wheelock 
H. c. var. orbicularis Calder & 



Savile 
g. Torr. & Gray 
ovalifolia Nutt. var. 
B. 



R., B. & L. 
H. DURANU Bacig. 
H. GROSSULARUFOLIA Rydb. var. 
GROSSULARIIFOLIA 
H. cusickii R., B. & L. 
H. graciUs Rydb. 
H. GROSSULARUFOLIA Rydb. var. 
TENUIFOUA (Wheelock) 
C. L. Hitchc. 
H. t^. Rydb. 
H. PARVIFOLIA Nutt. var. 

PARVIFOLIA LittleleafA. 

H. PARVIFOLIA Nutt. var. ARIZONICA 

R., B. & L. 
H, PARVIFOLIA Nutt. var. DISSECTA 
M. E. Jones 
H. flabellifoLia Rydb. 
H. f. var. subsecta R., B. & L. 
" ~ FLAVESCENS 



& L. 



RUBESCENS Red A. 



H 



H. PARVIFOLIA Nutt. var. 
(Rydb.) R., B. 
H. {_. Rydb. 
H. PARVIFOLLA Nutt. var. UTAHENSIS 
Rydb. Garrett 
H. u. Rydb. 
H. RUBESCENS Torr. var. 

H. clutei A. Nels. 
H. RUBESCENS Torr. var. ALPICOLA 
Jeps. 
H. pachypoda Greene 
H. r. var. p. R., B. & L. 
H. RUBESCENS Torr. var. GLANDU- 
LOSA Kellogg 
H. lithophila Heller 
RUBESCENS Torr. var. TRUNCATA 
R., B. & L. 
H. VERSICOLOR Greene var. 
VERSICOLOR 
H. nana Rydb., in part 
H. sitgreavesii Rydb. 
H. VERSICOLOR Greene var. LEPTO- 
MERIA (Greene) Kearney & 
Peebles 
H. K Greene 
H. nana Rydb., in part 

3SIA Torr. & Gray 
J. AMERICANA Torr. & Gray var. 
AMERICANA 
Edwinia a. Heller 
E_. macrocalyx Small 
J. AMERICANA Torr. & Gray var. 

CALIFORNICA (Small) Jeps. 



L. RUPICOLA Greene 
L. TENELLA Null. 

L. australis Rydb. 

Tellima t. Walpers 

^^TELLA L. 

M. CAULESCENS Nutt. 

Mitellastra c. Howell 
M. PENTANDRA Hook. 

Pectiantia p. Rydb. 
M. STAUROPETALA Piper var. 
STAUROPETALA 

Ozomelis s. Rydb. 

O. stenopetala Rydb. 
M. TRTfIDA Grail. 

Ozomelis t. Rydb. 

PARNASSIA L. 



P. FIMBRIATA Konig var. FIMBRIATA 
P. FIMBRIATA Konig var. INTERMEDL\ 

(Rydb.) C. L. Hitchc. 
P. KOTZEBUEI Cham. 
P. PALUSTRIS L. var. CAUFORNICA 
A. Gray 
P. c. Greene 

P. p. of American authors, not L. 
P. PALUSTRIS L. var. MONTANENSIS 
(Fern. & Rydb.) C. L. 
Hitchc. 
P. m. Fern. & Rydb. 
P. PARVIFLORA DC. 

PHILADELPHUS L. (133, 134) 



P. LEWISII Pursh 



Slender W. 



MITERWORT 



Fivestamen M. 



GRASS-OF- 
PARNASSUS; 
PARNASSUS 

Rocky Mtn. p. 



California P. 



Montana P. 
Small flower P. 

MOCK -OR- 
ANGE; 
SYRINGA 

Lewis M. 



An extremely variable species 
with many ecological varia- 
tions in floral and vegetative 
characters. A number of forms 
have been named, but are placed 
in synonym here 

gordonianus Lindl. 

helleri Rydb. 

intermedius A. Nels. 

L 

i. 

1. 



ssp. caUfomicus (Benth.) Munz 
var. g. Jeps. 
var. h. Hu 



JAMESIA 
CUff J. 



California 
Cliff J. 



1. var. i. Hu 
MICROPHYLLTjS a. Gray ssp. 

MICROPHYLLUS Littleleaf M. 

MICROPHYLLUS a. Gray var. ARGEN- 

TEUS (Rydb.) Kearney & Peebles 
P. a. Rydb. 

P. m. ssp. a. C. L. Hitchc. 
MICROPHYLLUS A. Gray ssp. OCCI- 
DENTALIS(A. Nels.) C. L. 
Hitchc. 
P. microphyllus ssp. stramineus 
(Rydb.) C. L. Hitchc. 
f. zionensis C. L. Hitchc. 



minutus Rydb. 
nitidus A. Nels. 



Edwinia c. Smal 



I lOPHRAGMA Nutt . 

L. BULBIFERA Rydb. 

L. glabra Nutt. var. b. 

TelUma b. Fedde 
L. GLABRA Nutt. 

Tellima g. Fedde 
J L. PARVIFLORA (Hook.) Nutt. 

Tellima p. Hook. 



Jeps. 



WOODIj\ND 
STAR 



Smallflower W. 



P. o. A. Nels. 
P. o. var. m. Hu 
MICROPHYLLUS A. Gray var. OVATUS 

Hu 
MICROPHYLLUS A. Gray ssp. STRAMI- 
NEUS (Rydb.) C. L. Hitchc. 
P. serpyllifoUus of western authors, 



not A. Gray 



P. s. Rydb. 



47 



RIBES 



SUKSDOR i 



RIBES L. (135) 



R. AUREUM Pursh 

Chrysobotrya a. Rydb. 
R. CEREUMDougl.~var. CEREUM 

R. pumilum Nutt. 

R. reniforme Nutt. 
R. CE'REUM Dougl. var. INEBRIANS 
(Lindl.) C. L. Hltchc. 

R. cliurchii A. Nels. & Kenn. 



CURRANT; 

GOOSEBERRY 
Golden G. 

Wax C. 



Squaw C. 



R. 


COLORADENSE Gov. 


Golorado C. 


R. 


INERME Rydb. 


Whitestem G. 




GrosEuiaria i. Gov. & Britt. 






G. i. var. pubescens Berger 






R. divaricatum Dougl. var. i. 






McMinn 






R. purpusi Koehne 






R. valUcola Greene 




R. 


LACUSTRE (Pers.) Poir. 
Limnobotrya 1. Rydb. 
L. parvula (A. Gray) Rydb. 
R. 1. var. p. A. Gray 
R. p. Rydb. 


Prickly C. 


R. 


LEPTANTHUM A. Gray 


Trumpet G. 




Grossularia 1. Gov. & Britt. 




R. 


MONTIGENUM McClatchie 


Gooseberry C 




Limnobotrya m. Rydb. 






R. lacustre var. lentum M. E 


Jones 




R. 1. Gov. & Rose 




R. 


NEVADENSE Kellogg 


Sierra C. 


R. 


NIVEUM Lindl. 

Grossularia n. Spach 


Snow G. 


R. 


PETIOLARE Dougl. 


Western Black 




R. hudsonianum Richards var 


P- 



Desert G. 



Sticky C. 



Rothrock C. 



SAXIFRAGE 



Jancz. 
R. VELUTINUM Greene var. 
VELUTINUM 
Grossularia glandulifera (Heller) 

Berger 
G. V. Gov. & Britt. 
R. g. Heller 
R. VELUTINUM Greene var. GOOD- 

DINGU (Peck) C. L. Hitchc. 
R. g. Peck 
R. VISCOSISSIMUM Pursh var. VISCO- 

SISSIMUM 
R. VISGOSISSIMUM Pursh var. HALLII 
(Jancz.) Jancz. 
R. h. Jancz. 
R. WOLFll Rothrock 

SAXIFRAGA L. (136, 137) 

S. ADSCENDENS L. ssp. OREGONENSIS 
(Raf.) Bacig. 
Muscaria a. Small 
S. a. of American authors, not L. 
S. a. var. o. Breit. 
S. incompta Peck 
S. o. A. Nels. 
S. AFRICA Greene 
S. BRONCHIALIS L. ssp. AUSTRO- 

MONT ANA (Wiegand) Piper Yellowdot S. 
Leptasea a. Small 
S. a. Wiegand 

S. b. of American authors, not L. 
S. b. var. a. G. N. Jones, or Peck 
S. cognata E. Nels. 
S. CAESPITOSA L. ssp. EXARATOIDES 
(Simmons) Engl. & Irmsch. 
Muscaria delicatula Small 
M. monticola Small 
M. micropetala Small 
S. c. of American authors, not L. 
S. c. ssp. e. var. lemmoni Engl. 

& Irmsch. 

S. c. ssp. e. var. purpusil Engl. 

& Irmsch. 





S. c. var. minima Blank. 




S. d. Fedde 




S. exarata Hook. 


S. 


CERNUA L. 




S. simulata Small 


S. 


CHRYSANTHA A. Gray Goldblooi 




Leptasea c. Small 


s. 


DEBILIS Engelm. 




S. cernua var. d. Engler 




S. rivularis of American authors. 




not L. 


s. 


FERRUGINEA Grah. Rustyhaii 




Hydatica f. Small j 




S. bongardii Presl j 




Spatularia f. Small 


s. 


FLAGELLARIS Willd. 




Leptasea f. Small 




S. setigera Pursh | 


s. 


INTEGRIFOLIA Hook. var. j 
INTEGRIFOLIA 






Micranthes i. Small 


s. 


INTEGRIFOLIA Hook. var. CLAYTON- 




lAEFOLIA (Canby) Rosend. 




Micranthes c. Small 




M. fragosa (Suksd.) Small 




S. c. Canby 




S. f. Suksd. 




S. f. ssp. c. Bacig. 




S. i. var. f. Rosend. 


s. 


INTEGRIFOUA Hook. var. COLUMBIANA 




(Piper) C. L. Hitchc. Columbian 




Micranthes c. Small 






S. 



S. c. Piper 
INTEGRIFOLIA Hook. var. LEPTO- 
PETALA (Suksd.) Engl. & 
Irmsch. 
MERTENSIANA Bong. Mertens S, 

Heterisia m. Small 
Micranthes m. Rosend. 
OCCIDENTALIS"S. Wats. Alberta S. 

Micranthes o. Small 
M. saximontana (E. Nels.) Small 
S. o. var. wallowensis Peck 
S. s. E. Nels^ 
ODONTOLOMA Piper (138) Brooks S. 

Micranthes arguta of Small, and 
S. punctata L. ssp. arguta of Hult, and 
S. p. var. a. of Engl. & Irmsch. , and 
S. a. in the sense of American authors 
to this species, not D. 
Don, a synonym to 
S. p. of American authors, not L. , a 

synonym to 
S. p. ssp. cascadensis Calder & 
Savile 
OPPOSITIFOLIA L. 
OREGANA Howell var. 
OREGANA Howell var. 
(Small) C. L. 



Twinleaf S. 



OREGANA 

MONTANENSIS 

Hitchc. 



Micranthes m. Small 

S. m. Small 
NIDIFICA Greene 

S. montana (Small) Fedde 
RHOMBOIDEA Greene 

Micranthes austrina (A. Nels) Rydb. 

M. greenii (Blank.) Small 

S. a. A. Nels. 

S. g. Blank. 

S. integrifolia var. r. M. E. Jones 
TOLMIEI Torr. & Gray" 

Leptasea t. Small 



Diamondlea 



Tolmie S. 



SUKSDORFIA A. Gray 

S. RANUNCULIFOLIA (Hook.) Engler 
Saxifraga r. Hook. 



SUKSDORFI 



48 



5SONIX 



GEUM 



iSONDC Raf. 

T. JAMESU (Torr.) Raf. var. JAMESU 
Therofonj. Wheelock 
JAMESU (Torr.) Raf. var. HEUCH- 
ERIFORMIS (Rydb.) Bacig. 
T. h. Rydb. 
Therofon h. Rydb. 
Saxifraga h. M. E. Jones 

ELLA L. 

T. TRIFOLLATA L. 



FOAM FLOWER 
Tirefoil F. 



ROSACEAE. Rose Family (139, 140) 

J^NCHIER Medic. (5, 141) SERVICEBERRY 

A. ALNIFOLU (Nutt.) Nutt. var. 

ALNIFOUA Saskatoons. 

A. carrii Rydb. 
A. florida of Intermountain authors, 

not Lindl, 
A. macrocarpa Lurmell 
AL"NIF0L1A (Nutt.) Nutt. var. 

CUSICKII (Fern.) C. L. 
Hitchc. Cusick S. 

A. c. Fern. 
AlIsUFGLU (Nutt.) Nutt. var. 

PALLIDA (Greene) Jeps. 
A. gracilis Heller 
A. p. Greene 
ALNIFOLIA (Nutt.) Nutt. var. 

PUMILA (Nutt.) A. Nels. 



C. MONTANUS Raf. var. MACRORUS 
(Rydb.) F. L. Martin 
C. m. Rydl5. 

CHAMAEBATIARIA (Porter) Maxim. 

C. MILLEFOLIUM (Torr.) Maxim. 
C. glutinosa Rydb. 
Spiraea g. Fedde 
S. m. Torr. 

CHAMAERHODOS Bunge 

C. ERECTA (L.) Bunge ssp. NLITTALLII 
(Pickering) Hult. 
C. e. var. n. Pickering 
C. e. var. parviflora (Nutt.) 
~ ~ C. L. Hitchc. 

C. n. Rydb. 

COLEOGYNE Torr. 

C. RAMOSISSIMA Torr. 

COWANIA D. Don 

C. MEXICANA D. Don var. STANS- 
BURIANA (Torr.) Jeps. 
C. alba Goodding 
C. s. Torr. 



FERN BUSH 
F. 



BLACKBRUSH 
B. 

CLIFFROSE 

Stansbury C. 



Dwarf Saska- 
toon S . 



CRATAEGUS L. HAWTHORN 

C. DOUGLASII Undl. var. DOUGLASII Douglas H. 
C. DOUGLASII Lindl. var. RIVULARIS 
(Nutt.) Sarg. 
C. r. Nutt. 



A. basalticola Piper 
A. glabra Greene 
A. polycarpa Greene 
A. p. Nutt. 
UTAHENSIS Koehne ssp. UTAHENSIS Utah S. 
A. alnifolia var. u. M. E. Jones 



bakeri Greene 



elliptica A. Nels. 
jonesiana Schneider 
mormonica Schneider 
oreophila A. Nels. 
prunifolia Greene 
rubescens Greene 
u. var. o. R. J. Davis 
u. ssp. o. Clokey 



UTAHENSIS Koehne ssp. COVILLEI 
(Standi.) Clokey 
A. alnifolia var. c. Jeps. 
A. a. var. nitens (Tides.) Munz 
A. c. Standi. 
A. n. Tides. 

:OCARPUS HBK. (142) 



DRYAS L. 

D. OCTOPETALA L. var. HOOKERIANA 
(Juz.) Breit. 

D. h. Juz. 

D. o. of Intermountain authors, 

not L. 
D. 0. ssp. h. Hult. 

FALLUGIA Endl. 

F. PARADOXA (D. Don) Endl. 
Sieversia p. D. Don 

FRAGARIA L. 

F. VESCA L. var. BRACTEATA (Heller) 
R.J. Davis 
F. americana of Intermountain 
authors, not (Porter) 
Britton, a synonym to 
var. a. Porter, an eastern 



MOUNTAIN 

AVENS 

Mt. Waslung- 
ton M. 



APACHE 

PLUME 



STRAWBERRY 



F. 



MOUNTAIN- 
MAHOGANY 



North American species 



C. LEDIFOLIUS Nutt. var. 

LEDIFOLIUS CurlleafM. 

C. LEDIFOLIUS Nutt. var. 

INTERCEDENS C. K. Schneid. 
C. hypoleucus Rydb. 
C. 1. var. h. Peck 
C. LEDIFOLIUS Nutt. var. INTRICATUS 
(S. Wats.) M. E. Jones 
C. arizonicus M. E. Jones 
C. i_. S. Wats. 

C. i_. var. villosus C. K. Schneid. 
C. MONTANUS Raf. var. MONTANUS True M. 
C. m. var. parvifolius (Rydb.) 
Kearney & Peebles 
C. p. Rydb. 
C. flabellifolius Rydb. 
C. m. var. f_. Kearney & Peebles 
C. MONTANUS Ra7. var. GLABER 
(S. Wats.) F. L. Martin 
C. betuloides Nutt. 
C. rotundifolius Rydb. 





F. 


b. Heller 






F. 


helleri Holz. 




F. 


VESCA L. var. CRINITA 


(Rydl).) 






C. L. Hitchc. 






F. 


c. Rydb. 




F. 


VIRGINIANA Duchn. var. 


GLAUC 






S. Wats. 






F. 


g. Rydb. 






F. 


ovalis (Lem.) Rydb 


var. g 






A. Nels. 





F. pauciflora Rydb. 
F. VIRGINLANA Duchn. var. OVALIS 
(Lehm.) R.J. Davis 
F. o. Rydb. 

F. VIRGINIANA Duchn. var. PLATY- 

PETALA (Rydb.) Hall 

F. p. Rydb. 

GEUM L. 

G. ALEPPICUM Jacq. 

G^. a_. var. strictum (Ait.) Fern. 

G. decurrens Rydb. 



AVENS 
Aleppo A. 



G. s. Ait. 
G. s. var. 



d. Keamev & Peebles 



49 



GEUM 



potentilJi 



GEUM L. (con.) 

G. MyVCROPHYLLUM Willd. var. 

MACROPHYLLUM LargeleafA. 

G. MACROPHYLLUM Willd. var. 

PERINCISUM (Rydb.) Raup 
G. m. var. rydbergii Farw. 
G. oregonense Rydb. 
G. p. Rydb. 
G. ROSSII (R. Br.) Ser. var. TURBINA- 
TUM (Rydb.) C. L. Hitchc. 
G. sericeum Greene 
G. t_. Rydb. 

G. rivale of Intermountain authors, 
not L. 
G. TRIFLORUM Pursh var. CILIATUM 
(Pursh) Fassett 
G. canescens (Greene) Munz 
G. c. Pursh 
G. c. var. griseura Kearney & 

Peebles 
G. t. of Intermountain authors, not 

Pursh 
Sieversia £. (Greene) Rydb. 
S. c. (Pursh) G. Don 



OCEANSPRAY 



Bush O. 



HOLODISCUS Maxim. (143) 

H. BOURSIERI (Carr.) Rehd. 
H. saxicola Heller 
Sericotheca b. Rydb. 
S. obovata Rydb. 
S. s. Rydb. 
H. DISCOLOR (Pursh) Maxim., of 

Intermountain references , 
is a distinct species north 
and west of our area 
H. DUMOSUS (Hook.) Heller var. 
DUMOSUS 
H. discolor (Pursh) Maxim, var. 

d. Rehd. 
H. discolor var. microphyllus 

(Rydb.)Jeps. 
H. m. Rydb. 

Sericotheca concolor Rydb. 
S. d. (Hook.) Rydb. 
S. m. Rydb. 
H. DUMOSUS (Hook.) Heller var. 

GLABRESCENS (Greenm.) 
C. L. Hitchc. 
H. discolor (Pursh) Maxim, var. 

g. Jeps. 
H. g. Heller 
Sericotheca g. Rydb. 



HORKELIA Cham. & Schlecht. (144) HORKELIA 

H. FUSCA Undl. var. CAPITATA 
(Undl.) Peck 
H. c. Lindl. 
H. f. ssp. c. Keck 
H. FUSCA Undl.~var. PSEUDOCAPITATA 
(Rydb.) Peck 
H. f. ssp. p. Keck 
H. p. Rydb. 
H. HISPIDULA Rydb. 

rVESIA Torr. & Gray (144) IVESIA 

I. BAILEYIS. Wats. var. BAILEYl 

Horkelia b. Rydb. 

H. beneolens A. Nels. & Macbr. 

I. b. Rydb. 

Potentilla b. Greene 
1. BAILEYl S. Wats. var. SETOSA 
S. Wats. 

Horkelia b. var. s. Rydb. 

I_. b. ssp. s. Keck 

Potentilla b. var. s. J. T. Howell 
I. GORDONII (Hook.) To'rr. & A. Gray Gordon I. 

Horkelia g. Hook. 

Potentilla g. Greene 



I. KINGII S. Wats. 

Horkelia k. Rydb. 

H. eremica (Cov.) Rydb. 

Y. e. Rydb. 

I. halophila Heller 

Potentilla e. Cov. 

P. k. Greene 
I. LYCOPODIOIDES A. Gray ssp. 
LYCOPODIOIDES 

Horkelia 1. Rydb. 
I. LYCOPODIOIDES A. Gray ssp. 

SCANULARIS (Rydb.) Keck 

Horkelia s. Rydb. 

Ivesia s. Rydb. 
I. PURPURASCENS (S. Wats.) Keck ssp. 
CONGDONIS (Rydb.) Keck 

Horkelia c. Rydb. 

Horkebella c. Rydb. 

Potentilla p. Greene var. c. Jeps. 
I. SABULOSA (M. E. Jones) Keck 

Comarella s. Rydb. 

Horkelia mutabilis T. S. Brandeg. 

H. s. L. O. Williams 

L m. Rydb. 

Potentilla s. M. E. Jones 
I. UTAHENSIS ST Wats. 

Horkelia u. Rydb. 

Potentilla u. Greene 
I. WEBBERI A. Gray 

Horkelia w. Rydb. 

Potentilla w. Greene 

PERAPHYLLUM Nutt. in Torr. & Gray 
P. RAMOSISSIMUM Nutt. 

PETROPHYTUM (Nutt.) Rydb. 

P. CAESPITOSUM (Nutt.) Rydb. var. 
CAESPITOSUM 
Eriogynia c. S. Wats. 
Spiraea c. Nutt. 
P. CAESPITOSUM (Nutt.) Rydb. var. 

ELATIUS (S. Wats.) Tides. 
P. e. Heller 
Spiraea c. var. e. S. Wats. 

PHYSOCARPUS Maxim. 

P. ALTERNANS (M. E. Jones) 
J. T. Howell 
Opulaster a. Heller 
P. MALVACEUS~(Greene) Kuntze 
Opulaster m. Kuntze 
O. pauciflorus (Torr. & A. Gray) 



Utah 1. 



^quawappli 



ROCKMAT 



Tufted R. 



NINEBARK 



Dwarf N. 



Mallow N. 



Heller 
pubescens Rydb. 
p. (Torr. & A. Gray) Piper 
p. (Rydb.) A. Nels. 



(Torr 

(Rydb.) A 
MONOGYNUS (Torr.) Coult 
Opulaster ra. Kuntze 
0. hapmanii Rydb. 



Mountain N 



CINQUEFOl 
Silverweed 



POTENTILLA L. (145, 146) 
P. ANSERINA L. 

Argentina a. Rydb. 

A. argentea Rydb. , not P. argentea L. 

P. a. var. concolor Ser. 

P. a. var. sericea Hayne 
P. ARGENTEA L^ Silver C. 

P. ARGUTA Pursh var. CONVALLARL\ 
(Rydb.)Th. Wolf. 

Drymocallis c. Rydb. 

P. a. of Intermountain authors , 
not Pursh 

P. a. ssp. c. Keck 

P. c. Rydb7 
P. BIENNIS Greene Biennial C. 

P. lateriflora Rydb. 
P. BR E VI FOLIA Nutt. 

P. b. var. perseverans A. Nels. 



50 



ENTILLA 



ENTILLA L. (con.) 
P. BREWERIS. Wats. Brewer C. 

P. CONCINNA Richards, var. 

CONCINNA Elegant C. 

P. concinnaet'ormis Rytib. 
P. humifusa Nutt. 
P. modesta Rydb. 
P. CONCINNA Richards, var. DIVISA 
Rydb. 
P. d. Rydb. 
P. CONCINNA Richards, var. RLIBRIPES 
(Rydb.) C. L. Hitchc. 
P. intermittens Rydb. 
P. proxima Rydb. 
P. rubricaulis of American 

authors, not Lehm. 
P. rubricaulis Rydb., not Lehm. 
P. rubripes Rydb. 
P. CRfNITA A. Gray var. CRINITA 



P. CRINITA A. Gray var. LEMMONI 
(S. Wats.) Kearney & 
Peebles 
Ivesia 1. S. Wats. 
P. 1. Greene 
P. DIVERSIFOLIA Lehm. var. 

DIVERSIFOLIA VarileafC. 

P. dissecta Nutt. , not Pursh 
P. d. Nutt. var. glaucophylla 
(Lehm.) S. Wats. 
P. d. Lehm. var. g. Lehm. 
P. g. Lehm. 
P. DIVERSIFOLLA Lehm. var. 

MULTISECTA S. Wats. 
P. dissecta Nutt. var. m. S. Wats. 
P. m. Rydb. ~ 

P. DRUMMONDU Lehm. ssp. 

DRUMMONDU Drummond C. 

P. anomalofolia Peck 
P. DRUMMONDU Lehm. ssp. BRUCEAE 
(Rydb.) Keck 
P. b. Rydb. 
P. FRUTICOSA L. BushC. 

Dasiphora f. Rydb. 
P. GLANDULOSA" Undl. ssp. 

GLANDULOSA Gland C. 

Drymocallis g. Rydb, 
P. GLANDULOSA Undl. ssp. 

ARIZONICA (Rydb.) Keck 
Drymocallis a. Rydb. 
P. a. Rydb. , in Tidestrom, not 

Greene 
P. macdougalli Tides. 
P. GLANDULOSA Lindl. var. INTER- 
MEDIA (Rydb.) C. L. 
Hitchc. 
Drymocallis glabrata Rydb. 
P. g. ssp. g. (Rydb.) Keck 
P. GLANDULOSA Undl. ssp. MICRO- 
PETALA (Rydb.) Keck 
Drymocallis m. Rydb. 
P. GLANDULOSA Undl. var. 

NEVADENSIS S. Wats. 
P. g. ssp. n. Keck 
P. GLANDULOSA~Undl. var. PSEUDO- 
RUPESTRIS (Rydb.) Breit 
Drymocallis p. Rydb. 
P. g. ssp. p. Keck 
P. p. Rydbr 
P. GLANDULOSA Undl. var. REFLEXA 
Greene 
Drymocallis r. Rydb. 
P. g. ssp. r. Keck 
P. r. Greene 
P. GRACFUS Dougl. var. BRUNNESCENS 
(Rydb.) C. L. Hitchc. 
P. b. Rydb. 
P. GRACILIS Dougl. var. ELMERI 
(Rydb.) Jeps. 
P. Candida Rydb. 



P. e. Rydb. 
P. pectinisecta Rydb. 
GRACILIS Dougl. var 



FLABELLl- 
FORMIS (Lehm.) Nutt. 
P. ctenophora Rydb. 

GLABRATA 
he. 



GRACILIS Dougl. var, 

(Lehm.) C. L. Hitc 
P. chrysantha Lehm. 
P. fastigiata Nutt. 
g. Rydb. 
glomerata A. Nels. 

ssp. nuttallil Keck 
Nels"^ 



Dougl. 
jucunda A. 
Lehm. 

P. n. var. g. Lehm. 
GRACILIS Dougl. var. PULCHERRIMA 
(Lehm .) Fern. 

P. filipes Rydb. 

P. g. var. f . Boiv . 

P. p. Leiim. 

P. p. var. (_. Th. Wolf. 
HIPPIANA Lehm. Horse C. 

P. diffusa A. Gray 

P. effusa Dougl. 

P. h, var. d. Lehm. 

P. leucophylla Torr. 

P. leucophylla Torr. & James (.5) 

P. propinqua Rydli. 
MILLEFOLIA Rydb. var. KLAMATH- 
ENSIS (Rydb.) Jeps. (9) 

P. k. Rydb. 
MILLEFOLIA Rydb. var. MILLEFOLIA 

P. plattensis Greene, not Nutt, 
NEWBERRYI A. Gray 
NIVEA L. 

P. nipharga Rydb. 
NORVEGICA L. Norwegian C. 

P. monspeliensis L. 

P. n. ssp. m. Asch. & Graebn. 
OVrNATMacourT 

P. diversifolia var. pinnatisecta 
sTWats. 

P. nelsoniana Rydb. 

P. p. A. Nels. 
PALUSTRIS (L. ) Scop. Marsh C. 

PARADOXA Nutt. 
PENSYLVANICA L. var. STRIGOSA 

Pursh Penn.sylvama C. 

P. glabrella Rydb. 

P. p. of western authors, not L. 

P. s. Pall. 

P. virgulata A. Nels. 
PLATTENSIS Nutt. Platte C. 

P. arizonica Greene, not Rydb. 
PSEUDOSERICEA Rydb. 
QUINQUEFOLIA (Rydb.) Rydb. 

P. nivea var. q. Rydb. 
RIVALIS Nutt. va"r. RIVALIS Brook C. 

RIVALIS Nutt. var. MILLEGRANA 
(Engelm.) S. Wats. 

P. leucocarpa Rydb. 

P. m. Engelm. 
SAXOSA Lemmon ssp. SIERRAE Munz 



PRUNUS L. 



P. AMERICANA Marsh 
P. ANDERSONIl A. Gray 

Amygdalus a. Greene 

Emplectocladus a. A. Nels. & Kenn. 
P. EMARGINATA (Dougl.) Walp. , as to 
author, not D. Dietr. 

Cerasus parvifoUa Greene 
P. FASCICULATA (Torr.) A. Gray 

Emplectocladus f. Torr. 
P. ILICIFOLIA (Nutt.)~Walp. 



PLUM; 

CHERRY 
American P. 
Anderson 

Peachbrush 



Bitter C. 

Desert 
Peachbrush 

Hollyleaf C. 



PRUNUS 



PRUNUS L. (con.) 

P. VIRGINIANA L. var. DEMISSA (Nutt.) 

Torr. Western 

Chokecherry 
P. d. Walp. 
P. VIRGINIANA L. var. MELANOCARPA 

(A. Nels.) Sarg. Black 

Chokecherry 
P. m. Rydb. 

P. V, of western authors, in large 
part, not L. 



PURPUSIA Brandeg. 

P. SAXOSA Brandeg. 

P. arizonica Eastw. 
P. osterhoutli A. Nels. 
PotentiUa o. J. T. Howell 

PURSHIA DC. 

P. GLANDULOSA Curran 

P. tridentata (Pursh) DC. var. 
M. E. Jones 
P. TRIDENTATA (Pursh) DC. 



BITTERBRUSH 
Desert B. 



Antelope B. 



SANGUISORBA L. 

S. MINOR Scop. 

Poterldium sanguisorba L. 
S. OCCIDENTALIS Nutt. 

Poteridium o. Rydb. 
S. SITCHENSIS C7 A. Meyer 

Poteridium s. S. Wats. 

S. latifoUa (Hook . ) Cov . 

SIBBALDIA L. 

S. PROCUMBENS L. 

SORBUS L. 

S. SCOPULINA Greene 

S. angustifolia Rydb. 

SPIRAEA L. 

S. DOUGLASII Hook. var. ROSEATA 
(Rydb.) C. L. Hitchc. 
S. r. Rydb. 
S. LUCIDA Dougl. 
S. PYRAMIDATA Greene 



ASTRAGALUS 



BURNET 



Sitka B. 



MOUNTAIN 

ASH 
Greenes M, 



SPIRAEA 



»l 



Shinyleaf S. 
Pyramid S. 



ROSA L. (147, 148) ROSE 

Adapted from the Rosa treatment by 

Arthur J. Cronquist, prepared for 

the Illustrated Flora of the Inter - 

mountain Region 
R. EGLANTERIA L. Sweetbrier R. 

R. rubiginosa L. 
R. GYMNOCARPA Nutt. BalcUup R. 

R. leucopsis Greene 
R. MANCA Greene Mancos R. 

R. NUTKANA Presl var. HISPIDA Fern. Bristly Nootka R, 

R. Columbiana Rydb. 

R. jonesii St. John 

R. macdougali Holz. 

R. melina Rydb. 

R. n. var. m. (Holz.) M. E. Jones 

R. oreophila Rydb. 

R. spaldingii Crepin 

R. s. var. h. G. N. Jones 
R. STELLATA Wooton Desert R. 

R. mirifica Greene 
R. WOODSII Lindl. var. ULTRA- 
MONTANA (S. Wats.) Jeps. 

R. arizonica Rydb. 

R. chrysocarpa Rydb. 

R. granulifera Rydb. 

R. macounii Greene 

R. puberulenta Rydb. 

R, salictorum Rydb. 

R. u. Heller 

R. w. of Intermountain authors , 
not Lindl. 



RUBUS L. (149) 



R 



BLACKBERRY; 
RASPBERRY 



IDAEUS L. ssp. SACHALINENSIS 
(Levi.) Focke 
R. acalyphacea (Greene) Rydb. 
R. i_. var. gracilipes M. E. Jones 
R. i. var. melanolasius (Focke) 

R.J. Davis 
R. i. var. strigosus (Michx.) 

Maxim. 
R. m. Focke 
R. s. Michx. 
R. LETjCODERMIS Dougl. 

R. occidentalis L. ssp. 1. Focke 
R. PARVIFLORUS Nutt. 



LEGUMINOSAE. Pea Family (150) 
Mimosoideae. Mimosa Subfamily 

ACACIA Mill. ACACIA 

A. GREGGU A. Gray Catclaw A. 

PROSOPIS L. (151) MESQUITE 

P. JULIFLORA (Sw.) DC. var. 

TORREYANA L. Benson 
P. chilensis of Intermountain 

authors, not Stuntz 
P. j. var. glandulosa of Intermoun- 
tain authors, not (Torr.) 
Cockerell 
P. PUBESCENS Benth. 

P. odorataTorr. & Frem. 
Strombocarpa p. A. Gray 



Caesalpinioideae. Senna Subfamily 

CASSIA L. 

C. ARMATA S. Wats. 

Xerocassia a. Britt. & Rose 
C. COVESII A. Gray 

Earlocassia c. Britt. & Rose 

CERCIS L. (152) 

C. OCCIDENTALIS Torr. 

HOFFMANSEGGIA Cov. 

H. REPENS (Eastw.) Cockerell 
Caesalpinia r. Eastw. 

KRAMERIA Loefl. 

K. GRAYl Rose & Painter 
K. PARVIFOLIA Benth. var. GLANDU- 
LOSA (Rose & Painter) Macbr 
K. g. Rose & Painter 
K. PARVIFOLIA Benth. var. IMPARATA 
Macbr. 
K. i. Britton 



SENNA 
Desert S. 

Hairy S. 



REDBUD 
California R. 



RUSH PEA 



KRAMERIA 
Grays K. 



Whitebark R. 

Western 
Thimbleberry 



nutkanus Moc. 

var. bifarius Fern. 



K. p. 

R. p. var. grandiflorus Fern. 
R. p. var. heteradenius Fern. 
R. p. var. hypomalacus Fern. 



Papilionoideae. Bean Subfamily 

ALHAGI Desv. , not Adans. 

A. CAMELORUM Fisch. 

ASTRAGALUS L. (153, 154, 155) 



Camelthorn 

LOCOWEED; 
MILKVETC 
POISONWEl 



52 



TRAGALUS 



ASTRAGALUS 



TRAGALUS L. (con.) 

A. ABORIGINUM Richards, var. 
ABORIGINUM 

A. forwoodii S. Wats. 

A. 1. var. wallosvcnsis (Ryilh.) 

~ ~ Peck 

Atelophragma a. Rydb. 

A. w. Rydb. 
A. ABORIGINUM Richards, var. 

GLABRIUSCULUS (Hook.) 
Rydb. 

A. g. A. Gray 

Atelophragma g. Rydb. 

Homalobus g. Rydb. 
A. ACUTIROSTRIS S. Wats. 

A. nuttalUanus DC. var. a. Jeps. 

A. streptopus Greene 

Haniosa a. Rydb. 
A. ADANUS A.'^Nels. 

Cnemidophacos a. Rydb. 

Ctenophyllum a. Rydb. 
A. ADSURGENS PalH var. ROBUSTIOR 
(Hook.) Barneby 

A. a. ssp. r. Welsh 

A. striatus Nutt . 
A. AEQUAUS Clokey 
A. AGRESTIS Dougl. 

A. dasyglottis Fisch., 

A. goniatus Nutt. 

A. virgultulus Sheld. 

Phaca a. Rydb. 



Indian M. 



not Pall. 



A. ALLOCHROUS A. 

Phaca a. Rydb. 
A. ALPINUS~L. 

A. andinus M. 



Gray 



E. Jones 



Purple M. 



Halfmoon L. 



Alpine M. 



Phaca a. of Piper, not L. 
Tium a. (L.) Rydb. 
A. ALVORDENSIS M. E. Jones 
A. AMPHIOX'l'S A. Gray var. AMPHIOXYS 
A. crescenticarpus Sheld. 
A. curtilobus Tides. 
A. marcus-jones ii Munz, in part 
A. tidestromii (Rydb.) Clokey, in 

a small part 
Xylophacos a. Rydb. 
X. aragalloides Rydb. 
A. AMPHIOX YS A . Gray var. 

CYMBELLUS M. E. Jones 
A. AMPHIOXYS A. Gray var. 
MELANOCALYX 
(Rydb.) Tides. 
Xylophacos m. Rydb. 
A. AMPHIOXYS A. Gray^var. 

MODESTUS Barneby 
A. AMPHIOXYS A. Gray var. VESPER- 
TINUS (Sheld.) M. E.Jones 
A. V. Sheld. 
Xylophacos v. Rydb. 
A. AMPULLARIUS'S. Wats. 

Phaca a. Rydb. 
A. ANDERSONU A. Gray 
A. ARETIOIDES (M. E. Jones) Barneby 
A. ARGOPHYLLUS Nutt. var. ARGO- 
PHYLLUS 
A. a. var. cnicensis M. E.Jones 
A. mntensis M. E. Jones 
Orophaca a. Rydb. 
Phaca a. Nutt. 
Xylophacos a. Rydb. 
X. u. Rydb." 
A. ARGOPHYLLUS Nutt. var. 

MARTINI M. E. Jones 
A. ARGOPHYLLUS Nutt. var. 

PANGUICENSIS M. E. Jones 
A. p. M. E. Jones (Rydb.) 
A. sabinarum Barneby 
Batidophaca s. Rydb. 
A. ARGOPHYLLUS" Nutt. var. 

PEPHRAGMENOIDES Barneby 



ARRECTUS A. Gray var. ARRECTUS, 
not M. E. Jones 

A. palousensis Piper 

A. a. var. p. M. E. [ones 

Phaca a. Piper 

Tium a. Rydb. 
ARRECTUS A. Gray var. PEPHRAG- 
MENUS M. E. Jones 

A. p. M. E. Jones 
ARTHURI M. E. Jones 

Atelophragma a . Rydb. 

Tium a. Rydb. 
ASCLEPIADOIDES M. E. Jones 

Jonesiella a. Rydb. 
ATRATUS S.~Wats. var. ATRATUS 

A. a. var. phyllophorus 
M. E. Jones 

A. a. var. stenophyllus M. E. 



Hamosa a 



Jones 
Rydb. 



Tium a. Rydb. 
ATRATUS S. Wats. var. INSEPTUS 

Barneby 
ATRATUS S. Wats. var. OW\'HEENSIS 
(A. Nels. (4 Macbr.) M. E. 
Jones 
A. o. A. Nels. 8t Macbr. 
Tium 0. Rydb. 
AUSTINAE A. Gray 
BECKWITHII Torr. & Gray var. 
BECKWITHII 
Phaca b. Piper 
Phacomene b. Rydb. 
BECKWITHII Torr. & Gray var. 
PURPUREUS M. E. Jones 
A. artemisiarum M. E. Jones 
Phaca a. Rydb. 
Phacomene a. Rydb. 
BECKWITHII Torr. & Gray var. 

WEISERENSIS M. E. Jones 
A. w. Abrams 
Phacomene w. Rydb. 
BERNARDINUS~M. E. Jones 

Hamosa b. Rydb. 
BIGELOVII A. Gray var. MOGOL- 
LONICUS (Greene) Barneby 
A. m. Greene 
BISULCATUS (Hook.) A. Gray var. 
BISULCATUS 
Diholcos b. Rydb. 
BISULCATUS (Hook.) A. Gray var. 
HAYDENIANUS (A. Gray) 
M. E. Jones 
A. grallator S. Wats. 
A. h. A. Gray 

A. h. var. major M. E. Jones 
A. h. var. nelsonii Gandoger 
A. scobinatulus Sheld. 
Diholcos h. Rydb. 
D. s. Rydb. 
Homalobus g. Rydb. 
BISULCATUS (Hook.) A. Gray var. 
NEVADENSIS (M. E. Jones) 
Barneby 
A. demissus Greene, not Boiss. & 



Beckwith M. 



Twogrooved L. 



Heldr. 
A. haydenianus var. 
A. jepsoni Sheld. 
Diholcos j. Rydb. 



a. M. E. Jones 



A. BODINI Sheld. 

A. BRANDEGEI Porter 

Atelophragma b. Rydb. 
A. BRYANTII Barneb"y 
A. CALIFORNICUS (A. Gray) Greene 

A. colLinus Dougl. var. c. A. Gray 

Homalobus c. Heller 
A. CALLITHRIX Barneby 



53 



ASTRAGALUS 



ASTRAGALUS V 



CALYCOSUS Torr. var. 
CALYCOSUS 
A. brevicaulis A. Nels. 



Hamosa c . Rydb. 

A. CALYCOSUS Torr. var. MANCUS 
(Rydb.) Barneby 
A. m. Wheeler 
Hamosa m. Rydb. 

A. CALYCOSUS Torr. var. 

MONOPHYLLIDUS 
(Rydb.) Barneby 
Hamosa m. Rydb. 

A. CALYCOSUS Torr. var. SCAPOSUS 
(A. Gray) M. E. Jones 
A_. _s_. A. Gray 
Hamosa s. Rydb. 

A. CAMPTOPUS Barneby 

A. CANADENSIS L. var. BREVIDENS 
(Rydb.) Barneby 
_A. iK Rydb. 
A. c. var. mortonii of Nevada 

references 
A. m. of Nevada references 
A. spicatus of Nevada references 
A. torreyi Rydb. 

A. CANADENSIS L. var. CANADENSIS 

A. CANADENSIS L. var. MORTONII 
(Nutt.) S. Wats. 
A_. m. Nutt . 
A. pachystachys Rydb. 
A. spicatus Nutt. 
A_. tristis Torr. & Gray 
Phaca m. Piper 

A. CASEI A. Gray 

Xylophacos c. Rydb. 

A. CASTANAEFORMIS S. Wats, var 
CASTANAEFORMIS 
A. argophyllus var. c. M. E. Jones 
Xylophacos c. Rydb. 

A. CASTANAEFORMIS S. Wats. var. 
CONSOBRINUS Barneby 

A. CERAMICUS Sheld. 

A. c. var. angustus M. E. Jones 

A. c. var. magnus M. E. Jones 

A. foliolosus Sheld. 

A. longifolius Rydb., not Lam. 

A. mitophyllus Kearney 

A. pictus (A. Gray) A. Gray 

A_. p. var. c. M. E. Jones 

Phaca p_. A. Gray 

A. CHAMAELEUCE A. Gray 
A. cicadeae M. E. Jones 
A. pygmaeus (Nutt.) M. E. Jones, 

Not Pall. 
Phaca p. Nutt. 
Xylophacos p. Rydb. 

A. CHAMAEMENISCUS Barne.by 

A. CHLOODES Barneby 

A. CIBARIUS Sheld. 

A. arietinus M. E. Jones 
Xylophacos c. Rydb. 



A. COCCINEUS (Parry) Brandg. 

A. grandiflorus S. Wats., not L. 
Xylophacos c. Heller 



A. COLLINUS Dougl . 

A. cyrtoides A. Gray 
Homalobus c. Rydb. 

A. COLTONIM. E. Jones var. COLTONI Colton L. 
A_. £. var. aphyllus M. E. Jones 
Homalobus c. Rydb. 

A. COLTONI M. E. Jones var. MOABENSIS 
M. E. Jones 

A. CONVALLARIUS Greene var. 

CONVALLARIUS Timber P. 

A. campestris (Nutt.) A. Gray, 

not L. 
A. diversifolius of Nevada references, 

not A. Gray 
A. junceus (Nutt.) A. Gray, not Ledeb. 
A. junciformis A. Nels. 
Homalobus c. Nutt. 
H. 2. Nutt." 
H. 2- (A. Nels.) Rydb. 
A. CONVALLARIUS Greene var. FINITIMUS 

Barneby 
A. CRASSICARPUS Nutt. 
A. CREMNOPHYLAX Barneby 
A. CRONQUISTII Barneby 
A. CUSICKII A. Gray 
Phaca c. Rydb. 
A. CURVICARPUS (Sheld.) Macbr. var. 

CURVICARPUS Curvepod 

Homalobus c. Heller 
A. CURVICARPUS' (Sheld . ) Macbr. var. 
SUBGLABER (Rydb.) Barneby 
Homalobus s. Rydb. 
A. CYMBOIDES M. E. Jones 

Xylophacos c. Rydb. 
A. DESERETICUS~Barneby 
A. DESPERATUS M. E. Jones var. 
DESPERATUS 
Batidophaca d. Rydb. 
Tium d. Rydb. 
A. DESPERATUS M. E. Jones var. 
CONSPECTUS Barneby 
A. DESPERATUS M. E. Jones var. 

PETROPHILUS M. E. Jones 
Batidophaca p. Rydb. 
A. DETERIOR Barneby 
A. DETRITALIS M. E. Jones 

A. spectabilis C. L. Porter 
Homalobus d. Rydb. 
A. DIDYMOCARPUS Hook. & Arn. 
Hesperastragalus d. Heller 
A. DIVERSIFOLIUS A. Gray, see A. con - 
vallarius for Nevada material 
A. convallarius var. d. Tidestr. 
A. ibapensis M. E. Jones 
A. reclinatus Cronq. 
~ Rydb. 



A. 



Atelophragma 
DRABELLIFORMIS Barneby 
DRUMMONDII Hook. 

Tium d. Rydb. 
DUCHESNENSIS M. E. Jones 

Lonchophaca d. Rydb. 
EASTWOODAE M. E. Jones 

A. preussii A. Gray var. e. M. E. 
Jones 

Fhaca e. Rydb. 
EMORYANUS (Rydb.) Barneby 

Hamosa e. Rydb. 



Drummond 1 



54 



RAG ALUS 



ASTRAGALUS 



< AGALUS L. (con.) 
A. ENSIFORMIS M. E. Jones 
A. EPISCOPUS S. Wats. 

Homalobus e. Rydb. 
A. EREMITICUS Sheld. var. EREMITICUS 

A. arrectus M. E. Jones, not A. Gray 

Tium e. Rydb. 
A. EREMmCUS Sheld. var. MALHEUR- 
ENSIS (Heller) Barneby 

A. cusickji Rydb., not A. Gray 

A. m. Heller 

Tium m. Rydb. 
A. ER'EMITiCUS Sheld. var. SPENCIANUS 
M. E. Jones 

A. boiseanus A. Nels, 

Cystium b. Rydb. 
A. EUREKENSfS M. E. Jones 

Xylophacos e. Rydb. 

X. medius Rydb. 
A. FILIPES Torr. 

A. f. var. residuus Jeps. 

A. macregorii (Rydb.) Tides. 

A. stenophyllus of Intermountain 

authors, not Torr. & Gray 

A. s. var. r. Barneby 

Homalobus f. Heller 

H. m. Rydb~ 
A. FLAVUS Nutt. var. ARGILLOSUS 
(M. E. Jones) Barneby 

A_. a_. M. E. Jones 

Cnemidophacos a, Rydb. 
A. FLAVUS Nutt. varT CANDICANS A. Gray 

A. conferttflorus A. Gray 

Cnemidophacos c. Rydb. 
A. FLAVUS Nutt. varT FLAVUS 

A. flaviflorus Sheld. 

Cnemidophacos f. (Nutt.) Rydb. 
A. FLEXUOSUS Dough var. FLEXUOSUS Flexile M. 

Homalobus f. Rydb. 

Pisophaca f. Rydb. 
A. FLEXUOSUS Dougl. var. DIEHLII 
(M. E. Jones) Barneby 

A_. _d_. M. E. Jones 

Pisophaca d. Rydb. 
A. FLEXUOSUS Dougl. var. SIERRAE- 
BLANCAE (Rydb.) Barneby 

Pisophaca s. Rydb. 
A. FUCATUS Barneby 

A. subcinereus M. E. Jones, not 
A. Gray 

Phaca s. Rydb. 
A. FUNEREUS M. E. Jones 
A. GEYERIA. Gray var. GEYERI 

Phaca annua Geyer 
A. GEYERI A. Gray var. TRIQUETRUS 
(A. Gray) M. E. Jones 

A. u A. Gray 

Phaca t. Rydb. 
A. GIBBSU Kellogg 

Homalobus plummerae Rydb. 
A. GILVIFLORUS Sheld. 
A. HAMILTONI C. L. Porter 
A. HARRISONU Barneby 
A. HORNII A. Gray 

Phaca h. Rydb. 
A. HOWELUI A. Gray var. ABERRANS 
(M. E. Jones) C. L. Hitchc. 
A. HUMILUMUS A. Gray 
A. HUMISTR_ATUS A. Gray var. 
HUMISTRATUS 

Batidophaca h. Rydb. 

Tium h. Rydb. 
A. HUMISTRATUS A. Gray var. HOSACKUE 
(Greene) M. E. Jones 

A. h. Greene 

Batidophaca h. Rydb. 
A. HUMISTRATUS~A. Gray var. 

HUMIVAGANS (Rydb.) Barneby 

Batidophaca h. Rydb. 



A. HUMISTRATUS A. Gray var. SONORAE 
(A. Gray) M. E. Jones 
A_. s. A. Gray 
Batidophaca s. Rydb. 
A. INFLEXUS Dougl. 

Xylophacos i. Rydb. 
A. INVERSUS M.'e. Jones 

A. filipcs var. i. Jeps. 
Homalobus i. Rydb. 
A. INYOENSIS Sheld. 

Tium 1. Rydb. 
A. lODANTHUS S. Wats. var. lODANTHUS 

Xylophacos i. Rydb. 
A. lODANTHUS S.^'Wats. var. DIAPHAN- 

OlDES Barneby 
A. lODANTHUS S. Wats. var. VIPERIUS 

Barneby 
A. lODOPETALUS Greene 
Xylophacos i. Rydb. 
X. stipulans Rydb. 
A. JEjIlNUS S. Wats. 
Phaca J. Rydb. 
A. KAIBENSIS M. E. Jones 
Lonchophaca k. Rydb. 
A. KENTROPHYTA~A. Gray var. KENTRO- 
PHYTA 
A. jessiae Peck 

E. Jones , not L. 
viridis 



montanus (Nutt.) M. 



A. tegetarius S. Wats, var 
(Nutt.) Barneby 
A. v. Sheld. 
Kentrophyta m. Nutt. 
K. v. Nutt. 
KENTROPHYTA A. Gray var. COLORAD 
ENSIS M. E. Jones 
A. montanus (Nutt.) M. E. Jones var. 

c . M. E. Jones 
Kentrophyta c. Rydb. 
KENTROPHYTA A. Gray var. ELATUS 
S. Wats. 
A. impensus (Sheld.) Woot . & Standi. 
A. k. var. i. M. E. Jones 
A. montanus var. i. M. E 
Wats, var 



Jones 

e. Barneby 



A. 



A. 



A. 



A. tegetarius S. 
Kentrophyta i. Rydb. 
KENTROPHYTA A. Gray var. IMPLEXUS 
(Canby) Barneby 
A. tegetarius S. Wats. var. i. Canby 
KENTROPHYTA A. Gray var. UNGULATUS 
M. E. Jones 
A. montanus (Nutt.) M. E. Jones var. 

u. M. E. Jones 
A. tegetarius S. Wats. var. u. Barneby 
Kentrophyta u. Rydb. 
LANCEARIUS A. Gray 
Homalobus 1. Rydb. 
LAYNEAE Greene 

Hamosa 1. Rydb. 
LEMMONI A. Gray 
LENTIGINOSUS Dougl. var. LENTI- 

GINOSUS Specklepod L. 

A. 1_. var. scorpionis M. E. Jones 
Cystium L Rydb. 
C. s. Rydb. 
LENTIGINOSUS Dougl. var. ARANEOSUS 
(Sheld.) Barneby 
A. diphysus of Nevada references, not 
A. K var. d. M. E. Jones 
Cystium a. Rydb. 
LENTIGINOSUS Dougl. var. BORREAG- 
ANUS M. E. Jones 
A. agininus Jeps. 
A. arthu-Mchottii A. 



A. 



Cystium a. Rydb. 
C. a. Rydb. 
LENTIGINOSUS Dougl. 
M. E. Jones 



Gray 



var. CARINATUS 



55 



ASTRAGALUS 



ASTRAGALUS 



ASTRAGALUS L. (con.) 

A. LENTIGINOSUS DougL var. CHARLES- 
TONENSIS (Clokey) Bameby 
A. kernensis of Nevada references, 

not Jeps . 
A. k. ssp. c. Clokey 
A. LE^NTfCINOSUS Dougl. var. CHARTA- 

CEUS M. E. Jones 
A. LENTIGINOSUS Dougl. var. DIPHYSUS 
(A. Gray) M. E. Jones 
A. d. A. Gray 
A. macdougalii Sheld. 
Cystium d, Rydb. 
C. m. Rydb. 
A. LENTIGINOSUS Dougl. var. FLORI- 
BUNDUS A. Gray 
Cystium i_. Rydb. 
C. ormsbyense Rydb. 
A. LENTIGINOSUS Dougl. var. FREMONTII 
(A. Gray) S. Wats. 
A. eremicus Sheld. 
A. f^. A. Gray 
A. i. ssp. e. Abrams 
Cystium e. Rydb. 
C. f_. Kydb. 
C. griseolum Rydb. 
A. LE'nTIGINOSUS Dougl. var. INEPTUS 



(A. Gray) M. E. 
A. i. A. Gray 
Cystium i. Rydb. 



Jones 



A 



A 



A 



A. LENTIGINOSUS Dougl. var. KENNEDYI 
(Rydb.) Bameby 
Cystium k. Rydb. 
A. LENTIGINOSUS Dougl. var. LATUS 
(M. E. Jones) M. E. Jones 
A. argenosus Sheld. 
A. diphysus A. Gray var. I. 

M. E. Jones 
A. L M. E. Jones 
Cystium L Rydb. 
A. LENTIGINOSUS Dougl. var. MACRO- 
LOBUS (Rydb.) Bameby 
Cystium m. Rydb. 
C. vulpinum Rydb. 
A. LENTIGINOSUS Dougl. var. MALA- 
COIDES Barneby 
LENTIGINOSUS Dougl. var. MARIANUS 
(Rydb.) Bameby 
A. LENTIGINOSUS Dougl. var. MOKIA- 

CENSIS (A. Gray) M. E. Jones 
A. m. A. Gray 
LETtTIGINOSUS Dougl. var. OROPEDU 

Barneby 
LENTIGINOSUS Dougl. var. PALANS 
M. E. Jones 
A. p. M. E. Jones 
A. LENTIGINOSUS Dougl. var. PLATY- 
PHYLLIDUS (Rydb.) Peck 
A. merrimi (Rydb.) Tides. 
Cystium m. Rydb. 
C. p. Rydb. 
A. LENTIGINOSUS Dougl. var. SALINUS 
(Howell) Barneby 
A. heUophilus (Rydb.) Tides. 
A. s. Howell 
Cystium h. Rydb. 
C. s. Rydb. 
A. LENTIGINOSUS Dougl. var. SEMOTUS 

Jeps. 
A. LENTIGINOSUS Dougl. var. SESQUI- 
METRALE (Rydb.) Barneby 
Cystium £. Rydb. 
A. LENTIGINOSUS Dougl. STRAMINEUS 
(Rydb.) Barneby 
A. coulteri of Intermountain references, 

and 
A. L var. c. of Intermountain refer- 
ences, not (Benth.) M. E.Jones 
Cystium s. Rydb. 



A. LENTIGINOSUS Dougl. var. TOIYAB- 

ENSIS Barneby 
A. LENTIGINOSUS Dougl. var. TREMU- 

LETORUM Barneby 
A. LENTIGINOSUS Dougl. var. URSINUS 
(A. Gray) Bameby 
A. u. A. Gray 
Tium u. Rydb. 
A. LENTIGfNOSUS Dougl. var. VITREUS 

Bameby 
A. LIMNOCHARIS Bameby 
A. LONCHOCARPUSTorr. 
A. macer A. Nels. 
Homalobus 1. Rydb. 
H. macrocarpa (A. Gray) Rydb. 
Lonchophaca m. (A. Gray) Rydb. 
L. m. (A. Nels.) Rydb. 
Phaca m. A. Gray 
A. LUTOSUSlvl. E. Jones 

Phaca 1. Rydb. 
A. LYALLII A. Gray var. CARICINUS 
M. E. Jones 
A. c. Barneby 
A. MALACUS A. Gray 

A.m. var. obfalcatus (A. Nels.) 

M. E. Jones 
A. o. A. Nels. 
Hamosa m. Rydb. 
A. MARlANUSTRydb.) Barneby 

Xylophacos m. Rydb. 
A. MEGACARPUSTNutt.) A. Gray 
A. m. var. parryi A. Gray 
A. m. var. prodigus Sheld. 
Phaca m. Nutt. 
A. MINTHORNIAE (Rydb.) Jeps. var. 
MINTHORNIAE 
Hamosa m. Rydb. 
A. MINTHORNIAE (Rydb.) Jeps. var. 

GRACILIOR (Barneby) Barneby 
A. ensiformis var. g. Barneby 
A. MINTHORNIAE (Rydb.)" Jeps. var. 

VILLOSUS Barneby 
A. MISER Dougl. var. DECUMBENS 
(Nutt.) Cronq. 
A. d. A. Gray 
A. dlvergens Blankin. 
Homalobus d. Nutt. 
H. d. (Blankin.) Rydb. 
A. MISER Dougl. var. HYLOPHILUS (Rydb.) 
Barneby 
A. h. A. Nels. 
Homalobus h. Rydb. 
A. MISER Dougl. ^var. OBLONGIFOLIUS 
(Rydb.) Cronq. 
A. carltonii Macbr. 
A. decumbens var. decurrens (Rydb.) 

Cronq. 
A. d. var. o. Cronq. 
A. rydbergii Macbr. 
Homalobus d. Rydb. 



humilis Rydb. 



H. microcarpus Rydb. 
H. 0. Rydb. 
MISER Dougl. var. TENUIFOLIUS 
(Nutt.) Barneby 
A. garrettii Macbr. 
Homalobus paucijugus Rydb. 
H. t_. Nutt. 
MISSOURIENSIS Nutt. var. AMPHIBOLUS 

Barneby 
MOENCOPPENSIS M. E. Jones 

Chemidophacos m. Rydb. 
MOHAVENSIS S. Wats. var. 

MOHAVENSIS 
MOHAVENSIS S. Wats. var. HEMI- 
GYRUS (Clokey) Barneby 
A. h. Clokey 

A. albens of Nevada reference, not 
Greene 



56 



RAGALUS 



ASTRAGALI'S 



AGALUS L. (con.) 

A. MOLUSSIMUS Torr. var. THOMPSONAE 



WARDIANUS 



IMPERFECTUS 



not 



(S. Wats.) Barncliy 
A. bigclovii A. Gray var. t. 
M. E. Jones 
A. MONOENSIS Barneby 
A. MONUMENTA LIS Barneby 
A. MULFORDIAE M. E. Jones 

A. m. var. newberryoides M. E. 

Jones 
Xylophacos m. Rydb. 
A. MUSL\'1ENSIS iVT. E. Jones 
A. NATURITENSIS Pays. 

Tiuni 11. Rydb. 
A. NELSONFaNUS Barneby 

A. pectinatus (Hook.) Dougl. var. 

platyphyllus M. E. Jones 
A. NEWBERRVIA. Gray var. NEWBERRYI 
A. eriocarpus S. Wats., not DC, 
A. n. var. castoreus M. E. Jones 
A. n. var. e. M. E. Jones 
A. n. var. watsonianus (Kuntze) 

M, E, Jones 
A. saturahs Sheld. 
A. w. Sheld., not Spreng. 
Xylophacos n. Rydb. 
A. NEWBERRYI aT Gray var 

Barneby 
A. NIDULARIUS Barneby 
A. ^^JDISIUQUUS A. Nels. 

Xylophacos n. Rydb. 
A. NUTTALLIANUS DC. var 
(Rydb.) Barneby 
A. n. var. trichocarpus of Inter - 
mountain references, 
Torr. & Gray 
Hamosa i. Rydb. 
A. NUTTALLIANUS DC. var. MICRANTHl- 

FORMIS Barneby 
A. NYENSIS Barneby 

A. nuttallianus var. piliferus Barneby 
A. OBSCURUS S. Wats. 

Tium o. Rydb. 
A. ONICIFORMIS Barneby 
A. OOPHORUS S. Wats. var. OOPHORUS 

Phaca o. Rydb. 
A. OOPHORUS S. Wats. var. CAULESCENS 
(M. E. Jones) M. E. Jones 
A. artipes A. Gray 
Phaca a. Rydb. 
A. OOPHORUS S. Wats. var. CLOKEYANUS 

Barneby 
A. OOPHORUS S. Wats. var. LONCHO- 

CALYX Barneby 
A. PANGUICENSIS (M. E. Jones) M. E.Jones 
A. argophyllus var. p. M. E. Jones 
A. sabinarum (Rydb.) Barneby 
Batidophaca s. Rydb. 
A. PARDA LINUS (Rydb.) Barneby 
A. PATTERSONI A. Gray 
Jonesiella p. Rydb. 
RydbergieUa p. Fedde & Sydow. 
A. PAYSONU (Rydb.) Barneby 

Hamosa p. Rydb. 
A. PECTINATUS (Hook.) Dougl. 
Cnemidophacos p. Rydb. 
Ctenophyllum p. Rydb. 
A. PERIANUS Barneby 
A. PINONIS M. E. Jones 
Pisophaca p. Rydb. 
A. PLATYTROPIS A. Gray 
Cystium p. Rydb. 
Phaca p. Rydb. 
A. PORRECf US S. Wats. 
A. PRAELONGUS Sheld. var. PRAELONGUS 
A. rothrockii Sheld. 
Jonesiella meamsii Rydb. 



Tliompson L. 



Patterson L. 



Narrowleaf P. 



J_. p^. Rydb. 

RydlxTgiella p. Fedile Si Sydow. 
A. PRA"EL0NGUS Siield. vai. F.LLINAE 

(Rydb.) Barneby 
A. PRAELONGUS Sheld. var. LONCIIOPUS 

Barneby 
A. PREUSSll A. Gray var. PREUSSII Preus> M. 

Phaca p. Rydb. 

RydbergieUa p. Rydl). 
A. PREUSSII A. Gray var. L.\TUS M. E. 
Jones 

A. arctus (Sheld.) Tides. 

A. p. var. a. Sheld. 

Jonesiella a. Rydb. 

RydbergieUa a. Rydlj. 
A. PREUSSII A. Gray var. LAXIFLORUS 
A. Gray 

Phaca L Rydb. 
A. PSEUDIODANTHUS Barneby 
A. PTEROCARPUS S. Wats. 
A. PUBENTISSIMUSTorr. S. Gray 

A. peabodianus M. E. Jones 

Phaca p. (Torr. & Gray) Rydb. 
A. PULSIFERAE A. Gray var. PULSIFERAE 

Phaca p. Rydb. 
A. PULSIFERAE A. Gray var. SUKSDORFII 
(Howell) Barneby 

A. s. Howell 

Phaca s. Piper 
A. PURSHU Dougl. var. PURSHU Pursh L. 

A. p. var. interius M. E. Jones 

A. incurvus (Rydb.) Abrams. , not 
Desf. 

Phaca p. Piper 

Xylophacos i_. Rydb. 

X. p. Rydb." 
A. PURSHII Dougl. var. GLAREOSUS 
(Dougl.) Barneby 

A. allanaris Sheld. 

A. booneanus A. Nels. 

A. g. Dougl. 

Phaca g. Piper 

Xylophacos g. Rydb. 
A. PURSHII DouglT var. LAGOPINUS 
(Rydb.) Barneby 

A. L Peck 

A. viarius Eastw. 

Xylophacos 1. Rydb. 
A. PURSHU DouglT var. LECTULUS 
(S. Wats.) M. E. Jones 

A. jonesii Abrams 

A. 1_. S. Wats. 

Xylophacos argentinus Rydb. , 
not Haum. 

X. L Rydb. 
A. PURSHU Dougl. var. LONGILOBUS 

M. E. Jones 
A. PURSHII Dougl. var. OPHIOGENES 
(Barneby) Barneby 

A. o. Barneby 
A. PURSHII Dougl. var. PUMILIO Barneby 
A. PURSHU Dougl. var. TINCTUS M. E. 
Jones 

A. candelarius Sheld. 

A. c. var. e.xiguus Sheld. 

A. ventosus (Rydb.) Suksd. , not 
Greene 

Xylophacos c. Rydb. 

X. subvillosus Rydb. 

X. V. Rydb. 
A. RACEMOSUS Pursh var. RACEMOSUS 

Tium r. Rydb. 
A. RACEMOSUS Pursh var. TRELEASEl 

C. L. Porter 
A. RAFAELENSIS M. E. Jones 

Cnemidophacos r. Rydb. 
A. RECEDENS (Green'e) C. L. Porter 
A. RECURVUS Greene 

Tium r. Rydb. 



57 



ASTRAGALUS 



ASTRAGALU 



ASTRAGALUS L. (con.) 

A. REMOTUS (M. E. Jones) Bameby 
A. arrectus A. Gray var. r. 
M. E. Jones 
A. REVENTUS A. Gray var. CONJUNCTUS 
(S. Wats.) M. E. Jones 
A. c. S. Wats. 
Tium c. Rydb. 
A. REVENtIjS A. Gray var. REVENTUS 

Cnemidophacos r. Rydb. 
A. ROBBINSU (Oakes) A. Gray var. ALPINI- 
FORMIS (Rydb.) Barneby 
A. alpinus var. a. Peck 
Atelophragma a. Rydb. 
A. ROBBINSU (Oakes") A. Gray var. 
OCCIDENTALIS S. Wats. 
A. labradoricus DC. var. o. 

M. E. Jones 
A. macounii Rydb. 
A. o. M. E. Jones 
Atelophragma o. Rydb. 
A. RUSBYI Greene ~ 

Atelophragma r. Rydb. 
Tium r. Rydb. 
A. SABULONUM A. Gray 
A. virgineus Sheld. 
Phaca arenicola Rydb. 



P. s. Rydb. 
SABULOSUS M. E. Jones 

Jonesiella s. Rydb. 
SALMONIS mT E. Jones 

Tium s. Rydb. 
SAURINUS Barneby 
SCHMOLLAE C. L. Porter 
SCOPULORUMT. C. Porter 

A. rarus Sheld. 

A. subcompressus A. Gray 

Tium s. (T. C. Porter) Rydb. 

T. s. (A. Gray) Rydb. 
SERENOI (Kuntze) Sheld. var. 
SERENOl 

A. canonis M. E. Jones 

A. nudus S. Wats. 



Straightstem P. 



not Clos. 



oblatus Sheld. 



A. shockleyi M. E. Jones 
A. watsonianus Speg. , not Sheld. 
SERENOI (Kuntze) Sheld. var. 
SORDESCENS Barneby 
SERPENS M. E. Jones 

Phaca s. Rydb. 
SESQUIFLORUS S. Wats. var. 
SESQUIFLORUS 
Phaca s. Rydb. 
SESQUIFLORUS S. Wats. var. 

BREVIPES Barneby 
SILERANUS M. E. Jones 

Phaca s. Rydb. 
SILERANUS var. CARIACUS M. E. 

Jones 
SOLITARIUS Peck 
SOPHOROIDES M. E. Jones 
Cnemidophacos s. Rydb. 
SPATULATUS Sheld. var. 
SPATULATUS 
caespitosus (Nutt.) A. Gray 
exllifolius A. Nels. 



Tufted M. 



iingulatus Sheld. 

simplex Tides. 

simpUcifoLius (Nutt.) A. Gray 
Homalobus brachycarpus Nutt. 
H. c. Nutt. 
H. e. Rydb. 
H^. L Rydb. 
H. s. (Nutt.) Rydb. 
SPATULATUS A. Gray var. 

UNIFLORUS (Rydb.) Barneby 
Homalobus u. Rydb. 



A. STERILIS Bameby 

A. STRATURENSIS M. E. Jones 

Atelophragma s. Rydb. 

Hamosa atratiforma Rydb. 

Tium a. Rydb. 
A. STRIATIFLORUS M. E. Jones 
A. SUBCINEREUS A. Gray 

Phaca s. Rydb. 
A. TEGETARIOIDES M. E. Jones 

Homalobus t. Rydb. 
A. TEGETARIUS'S. Wats. Mat M. 

A. aculeatus A. Nels. 

Homalobus a. Rydb. 

H. t_. Rydb." 

Kentrophyta a. Rydb. 

K. minima Rydb. 

K. t^. Rydb. 
A. TENELLUS Pursh var. TENELLUS Looseflower) 

Homalobus t. Britton & Brown 

H. dispar Nutt. 

Orobus d. Nutt. 
A. TENELLUS Pursh var. STRIGULOSUS 
(Rydb.) F. J. Herm. 

Homalobus s. Rydb. 
A. TEPHRODES A. Gray var. BRACHY- 
LOBUS (A. Gray) Barneby 

A. chloridae (M. E. Jones) Tides. 

A. intermedius M. E. Jones, not 

~ Ka^. & Kir. 

A. phoenicus M. E. Jones 

A. remulcus M. E. Jones 

Xylophacos b. Rydb. 

X. c. (M. E~ Jones) Rydb. 

X. pephragmenus Rydb. 
A. TERMINALIS S. Wats. 

A. reventoides M. E. Jones 

Tium t. Rydb. 
A. TETRAPTERUS A. Gray var. 

TETRAPTERUS Fourwing P. 

Pterophacos t. Rydb. 
A. TETRAPTERUS~A. Gray var. 

CAPRICORNUS M. E. Jones 
A. TETRAPTERUS A. Gray var. CINER- 
ASCENS (Rydb.) Barneby 

Pterophacos c. Rydb. 
A. TIDESTROMH (Rydb.) Clokey 

A. marcus-jonesii Munz, in part 

Xylophacos melanocalyx Rydb., 
not Boiss. 

X. t_. Rydb. 
A. TOANUS M. E. Jones 

A. campylophyllus Greene 

A. linifollus Osterh. 

Cnemidophacos t. Rydb. 

Ctenophyllum 1. Osterh. 
A. TOQUIMANUS Barneby 
A. TROGLODYTUS S. Wats. 

Cnemidophacos t. Rydb. 
A. UNCIALIS Barneby" 
A. UTAHENSIS (Torr.) Torr. & Gray 

Xylophacos u. Rydb. 
A. VEXILLIFLEXllS Sheld. 

Homalobus v. Rydb. 
A. WARDII A. Gr"ay Ward L. 

Phaca w. Rydb. 
A. WETHErTlLI M. E. Jones 

Phaca w. Rydb. 
A. WHITNEYI A. Gray var. WHITNEYI 

Phaca argentata Rydb. 

P. w. Heller 
A. WHITNEYI A. Gray var. CONFUSUS 

Barneby 
A. WHITNEYI A. Gray var. SISKIYOU- 
ENSIS (Rydb.) Barneby 

A. hookerianus var. s. Peck 

A. s. Greene 

A. w. ssp. h. Abrams 



Phaca h. Torr. & Gray 



58 



: KAGALUS 



l.VGALUS L. (con.) 
A. WINGATANUS S. Wats. 

A. acerbus Slield. 

A. dodgeanus M. E. Jones 

A. wingatensis Hellc-r 

A. w. S. Wats. var. d. M. E. Jones 

Homalobus a. Rydb. 

H. d. Rydbr 

H. w^. (S. Wats.) Rydb. 
A. VVOODRUFFII M. E. Jones 

A. WOOTONI Sheld. Wooton L. 

A. XIPHOIDES (Barncby) Barneby 

A. convallarius var. x. Barneby 
A. ZIONIS M. E. Jones ~ Zion M. 

A. stipularis (M. E. Jones) 
M. E. Jones 

Xylophacos s. Rydb. 

X. z. Rydb. 





I.ATlIVRnS 


H. 


mackenzii Richards, var. pabiilaru 




(A. Nels.) Kearney & 




Peebles 


H. 


p. A. Nels. 


H. 


p. var. rivulare L. O. Williams 



]v LEA Juss. 



INDIGO BUSH; 

DA LEA 
Feather I. 
FREMONTII Fremont D. 



D. FORMOSA Torr. 
D. FREMONTII Torr. 

Pa rose la £. Vail 

Psorodendron f. Rydb. 
D. FREMONTII Torr. var. MINUTIFOLIA 
(Parish) L. Benson 

D. johnsonii S. Wats. 

Parosela f. var. j. Jeps. 

P. f. varr wheele"ri (Vail) Rob. & 
Macbr. 

P. ]_. Vail 

P. j. var. m. Parish 

P. w. Vail 

Psorodendron j. Rydb. 
D. FREMONTII Torr. var. SAUNDERSII 
(Parish) Munz 

D. s. Parish 
D. FR^JMONTII Torr. var. PUBESCENS 
(Parish) L. Benson 

D. amoena S. Wats. 

Parosela a. Vail 

P. johnsonii (S. Wats.) Vail var. p. 
Parish 

Psorodendron a. Rydb. 

Psorodendron p. Rydb. 
D. KINGII S. Wats." 

Parosela k. Heller 
D. MOLLISSIMA (Rydb.) Munz 

D. neomexicana (A. Gray) Corry 
ssp. m. Wiggins 

Parosela m. Rydb. 
D. PARRYI TorT. & Gray 

Parosela p. Heller 
D. POLYADENIA Torr. 

Parosela p. Heller 

Psorothamnus p. Rydb. 
D. TERMINAUS M.~E. Jones 

Parosela t_. Heller 
D. THOMPSONAE (Vail) L. O. Williams 

Parosela t. Vail 



Parry D. 



Nevada D. 



D. WHITINGI Kearney & Peebles 

(LEGA L. 

G. OFFICINALIS L. 



GOATSRUE 
Common G. 



(.YCYRRHIZA L. UCORICE 

G. GLABRA L. Common L. 

G. LEPIDOTA Pursh var. LEPIDOTA American L. 

G. LEPIDOTA Pursh var. GLUTINOSA 
(Nutt.)S. Wats. 
G. g. Nutt. 



l.DYSARUM L. (156) 

H. BOREALE Nutt. var. BOREALE 
H. carnosulum Greene 
H. cinerascens of Intermountain 
I authors, not H. b. var. 

c. (Rydb.) Roll." 



SWEETVETCH 
Northern S. 



H. BOREALE Nutt. var. OBOVATUM Roll. 
H. BOREALE Nutt. var. UTAHENSIS (Rydb.) 
Roll. 

H. mackenzii of Intermountain authors, 
not H. b. var. m. 
(Richards.) C.T. Hitchc. 

H. u. Rydl). 
H. GREMIALE Roll. 
H. OCCIDENTALE Greene Westerns. 

H. lancifoUum Rydb. 

H. marginatum Greene 

H. uintahenseA. Nels. 
H. SULPHUR ESCENS Rydb. Sulfur S. 

H. flavescens Coult. & Fisch., not 

~ Regel & Schmalh. 

LATHYRUS L. (157) SWEETPEA 

Adapted from the treatment of Lathyrus 
by Loran Anderson for the 
"Illustrated Flora of the 
Intermountain Region." 
L. ARIZONICUS Britton Anzona S. 

L. BIJUGATUS White 

L. b. var. sandbergii White 
L. BRACHYCALYX Rydb. 

L. EUCOSMUS Butters & St. John Bush S. 

L. LANSZWERTII Kellogg var. 

LANSZWERTII ThickleafS. 

L. coriaceus White 
L. goldsteinae Eastw. 
L. oregonensis White 
L. LANSZWERTII Kellogg var. ARIDUS 
(Piper) Jeps. 
L. coriaceus White ssp. a. Piper 
L. 1. ssp. a. Bradshaw 
L. LATIFOLIUS L. Perennial S. 

L. LEUCANTHUS Rydb. var. 

LEUCANTHUS Aspen S. 

L. LEUCANTHUS Rydb. var. 

LAETIVIRENS (Greene) 
C. L. Hitchc. 
L. NEVADENSISS. Wats. ssp. 
NEVADENSIS 
L. obovatus (Torr.) White 



Vicia nana Kellogg 
L. NEVADENSIS S. Wats. ssp. LANCEO- 
LATUS (Howell) C. L. Hitchc. 

L. \_. Howell 

L. n. ssp. 1. var. nuttallii (S. Wats.) 

~ " C. L. Hitchc. 

L. n. ssp. 1. var. pilosellus (Peck) 

~ " C. L. Hitchc. 

L. n. S. Wats. 

L. pedunculatus St. John 
L. ODORATUS L. S. 

L. PAUCIFLORUS Fern. ssp. 

PAUCIFLORUS FewflowerS. 

L. p. ssp. tenuior (Piper) Piper 

L. p. var. t_. Piper, or Peck 
L. PAUCIFLORUS Fern. ssp. PAUCI- 
FLORUS var. UTAHENSIS 
(M. E. Jones) Peck 

L. bradfieldianus A. Nels. 

L. p. ssp. u. Piper 

L. u. M. E. Jones 
L. PAUCIFLORUS Fern. ssp. BROWNII 
(Eastw.) Piper 

L. brownii Eastw. 
L. RIGIDUS White 

L. albus S. Wats. , not Garcke 
L. SYLVESTRIS L. Flai S. 

L. ZIONIS C. L. Hitchc. 



59 



LOTUS 



LUPINUS 



LOTUS L. (158) 



BIRD'S FOOT 
TREFOIL 



Foot±iai B. 



Longbract B. 



L. CORNICULATUS L. 

L. macbridei A. Nels. 

L. tenuis Waidst. & Kit. 
L. CRASSIFOLIUS (Benth.) Greene 
L. HUMISTRATUS Greene 

Anisolotus brachycarpus 
(Benth.) Rydb. 

Hosacl^ia b. Benth. 

L . trispermus Greene 
L. LONGEBRACTEATUS Rydb. 

Hybrid between L. utahensis X 
L. wrightii 

Anisolotus nummularius (M. E. Jones) 
Woot. & Standi. 

A. U Rydb. 

L. n. (M. E. Jones) Tides. 

L. rigida (Benth.) Greene var. 
n. M. E. Jones 
L. MEARNSII BritFon 
L. NEVADENSIS (S . Wats.) Greene var. 
NEVADENSIS 

Hosackia n. Parish 

L. douglasii var. n. Ottley 
L. NEVADENSIS (S. Wats.) Greene var. 

DOUGLASII (Greene) Ottley 

Hosackia decunnbens Benth. 

L. d. Greene 

Syrmatium decumbens Greene 
L. OBLONGIFOLIUS (Benth.) Greene var. 
NEVADENSIS (A. Gray) Munz 

Hosackia torreyi A. Gray 

L. 0. var. t. Ottley 
L. PINNATUS Hook. Meadow B. 

Hosackia bicolor Dougl . 

L. b. (Dougl.) Frye & Rigg. 
L. PURSHIANUS (Benth.) Clements & 
Clements 

Acmispon americana Rydb. 

Hosackia a. (Nutt.) Piper, or Benth. 

H. floribunda Nutt. 

H. mollis Nutt. 

L. a. Bisch. not Veil. 
L. RIGIDDs (Benth.) Greene Shrubby B. 

Anisolotus r. Rydb. 

L. argensis Gov. 
L. SALSUGINOSUS Greene var. 

BREVIVEXILLUS Ottley 

L. humilis Greene 
L. TOMENTELLUS Greene Desert B. 

Hosackia t. Abrams 
L. UTAHENSIS~bttley 
L. WRIGHTII (A. Gray) Greene Wright B. 

Anisolotus w. Rydb. 

Hosackia w. A. Gray 

LUPINUS L. (1, 4, 5, 6, 9, 159, 160) LUPINE 

(ANNUALS) 

L. ARIZONICUS (S. Wats.) S. Wats. Arizona L. 

L. sparsiflorus Benth. var. 
~ aTC. P. Smith 

L. BREVICAULIS S. Wats. Shortstem L. 

L, bassett-maguirei C. P. Smith 
L. dispersus Heller 
L. scaposus Rydb. 
L. CONCINNUS J. G. Agardh var. 

ORCUTTIl (S. Wats.) C. P.Smith 
L. c. of Intermountain authors, not 

J. G. Agardh 
L. micensis M. E. Jones 
L. o. S. Wats. 
L. FLAVOCULATUS HeUer 

L. odoratus Heller var. f. Jeps. 
L. rubens Rydb. var. f. C. P. Smith 



L. KINGIIS. Wats. 

L. capitatus Greene 

L. sileri S. Wats. 
L. MALACOPHYLLUS Greene 
L. NANUS Dougl. var. MENKERAE 
C. P. Smith 

L.n. ssp. m. D. E)unn 
L. ODORATUS Heller var. ODORATUS 
L. ODORATUS Heller var. PILOSELLUS 

C. P. Smith 
L. PACHYLOBUS Greene 
L. PUSILLUS Pursh var. PUSILLUS 
L. PUSILLUS Pursh var. INTERMON - 
TANUS (Heller) C. P. Smith 

L. i_. Heller 

L. p. ssp. i. D. Dunn 
L. RUBENS Rydb," 

L. odoratus var. r. Jeps. 

L. pusillus ssp. r. D. Dunn 



Kings L. 



Mohave L. 



Bigpod L. 
Rusty L. 



Yelloweye L, 



Desert L. 
Coulter L. 



Mountain L. 



L. SHOCKLEYI S. Wats. 
L. SPARSIFLORUS Benth. 
L. SUBVEXUS C, P. Smith 

L. microcarpus of Intermountain 
authors, not Sims 
L. UNCIALIS S. Wats. 
(PERENNIALS) 

L. ALPESTRIS A. Nels. 
L. adscendens Rydb. 
L. argenteus Pursh var. macounii 

(Rydb.) R. J. Davis 
L. laxus Rydb. 
L. m. Rydb. 

C. P. Smith described some 15 species 
and 4 varieties from Nevada 
material. See Dunn for 
this synonymy 
L. AMMOPHILUS Greene Sand L. 

L. ANDERSONI S. Wats. 

L. albicaulis of Intermountain 

reference, not Dougl. 
L. ARBUSTUS Dougl. ssp. ARBUSTUS (IbO) 
L. a. ssp. a. var. montanus 

(Howell) Dunn 
L. laxiflorus Dougl. var. a. M. E.Jones 
L. perconfertus C. P. Smith 
L. proteanus Eastw. 
L. ArIuSTUS Dougl. ssp. CALCARATUS 
(Kellogg) Dunn 
calcaratus Kellogg 



elegantulus Eastw. 

laxiflorus Dougl. var. c. C. P. Smith 

1. var. villosulus C. P. Smith 

noldekae Eastw. 

variegatus Heller 



Smith used a number of U.S. Forest 
Service specimens in making 
new species from Idaho, see 5 
or 160 from specimen numbers. 
L. ARBUSTUS Dougl. ssp. NEOLAXIFLORUS 
Dunn 
L. laxiflorus of American authors, 

not Dougl. 
C. P. Smith used a number of U. S. Forest 
Service specimens in making 
new species from Idaho, see 5 
or 160 from specimen numbers. 
L. ARBUSTUS Dougl. ssp. PSEUDOPARVl- 
F LOR US (Rydb.) Dunn 
L. laxiflorus Dougl. var. p. C.P.Smith 
L. p. Rydb. 

See Dunn (160) for complete synonomy. 
L. ARBUSTUS Dougl. ssp. SILVICOLA 
(Heller) Dunn 
L. lassenensia Eastw. 
L. laxiflorus Dougl. var. s. C. P.Smith 
L. s. Heller 



60 



mI';dic:a(;() 



^ L. (con.) 
ARGEXTEUS Pursh var. Silvery L. 

ARGENTEUS 
L. a. vai". teiiellus (Doutjl.) Uunn 
L. davisianuni C. P. SiniUi 
L. decumbcn> Torr. 
L. IrcmontL-nsi-s C. P. Smith 
L. niaculatus Ryilb. 
L. rubricauhs Greent' 
L. spaUiulatus Ryclb. 
L. t. Dougl. 

See (5) lor the G. P. Sniitli names, 
wliich are s>Tionyms to 
liiis taxon. 
ARGENTEUS Pursh var. DEPRESSUS 
(Rydb.) C. L. Hitchc. 
L. d. Rydb. 
L. evermannii Rydb. 
See (5) for the C. P. Smitli names, 
which are synonyms to 
tliis taxon. 
ARGENTEUS Pursh var. PAR\ IFLORUS 
(Nun:.) C. L. Hitchc. 
L. aduncus of Intermountam authors, 

not A. Gray 
L. floribundus Greene 
L. p. Nutt. 
ARGENTEUS Pursh var. STENOPHYLLUS 
(Nutt.) R. J. Davis 
L. s. Rydb. 
L. BARBIGER S. Wats. 

L. BREWERI A. Gray var. i3REWERI Brewers L. 
L. BREWERI A. Gray var. BRYOIDES 
C. P. Smith 
L. tegeticuJatus Eastw. 
L. BREWERI A. Gray var. GRANDI- 
FLORUS C. P. Smith 
L. monensis Eastw. 
CAUDATUS Kellogg TaiJcup L. 

L. argentmus Rydb. 
L. hendersonii Eastw. 
L. lupinus Rydb. 
L. rosei Eastw. 
L. utaliensis Moldenke 
OURANII Eastw. 
EXCUBITUS M. E. Jones 
i^ULCRATUS Greene 
GRAYI S. Wats. 
illLLII Greene 

HOLMGRENANUS C. P. Smith 
IIOLOSERICEUS Nutt. 

L. multicmicinnis C. P. Smith 
INYOENSIS Heller 

L. padrc-erowleyi C. P. Smith 
LATIFOLIUS J. G. Agardh var. 

BARBATUS (Henderson) Munz 
L. b. Heller 
LATIFOLIUS J. G. Agardh var. 
COLUMBL\NUS (Heller) 
C. P. Smitli 
L. c_. Heller 

L. confusus Heller, not Rose 
LEPIDUS Dougl. var. ARIDUS 
(Dougl . ) Jeps . 
L. a. Dougl. 
L. hellerae Heller 
L. minutifolius Eastw. 



Inyo L. 

Grays L. 
HUls L. 



Columbia Broad - 
leaf L. 



L. psoralcoides Pollard 
LE'PIDUS Dougl. var. ARTULUS Jeps. 

L. sellulus Kellogg var. a. Eastw. 
LEPIDUS Dougl. var. CUSICKII 

(S. Wats.) C. L. Hitchc. 

L. aridus ssp. c. Detl. 

L. abortivus Greene 

L. brachypodus Piper 

L. ^. S. Wats. 

L. volutans Greene 



L. LI-:PIDUS Dougl. var. LOHBll 

(A. Gray) G. L. Hitchc. 
L. aridus Dougl. var. I. S. Wals. 
L. danaus A. Gray 
L. J^. Dougl. ss|i. l yallii (A. Gray) 

Detl . "" 
L. lobbii A. Gray 
L. lyallii A. Gray 

L. lyallii ssp. stibpandens ('. P. Smith 
L. pinetorum Heller, not M. I;. Jones 
L. washoensis Heller 
L. LEPIDUS Dougl. var. TORRI-VI 
(A. Gray) Jeps. 
L. aridus Dougl. var. t. G. P. Smith 
L. sellulus Kellogg 
L. LI-TtDUS Dougl. var. UTAIIFXSIS 
(S. Wats.) C. L. Hitchc. 
L. aridus Dougl. var. U.S. Wals. 
L. caespitosus Nutt. 
L.I. ssp. c. Detl. 
L. watsonii Heller 
L. LEUCOPHYLLUS Dougl. var. Velvet L. 

LEUCOPHYLLUS 
L. canescens Howell 
L. cyaneus Rydb. 
L. ercctus Henderson 
L. macrostachys Rydb. 
L. plumosus Dougl. 
See (5) for complete synonymy of 
C. P. Smith names 
L. LEUCOPHYLLUS Dougl. var. TENUISPICUS 
(A. Nels.) C. P. Smith 
L.£. A. Nels. 
L. MEIONANTHUS A.Gray 
L. MONTIGENUS Heller 
L. NEVADENSIS Heller 
L. ONUSTUS S. Wats. 

L. pinetorum M. E. Jones, 
not Heller 
L. OSTERHOUTLANUS C. P. Smitli 
L. PALMERI S. Wats. 

L. candidissimus Eastw. 

P. Smith 



Tahoe L. 



Ground L. 



Palmer L. 



L. marcusianus C . 
POLYPHYLLUS Lindl. POLY- 
PHYLLUS 
L. grandlfolius LLndl. 



Washington L. 



L. POLYPHYLLUS Lindl. var. BURKEI 
(S. Wats.) C. L. Hitchc. 
L. b. S. Wats. 
L. POLYPHYLLUS Lindl. var. PRUNO- 

PHILUS (M. E. Jones) FliUlips 
L. p. M. E. Jones 
L. tooelensis C. P. Smitli 
L. POLYPHYLLUS Lindl. var. SPARSI- 
PILOSUS Eastw. 
L. apodotropis Heller 
L. elongatus Greene 
L. p. ssp. superbus (Heller) Munz 
L. s". Heller 



SAXOSUS Howell 
SERICEUS Pursh 

L. flexuosus Lindl. 



Rock L. 
Silky L. 



L. egglestonismus (C. P. Smith) 
C. P. Smitli 

L. ornatus Dougl. 

L. s^. var. e. C. P. Smitli 

See (5) for complete synononiy of 
C. P. Smith names 
SUBLANATUS Eastw. 
WYETHII S. Wats. 

L. humicola A. Nels. 

L. rydbergii Blankinship 



MEDICAGO L. 061) 

M. FALCATA L. 
M. HISPIDA Gaertn. 



Wyeth L. 



MEDICK, 

ALI-"ALFA 



Yellow Lucerne 



MEDICAGO 



SOPHORA 



MEDICAGO L. (con.) 

M. denticulata Willd. 



M. LUPULINA L. 

Medica 1. Scop. 
M. SATIVA L. 




Black M. 

A. 


MELILOTUS MUl. 

M. ALBA Desr. 
M. INDICA (L.) All. 
M . occidentalis 
M. OFFICINALIS (L.) 


Mutt. 
Lam. 


SWEET CLOVER 

White S . 

Annual Yellow S . 

Yellows. 


ONOBRYCHIS Scop. 

0. VICIAEFOLIA Scop 
0. onobrychis (L 
0. sativa Lam. 


Rydb. 


SAINFOIN 
Common S. 



O. vise IDA Nutt. 

Aragallus v. Greene 
A. viscidulus Rydb. 
Astragalus v. (Nutt.) Tides. 
O. V. (Rydb.) Tides. 

PARRYELLA Torr. & Gray 

P. FILIFOLIA Torr & Gray 
P. ROTUNDATA Wooton 



OXYTROPIS DC. 062) CRAZYWEED 

O. BESSEYl (Rydb.) Blank, var. 

VENTOSA (Greene) Barneby 
Astragalus v. Greene, not 
(Rydb.) Suksd. 
O. b. of Intermountain autliors, 
not (Rydb.) Blank. 
O. CAMPESTRIS (L.) DC. var. CUSICKII 
(Green . ) Barneby 
Aragallus apicola Rydb. 
Astragalus a. Tides. 
O. a. M. E. Jones, not Turcz. 
O. c. of Intermountain authors, not 

(L.)DC. 
O. c_. (L.) DC. var. ry dbergii 

" (A. Nels.) R. J ."Davis 
O. c. Greenm. 
O. r. A. Nels. 
O. DEFLEXA (Pall.) DC. var. FOLIOLOSA 
(Hook.) Barneby 
Aragallus f. Hook. 
Astragalus d. var. f. Tides. 
O. j.. HookT 
O. DEFLEXA (Pall.) DC. var.SERICEA 
Torr. & Gray 
O. d. of American authors, not 

(Pall.) DC. 
O. retrorsa Fern. 
O. r. var. s. Fern. 
O. JONEsTi Barneby 

O. LAMBERTII Pursh var. Lambert C. 

BIGELOVll A. Gray 
Aragallus b. Greene 
Astragalus 1. Spreng. var. 
b^. Tides. 
O. MULTICEPS Torr. & Gray 
Aragallus m. Heller 
Astragalus bisontum Tides. 
A. b. var. minor (A. Gray) Tides. 
0. minor Cockerell 
O. m. Torr. & Gray var. m. A. Gray 
O. OBNAPIFORMIS C. L. Porter~ 
0. OREOPHILA A. Gray 

Aragallus o. A. Nels. 
Astragalus o. Tides., not 

Reiche. or Rydb. 
A. munzii Wheeler 
O. PARRYI A. Gray 

Aragallus p. Greene 
Astragalus parryanus Tides. 
O. SERICEA Nutt"^ 

Aragallus majusculus Greene 

A. s. Greene 

Astragalus albiflorus (A. Nels.) 

Gandoger 
Astragalus saximontanus (A. Nels.) 



PETALOSTEMON Michx. 


PRAIRIE 


CI 


P. CANDIDUM (Willd.) Michx. 






Dalea c . Shinners 






P. c. var. oligophyllus 




(Torr.) F. J. Herm. 




P. 0. Torr. 




P. FLAVESCENS S. Wats. 


Yellow P. 


P. ORNATUM Dougl. 




Dalea o. Eaton & Wright 




P. SEARLSIAE A. Gray 


Searls P. 


PETERIA A. Gray 


PETERIA 


P. THOMPSONAE S. Wats. 


Thompson P 


P. nevadensis Tides. 




PLSUM L. 


PEA 


P. SATIVUM L. 


Garden P. 


PSORALEA L. 


SCURFPEA 


P. CASTOREA S. Wats. 


Beaverbreai 



EPIPSILA Barneby 
JUNCEA Eastw. 

Psoralidium j . Rydb. 
LANCEOLATA Pursh var. 
LANCEOLATA 

P. arenaria Nutt. 

P. elliptica Pursh 

P. laxiflora Nutt. 

P. micrantha A. Gray 

Psoralidium I. Rydb. 

Psoralidium m. Rydb. 



Lemon S. 



P. LANCEOLATA Pursh var. PURSHll 
(Vail) Piper 

P. 1. ssp. scabra (Nutt.) Piper 

P. ~p. Vail 

P. £. Nutt. 

P. stenophyllum Rydb. 

P. stenostachys Rydb. 

Psoralidium p. Rydb. 
P. MEGALANTHA Woot. & Standi. 

Pediomelum m. Rydb. 
P. MEPHITICA S. Wats. 

Pediomelum m. Rydb. 
P. TENUIFLORA Pursh var. BIGELOVll 
(Rydb.) Macbr. 

P. t. of Intermountain authors, 
not Pursh 

Psoralidium b. Rydb. 

ROBINIA L. 

R. NEOMEXICANA A. Gray 

R. luxurians (Dieck) Schneid. 

R. 

R. 



SkunktopS, « 



LOCUST 
New Mexico 



var. I . Dieck 
subvelutina (Rydb.) 



Silky C. 



Tides. 
K. Schum. 



Kearney & Peebles 
R. s. Rydb. 
R. PSEUDO-ACACIA L. 

Occasionally escaping and 
becoming established near 
communities 

SOPHORA L. 

S. SERICEA Nutt. 

S. STENOPHYLLA A. Gray 



Black L. 



SOPHORA 
Silky S. 
FringeleafS 



62 



\M\SONLA 



CI'RANUJM 



'.^ i .-I >NIA Salisb. 

s. SALSULA (Pall.) Taubcrt 
Sphaerophysa £. DC. 

hKMOPSIS R. Br. 063) 

I . MO.NTANA Nutt. var. MONTANA 
T. angustata Greene 
T. stricta Greene 
1 . MONTANA Nun. var. OVATA 
(Robins.) St. John 
T. o. Rydb. 
1 . PINETORUM Greene 

F I 'I.IUM L. (5) 

I . AGRARIUM L. 

1 . ANDERSONII A. Gray 

I . ANDINUM Nutt . 

1 . BECKWITHII Brewer 

1 . CYATHIFERUM Lmdl. 

I . DASYPHYLLUM Torr. & Gray 

T. uintense Rydb. 
r. DOUG LAS II House 
1. DUBIUM Sibth. 
'. ERIOCEPHALUM Nutt. var. 
ERIOCEPHALUM 

T. arcuatum Piper 



SWAINSONPEA 



THERMOPSLS 
Mountain T. 



Pine T. 

CLOVER 
Hop C. 
Fiveleaf C. 

BeckwitJi C. 
Cup C. 
Whiproot C. 

Douglas C . 
Suckling C. 

WooUyhead C . 



T. 


ERIOCEPHALUM Nutt. var. 




T. 


CUSICKII (Piper) J. S. 
T. barneyense Howell 
T. tropicum A. Nels. 
ERIOCEPHALUM Nutt. var. 

PIPERI J. S. Martin 


Martin 


T. 


FENDLERI Greene 


Fendler C. 


T. 


FRAGIFERUM L. 


Strawberry C 


T. 


GYMNOCARPON Nutt. var. 






GYMNOCARPON 


HoUyleaf C. 




T. nemorale Greene 






T. subcaulescens A. Gray 





GYMNOCARPON Nutt. var. PLUMMERAE 
(S. Wats.) J. S. Martin 
T. p. S. Wats. 



T. 



T. 



HYBRIDUM L. 

KINGU S. Wats. 

LEIBERGII A. Nels. & Macbr. 

LEMMONl S. Wats. 

LONGIPES Nutt. var. LONGIPES 

T. pedunculatum Rydb. 
LONGIPES Nutt. var. PYGMAEUM 
A. Gray 

T. 1. var. rusbyi Harrington 

T. r. Greene 
LONGIPES Nutt. var. REFLEXUM 
A. Nels. 

T. rydbergii Greene 
MACILENTUM Greene 
MACROCEPHALUM (Pursh)Poir. 

T. megacephalum Nutt. 

MICROCEPHALUM Pursh 

MONANTHUM A. Gray var. 

MONANTHUM (169) 

MONANTHUM A. Gray var. 

PARVUM (Kellogg) Mc. Derm. 

T. multicaule M. E. Jones 

f. p. HeUer 
MONOENSE Greene 
NANUM Torr. 
OWYHEENSE GUkey 
PARRYI A. Gray 

T. montanense Rydb. 
PINETORUM Greene 

T. longicaule Woot. & Standi. 

T. wormskjoldii Lehm. var. 
1. L. Benson 
PLUMOSUM Dougl. 
PRATENSE L. 
PROCUMBENS L. 



Alsike C. 
Kings C. 

Lcmmons C. 
Longstalk C . 



Rydberg C . 

Utah C. 
Bighead C . 

Littlehead 



Mono C . 
Dwarf C. 

Parry C. 



Pussy C. 
Red C. 
Low Hop C . 



T. PRODUCl'UM Greene 

T. REPENS L. 

T. VARIEGATUM Nutt. 

T. WILLDENOVII Spreng. 
r. I'imbriatuni Lindl 
r. hcterodon Torr. 



White C. 
Whitetip C 
Sierra C. 



S; Gray 

T. involucratuni Ortega, not l.uni. 
T. spinulosum Dougl. 
T. w. var. t. Ewan 
T. wormskjoldii Lehm. 
T. \\ . Lehm. var. 1. |eps. 

VICIA L. (I6S) VETCH 

Adapted from tlie Vicia 

treatment by Loren Anderson 

for tlie "Illustrated Flora of 

the Intcrmountain Region." 
V. AMERICANA Mulil. var. AMERICANA 
V. AMERICANA Muhl. var. MINOR Mook. 

V. caespitosa A. Nels. 

V. callianthema Greene 



V. dissitifolia (Nutt.) Rydb. 
V. linearis (Nutt.) Greene 



sparsifolia Nutt. 
sylvatica Nutt. 
vexillaris Greene 



V. AMERICANA Muhl. var. 

TRUNCATA (Nutt.) Brewer 
V. a. of western authors, not 

Muhl. , in large part 
V. a. var. oregana (Nutt.) 

A. Nels. 
V. o. Nutt. 
V. r. Nutt. 
V. CRACCA L. 
V. EXIGUA Nun. 
V. SATIVA L. var. SATIVA 
V. SATIVA L. var. ANGUSTIFOLIA 
(L.) Wahlb. 
V. a. L. 

V. segetalis Thuill. 
V. VILLOSA Roth. 



Bitleaf American 
V. 



Bird V. 
Slim V. 
Common V . 



Hairy V. 



GERANIACEAE. Geranium l-amilv 



ERODIUM L'Her. 

E. CICUTARIUM (L.) L'Her. 
E. TEXANUM A. Gray 

GERANIUM L. (166, 167, 168) 



BICKNELLII Britton var. 

LONGIPES (S. Wats.) Fern. 

G. b. of western authors, not 
Britton 

G . I . Goodding 
CA'ESP'ITOSUM James 

G. atropurpureum Heller 
CAROLINIANUM L. 

G. thermale Rydb. 
FREMONTII Torr. 

G. caespitosum in (II) & (12), 



STORKSBILL 
AlfUeria S. 
Texas S. 

CRANESBILL; 
WILD CERA ■ 
NIUM 



Carolina G. 



Fremont G 



not James 
G. MARGINALE Rydb. 
G. NERVOSUM Rydb. 

G. canum Rydb. 

G. incisum of (11), not Nutt. 

G. strigosius St . John 

G. strigosum Rydb., not Burm. f. 

G. viscosissimum Fisch. Si C. A. 



Meyer var. 
Hitchc . 
PARRYI (Englem.) Heller 
G. partersonii Rydb. 



C. L. 



Parry G . 



63 



GERANIUM 



EUPHORBIA 



GERANIUM L. (con.) 

G. PUSILLUM Burm. 
G. RICHARDSONII Fisch. & Trautv. 
G. gracilentum Greene 
G. loloense St. John 
G. VISCOSISSIMUM Fisch. & 
C. A. Meyer 



Small G. 
Richardson G. 



Sticky G. 



ZYGOPHYLLUM L. 
Z. FABAGO L. 



RUTACEAE. Rue FamUy 



PTELEA L. (IbQ) 

P. PALLIDA Greene 



BEANCAPER 
Syrian B. 



HOP-TREE 



OXALIDACEAE. Oxalis or Woodsorrel Family 

OXALIS L. (5) OXALIS; 

WOODSORREL 
O. CORNICULATA L. Creeping O. 

Xantlioxalis c. Small 
O. DILLENII JacqT 
O. GRAYII (Rose) Kunth 
O. PILOSA Nutt. 
O. STRICTA L. Common 

Yellow O. 



LINACEAE. Flax FamUy 

LINLIM L. FLAX 

L. ARISTATUM Engelm. var. 

ARISTATUM 
L. ARISTATUM Engelm. var. AUSTRALE 
(Heller) Kearney & Peebles 
Cathartolinum a. Small 
L. a. Heller ~ 
L. ARISTATUM Engelm. var. 
SUBTERES Trel. 
Cathartolinum s. Small 
L. KINGII S. Wats. var. KINGII 

Cathartolinum k. Small 
L. KINGII S. Wats. var. SEDOIDES Porter 
Catliartolinum s. Small 

E. Jones 



THAMNOSMA Torr. & Frem. 

T. MONTANA Torr. & Frem. 



DESERTRUE 
Mohave D. 



MALPIGHIACEAE. Malpighia Family 



JANUSIA A. Juss. 

J. GRACILIS A. Gray 



JANUSIA 
Slender J. 



POLYGALACEAE. Milkwort Family (170) 

POLYGALA L. MILKWORT 

P. ACANTHOCLADA A. Gray var. 

ACANTHOCLADA Thorn M. 

P. ACANTHOCLADA A. Gray var. 

INTRICATA Eastw. 
P. SUBSPINOSA S. Wats. var. 

SUBSPINOSA Spiny M. 

P. lasseniana Heller 
P. SUBSPINOSA S. Wats. var. 

HETERORHYNCHA Barneby 



EUPHORBIACEAE. Spurge FamUy 



L. k. var. pinetorum M. 
L. LEPTCJPODA A. Nels. 
L. LEWISII Pursh var. LEWISII 

L. perenne L. ssp. I. Hulten 

L. p. var. I. Eaton & Wright 
L. LEWISTI Pursirvar. SAXOSUM 

Maguire & Holmgren 
L. MICRANTHUM A. Gray 

Hesperolinon m. Small 
L. RIGIDUM Pursh var. PUBERULUM 
Engelm . 

Cathartolinum p. Small 

L. p. Heller ~" 
L. USITATISSIMUM L. 



Lewis F. 



Common F. 



ZYGOPHYLLACEAE. Caltrop FaniUy 



ARGYTHAMNIA P. Brown (171) 

A. CYANOPHYLLA (Woot. & Standi.) 
Ingram 
Ditaxis c. Woot. & Standi. 

A. NEOMEXICANA Muell.-Arg. 

Ditaxis n. Heller 

BERNARDIA Houst. 

B. INCANA Mort. 

B. myricaefolia of authors, not 

^cheele) S. Wats. 

CROTON L. (172) 

C. CALIFORNICUS Muell.-Arg. 

var. CALIFORNICUS 

C. c. var. mohavensis Ferg. 
C. CALIFORNICUS Muell.-Arg. var. 

LONGIPES (M. E. Jones) 
Ferg. 
C. TEXENSIS (Klotzsch) Muell.-Arg. 



SILVERBUSH ^ 



BERNARDIA 



CROTON 



California C. 



Texas C. 



FAGONIA L. 

F. CALIFORNICA Benth. 

LARREA Cav. 

L. DIVARICATA Cav. 

Covillea glutiuosa (Engelm.) 

RydbT 
C. tridentata (Moc. & Ses. ex 

DC.) VaU 
L. g. Engelm. 
L. r. Gov. 

PEGANUM L. 

P. HARMALA L. 

TRIBULUS L. 



T. TERRESTRIS L. 



FAGONIA 
California F. 

CREOSOTE 

BUSH 
Spreading C. 



OR 


BIA L. 


SPURGE 


E. 


ALBOMARGINATA Torr. 






& Gray 


Whitemarg 




Chamaesyce a. Small 




E. 


ARIZONICA Engelm. 
Chamaesyce a. Arthur 




E. 


CRENLILATA Engelm. 
Tithymalus c . Heller 


Beetles. 


E. 


CYPARISSIAS L. 


Cypress S. 


E. 


DENTATA Michx. var. DENTATA 
Poinsettia d. Klotzsch & Garcke 


Toothed S. 


E. 


DENTATA Michx. var. 





PEGANUM 
Harmel P. 

CALTROP; 

PUNCTURE - 

VEIN 
P. 



EUPHOSPERMA Engelm. 
E. ESULA L. 

E. virgata Waldst. & Kit. 
E. FENdXerT Torr. & Gray var. 
FENDLERI 
Chamaesyce f. Small 
C. gooddingii Millsp. 
E. g. Tides. 



Leafy S. 



Fendler S. 



64 



lORBU 



:ORBL-\ L. (con.) 
E. FENDLERl Torr. S: Gray var. 
CHAETOCALYX Boiss. 

Chamaesycf c. Woot. & Standi. 
E. GLVPTOSPERMA Engelm. Ridjji-seedS. 

Chamaesyce g. Small 

C. gTeenc-r (MUlsp.) RytU). 

E. g. MUlsp. 
E. INCISA Engclni. 

E. LATHYRIS L. Caper S. 

E. LURIDA Engiilm. 

TiduTnalus 1. Woot. & Standi. 
E. MICROMERA Boiss. 

Chamaesyce m. Wool. & StaiicU. 

E. pseudoscrpyllifolia MUlsp. 
E. OCELU-\TA Dur. 4; Hilg. var. 

.ARENICOLA (Parish) Jeps. 

Chamaesyce a. Miilsp. 

E. a. Parish 

E. 0. of Intcrmountain authors, 
not Dur. & HUg. 
E. PALMERI Engelm. var. PALMERI PeJmcrS. 

Tithymalus p. Abrams 
E. PALMERI Engelm. var. SUBPUBENS 

(Engelm.) L. C. Wheeler 
E. PARlSHll Greene 

Chamaesyce p. MUlsp. 
E. PARRYI 

Chamaesyce p. Rydb. 

C. flagellUormis (Engelm.) Rydb. 
E. POLYCARPA Benth. var. POLYCARPA 

Chamaesyce p. Miilsp. 
E. POLY'CARPA Benth. var. HIRTELLA 
Boiss. 

Chamaesyce tonsita MUlsp. 
E. ROBUSTA (Engelm.) SmaU Robust S. 

E. montana Engelm. 



ACI'iK 



LlMNANTll.'VCHAE. Muaduw-loam lamUv 



l-LOliRKHA Willd. 

!•. PR0S1-:RPINAC0II3F,S WilKl. 
1'. occidental is Ryilli. 



l-Al.ShMI';KM All) 
I' . 



AXACARDIACEAK. Sumac l-anuly 



RHUS 
R 



L. (174) 
GLABRA L. 

Toxicodendron g. 



SUMAC 
Smooth S. 



k'linlze 



Tithymalus r. Small 
E. SERPYLLIFOLIA Pers. 

E. albicaulis (Rydb.) Ryilb. 

Chamaesyce a. Rydb. 

C. s. Small 

C. rugulosa (Engelm.) Rydb. 
E. SETILOBA Engelm. 

Chamaesyce s. MUlsp. 
E. SPATHULATA Lam. 

E. dictyosperma Fisch. & 
Meyer 



Thyincleal S. 



Yuma S. 



E. L. Greene publishetl some 24 

new species, all ol whicli 
Barkley put in synonymy -- 
see this publication for 
detaUs 
R. RADICANS L. 

R. rydbergii Small 

R. toxicodendron of American authors, 

in part, not L. 
R. t. ssp. r. (L.) R. T. Clausen 
R. t. var. r. (L.) Torr. 
R. t. var. r. (Small) Garrett 
Toxicodendron longipcs Greene 
T. r. (L.) Kuntze 
T. r. (Small) Greene 
R. TRILOBATA Nutt. var. 
TRILOBATA 
R. osterhoutii Rydli. 
R. oxyacanthoides (Greene) Rydb. 
R. TRTLOBATA Xutt. var. ANISOPHYLLA 
Jeps . 
Schnialtzia a. Greene 
S. hederacea Greene 
R. TRTLOBATA Nutt. var. QUINATA Jeps 

Schnialtzia q. Greene 
R. TRILOBATA Nutt. var. SIMPLICI- 
FOLIA (Greene) Barkl. 
R. utahensis Goodding 



CELASTRACEAE. Sl.df-tree FamUy 



Skunk bush S. 



Tithymalus 



A. 
Heller 



CANOTL^ Torr. 

C. HOLACANTHA Torr. 

GLOSSOPETALON a. Gray (175) 
G. MEIONANDRA Koehne 

Forsellesiam. Heller 



CANOTU 
C. 



GREASEBUSII 



RCHONIA A. Gray 

R. ARENARLA a. Gray 

I J'.' IL^ Garden 
->. SPINTJLOSA Torr. 

Sapiuni annuum Torr. 
Sapiums. Muell.-Arg. 

iJ l\ L. 

1 . STYLARIS Muell.-Arg. 
T. ramosa Torr. 



STILLINGLA 



NOSEBURN 



G. NEVADENSE A. Gray var. NEVADENSE 
Forsellesia n. Greene 
G. spinescens of Intermountain 
authors, not A. Gray 
G. NEVADENSE A. Gray var. STIPLILI- 

FERUM (St. John) C. L. Hitchc. 
Forsellesia s. Ensign 
G. s. St. John 
G. PUNGENS Brandeg. Dwarf G. 



CALLITRICHACEAE. Water Starwort FamUy 



MORTONIA A. Gray 

M. UTAHENSIS (Gov.) A. Nels. 
M. scabrella A. Gray var. 
u. Cov. 



MORTONIA 
Utah M. 



vUlRICHE L. (173) 
C. ANCEPS Fern. 
C. HERMAPHRODITICA L. 

C. auiumnalis L. 
C. HETEROPHYLLv\ Pursh 
C. VERNA L. 

C. palustris of American authors, 

not L. 
C. stenocarpa Hegelm. 



WATERSTARWORT 



Larger W. 



PACHISTIMA Raf. 

P. MYRSINITES (Pursh) Raf. 
Myginda myrtU'olia Nutt. 
P. m. (Nutt.) Wheeler 



PACHISTIMA 
Myrtle P. 



ACERACEAE. Maple I'amily 



ACER L. 

A. GLABRUM Torr. var. 

GLABRUM (176) 



MAPL1-; 

Rockv Mountain M. 



65 



ACER 



SIDA 



ACER L. (con.) 

A. g. var. monophyllum Graf. 
A. GLABRUM Torr. var. DIFFUSUM 
(Greene) Smiley 
A. d. Greene 
A. GLABRUM Torr. var. DOUGLASII 
(Hook.) Dippel 
A. d. Hook. 
A. subserratum Greene 
A. GLABRUM Torr. var. NEOMEXICANUM 
(Greene) Kearney & Peebles 
A. n. Greene 
A. GLABRUM Torr. var. TORREYI 
(Greene) Smiley 
A. t. Greene 
A. GLABRUM Torr. var. TRIPARTITUM 
(Nutt.) Pax 
A. t. Nutt. 
A. GRANiJlDENTATUM Nutt. Bigtooth M. 

A. nigrum Michx. var. g. Fosberg 
A. saccharum L. var. g. Sudw. 
A. s. ssp. g. Desmarais 
A. NEGUNDO L. var. NEGUNDO Boxelder 

Negundo n. Karst. 
Introduced species from the East 
A. NEGUNDO L. var. INTERIOR 
(Britt.) Sarg. 
A. i_. 

A. nuttallii (Nieuwl.) Lyon 
Negundo interius Rydb. 
N . n. Rydb. 
Our native species 



R. c. of Intermountain authors, 

not Esch. 
R. u. Greene 
R. PURSHTaNA DC. Cascara 

R. RUBRA Greene ssp. 

MODOCENSIS C. B. Wolf. 



VITACEAE. Grape Family 



PARTHENOCISSUS Planch. 

P. INSERTA (Kerner) K. Fritsch 

P. vitacea (Knerr) A. S. Hitchc . 
Psedera i. Kerner 
Psedera v. Greene 

VITIS L. 

V. ARIZONICA Engelm. var. 

ARIZONICA 
V. ARIZONICA Engelm. var. 
GLABRA Munson 



I 



VIRGINIA 

CREEPER 
Thicket Creep i 



GRAPE 
Canyon G. 



MALVACEAE. Mallow Family 



ABUTILON MOl. 

A. THEOPHRASTI Medic. 

CALLIRHOE Nutt. 

C. INVOLUCRATA (Torr. & Gray) 
A. Gray (4) 
If in Utah, then as an introduction 



Velvet Leaf I 
POPPYMALLO i 



RHAMNACEAE. Bucktliorn FamUy 



HIBISCUS L. 

H. TRIONUM L. 



CEANOTHUS L. 



BUCKBRUSH; 
CEANOTHUS 

Mountain White- 
thorn C . 

Fendler C. 



R03EMALIjOH| 
Flower -of -ail " 
hour 



Gray 



C. CORDULATUS Kellogg 

C. FENDLERI a. Gray 

C. subsericeus Rydb. 
C. f. var. venosus Trel. 
C. f_. var. viridis A. 
C. GR'EGGII a. Gray var. VESTITUS 

(Greene) McMinn Mohave Desert C. 

C. v. Greene 
C. INTEGliRRlMUS Hook. 8; Arn. var. 
CALIFORNICUS (Kellogg) 
G. T. Benson 
C. c. Kellogg 
C. nevadensis Kellogg 
C. LORENZENII (Jeps.) McMmn 

Supposed to be a hybrid of C. velutinus 
X C. cordulatus 
C. MARTINI M. E. Tones Martin C. 

C. PROSTRATUS Benth. Squaw Carpet C. 

C. VELUTINUS Dougl. Snowbrush C. 



I 



CONDALIA Cav. 

C. LYCIOIDES (A. Gray) Weberb. 
var. CANESCENS 
(A. Gray) Trel. 



RHAMNUS L. 

R. ALNIFOLIA L'Her. 
Apetlorhamnus a. 



CRUCILLO 
Desert South- 
western C. 



BUCKTHORN 
Alder B. 



Nieuwl . 



R. BETULAEFOLIA Greene var. 

OBOVATA Kearney & Peebles 
R. b. of Intermountain authors, 
not Greene 
R. CALIFORNICA Esch. ssp. URSINA 
(Greene) C. B. Wolf 



ILIAMNA Greene 077) 

I. GRANDIFLORA (Rydb.) Wiggins 

Sphaeralcea g. Rydb. 
I. RUTJLARIS (Dougl.) Greene var. 

RIVULARIS Stream IliaiK 

I. acerifolia (Nutt.) Greene 
Phymosia a. Rydb. 
P. r. Rydb. 
Sphaeralcea a. Nutt. 
S. r. Torr. 
1. RIVULARIS (Dougl.) Greene var. 
DIVERSA (A. Nels.) C. L. 
Hitchc. 
I. r. ssp. d. Wiggins 
Sphaeralcea r. var. d. A. Nels. 

MALVA L. MALLOW 

M. NEGLECTA Wallr. 

M. rotundifolia of most 

American authors, 
not L. 

MALVASTRUM A. Gray 
M. EXILE A. Gray 

Eremalche e. Greene 
M. ROTUNDIFOLfUM A. Gray 

Eremalche r. Greene 

SIDA L. (178) SIDA 

S. HEDERACEA (Dougl.) Torr. Alkali S. 

Disella h. Greene 
Malva h. Dougl. 
S. leprosa (Ort.) K. Schum. 

var. H. K. Schum. 



66 



) A 'I- A 



TAMARIX 



: .1 1 A A. Gray (17Q) 

s. v:AND1DA a. Gray var. 

CANDIDA 
S. CANDIDA A. Gray var. 

GLABRATA C. L. Hitchc. 
->. I iLAUCESCENS Greene 
S . montana Congdon 
s. MULTIFIDA Greene 
->. \EOMEXICANA A. Gray var. 

NEOMEXICANA 
^. NEOMEXICANA A. Gray var. 

CRENULATA (A. Nels.) 
C. L. Hitchc. 
S. c. A. Nels. 
S. n. ssp. c. C. L. Hitchc. 
^. OREGANA (Nuiit.) A. Gray ssp. 
OR EG ANA 
S. nervata A. Nels. 
:.. ilREGANA (Nutt.) A. 



CHECKER - 
MALLOW 
Wliite C . 



Bird C. 



New Mexican C. 



Oregon C . 



Gray ssp. 
OREGANA var. MAXIMA 
(Peck) C. L. Hitchc. 
S. m. Peck 
OREGANA (Nutt.) A. Gray ssp. 

OREGANA var. NEVADENSIS 
C. L. Hitchc. 
OREGANA (Nutt.) A. Gray ssp. 

OREGANA var. PROCERA 
C. L. Hitchc. 
OREGANA (Nun.) A. Gray ssp. 

SPICATA (Regel) C. L. Hitchc. 
S. o. var. s. Jeps. 
S. s. Greene 



S. GROSSULARIAEFOLIA (Hook. Si 

Arn.) Rydb. var. PEDATA 
(Torr.) Kearney 
S. g. ssp. p. Kearney 
S. p. Torr."" 
S. INC ANA Torr. var. INC ANA 
S. INCANA Torr. var. CUNEATA 
(Kearney) Kearney 
S. i. ssp. c. Kearney 
S. LEFrOPHYLLA~(A. Gray) Rydb. 

Malvastrum I. A. Gray 

S. MUNROANA (Doiigl.) Spach ssp. 

MUNROANA 

Malvastrum m. A. Gray 

S. MUNROANA (Dougl.) Spach ssp. 

SUBRHOMBOIDEA (Rydb.) 
Kearney 
S. PARVIFOLIA A. Nels. 
S. arizonica Heller 
S . marginata York 
S. RUSBYI Greene 

S. SUBHASTATA CouJt. var. CONNATA 
(Kearney) Kearney 
S. s. ssp. c. Kearney 
S. SUBHASTATA Coult. var. PUMILA 
(Woot. & Standi.) Kearney 
S. p. Woot. & Standi. 
S. s. ssp. P. Kearney 



Munro G. 



STERCULIACEAE. Cacao FamUy 



AYENIA Loefl. 

A. PUSILLA L. 



AYENIA 
Dwarf A. 



R 



GLOBEMALLOW 
Desert G. 



\LCEA St. HU. (180) 
AMBIGUA A. Gray ssp. AMBIGUA 
S. emoryi A. Gray, not Torr. 
AMBIGUA A. Gray ssp. 

MONTICOLA Kearney 
S. pulchella Jeps. , not Philippi 
CAESPITOSA M. E. Jones Tufted G. 

COCCINEA (Pursh) Rydb. var. 

COCCINEA, as to Wyoming, 
Colorado, and Arizona 
reference Scarlet G. 

Malvastrum c. A. Gray 
COCCINEA (Pursh) Rydb. var. 

DISSECTA (Nutt.) Garrett, 
as to Utah references, m 
part 
Malvastrum d. A. Nels., not 

Cockerell 
S. c. ssp. d. Kearney 
S. d. Rydb." 
COCCINEA (Pursh) Rydb. var. 

ELATA (Baker) Kearney, 
as to Utah references, in part 
Malvastrum cockerelli A. Nels. 
not 
Nels. 



HYPERICACEAE. St. John's Wort Family 
(Guttiferae) 



HYPERICUM L. 

H. ANAGALLOIDES Cham. & 
Schlecht. 
H. tapetoides A. Nels. 
FORMOSUM HBK. ssp. 

FORMOSUM 
FORMOSUM HBK. ssp. 

SCOULERI (Hook.) C. L. Hitchc 
H. f. var. s. Coult. 
H . "s . Hook r 
FORMOSUM HBK. ssp. SCOULERI 
(Hook.) C. L. Hitchc. var. 
NORTONIAE (M. E. Jones) 
C. L. Hitchc. 
H. n. M. E. Jones 



ELATINACEAE. Waterwort Family 



H. 



H. 



H. 



ST. JOHN'S WORT 
Trailmg S. 

South western S. 



M. dissectum Cockerell, 
~ (Nutt.) A. 

M. e. A. Nels. 
s7eT Rydb. 



DIGITATA (Greene) Rydb. 
Malvastrum d. Greene 

"var. EMORYI 
var 



ARIDA (Rose) 



EMORYI Torr. 
EMORYI Torr. 
Kearney 
S. a. Rose 
EMORYI Torr. var. NEVADENSIS 

Kearney 
FENDLERI A. Gray 

S^. m in lata A. Gray, not (Cav.) 
Spach 
GROSSULARIAEFOLIA (Hook. & Arn.) 
Rydb. var. GROSSU- 



ELATINE L. (181) 

E. BRACHYSPERMA A. Gray 

E. triandra var. b. Fassett 
E. RUBELLA Rydb. 

E. americana of western authors 

not (Pursh) Amot 
E. triandra of Intermountain 

authors, not Schkuhr 



TAMARICACEAE. Tamarisk Family 
(Occasionally escaping from cultivation) 



WATERWORT 
Shortseed W. 



LARLAEFOLL\ 
Malvastrum g. A. Gray 



Gooseberryleaf G. 



TAMARIX L. 

T. APHYLLA (L.) Karst. 
T. PENTANDRA Pall. 

T. gallica of Intermountain 
authors, not L. 
T. TETRANDRA Pall. 

T. parviflora DC. 



TAMARISK 



67 



VIOLA 



MENTZEU 



VIOLACEAE. Violet FamUy 

VIOLA L. (182) VIOLET 

V. ADUNCA J. E. Smith var. ADUNCA Hook V. 



V. a 



V. 1. 



var. longipes (Nutt.) 

Rydb. 
Nutt. 



V. mamillata Greene 
V. montanensis Rydb. 
V. oxysepala Greene 
V. tidestromil Greene 
V. ADUNCA J. E. Smith var. BELLI- 

DIFOLIA (Greene) Harrington 
V_. b. Greene 
V. b. var. valida Baker 
V. ADUNCA J. E. Smith var. OXYCERAS 
(S. Wats.) Jeps. 
V. o. Greene 
V. ARVENSIS Murr. Field V. 

Occasionally escaping from 
cultivation 
V. BECKWITHII Torr. & Gray Beckwitli V. 

V. b. var. cachensis 

C. P. Smith 
V. bonnevillensis Cottam 
V. CANADENSIS L. var. 

CANADENSIS Canada V. 

V. c. ssp. rydbergii 

(Greene) House 
V. r. Greene 
V. CANADENSIS L. var. SCOPULORUM 
A. Gray 
V. s. Greene 
V. CHARLESTONENSIS Baker & Clausen 



PALUSTRIS L. var. BREVIPES 
(Baker) R.J. Davis 
V. p. ssp. b. Baker 
V. macloskeyi var. pallens of 
the Intermountain 
authors, except for 
the extreme eastern 
California and southern 
central Idaho ref- 
erences, not V. m. 
var. p. (Banks) C. L. 
Hitchc. 
PURPUREA Kellogg var. 
PURPUREA 
V. kelloggii A. Nels. 
V. p. ssp. geophyta Baker 
& Clausen 
PURPUREA Kellogg var. AUREA 
(Kellogg) Baker 
V . a . Kellogg 
PURPUREA Kellogg var. VENOSA 
(S. Wats.) Brain. 



Goosefoot V, 



Veiny Goosel 
V. 



GLABELLA Nutt. 



Pioneer V. 



V. MACLOSKEYI Lloyd var. PALLENS 
(Banks) C. L. Hitchc. 
V. m. of Intermountain authors, 

not Lloyd 
V. m. ssp. p. Baker 
V. p. Brain. 
NEPHROPHYLLA Greene var. 

NEPHROPHYLLA 
NEPHROPHYLLA Greene var. 
ARIZONICA (Greene) 
Kearney & Peebles 
V. a. Greene 
V. clauseniana Baker 





V. 


atriplicifolia Greene 




V. 


P- 


ssp. 


a. Baker & Clausen 




V. 


P- 


var. 


a. Peck 




V. 


£• 


ssp. 


inregrifolia Baker 
& Clausen 




V. 


P- 


ssp. 


V. Baker & Clausen 




v. 


thorii A 


. Nels. 




V. 


V 


Rydb 








LOASACEAE. Blazing-star F 


EUCNIDE Zuc 


c. 






E. 


URENS 


(A. Gi 


ay) Parry 




Mentzelia u 


. A. Gray 



ROCK-NETIi]r 
Stingbush 



V 



V 



Wanderer V. 



. NEPHROPHYLLA Greene var. 




COGNATA (Greene) 




C. L. Hitchc. 


V. 


c . Greene 


. NUTTALLII Pursh var. 




NUTTALLII 


. NUTTALLII Pursh var. MAJOR 




Hook. 


V. 


erectifolia A. Nels. 


V. 


gomphopetala Greene 


V. 


linguaefoha Nutt. 


V. 


n. vai-. 1. Jeps. 


V. 


praeniorsa Dougl. ssp. 




1. Baker 


V. 


p. var. 1. Peck 


V. 


p. ssp. m. Baker 


V. 


p. var. m. Peck 



Nuttall V. 



V. NUTTALLII Pursh var. PRAEMORSA 
(Dougl.) S. Wats. 

V. n. ssp. p. Baker 

V. "p. DouglT 
V. NUTTALLII Pursh var. VALLICOLA 
(A. Nels.) St. John 

V. v. A. Nels. 
V. ODORATA L. Sweet V. 

Occasionally escaping from 

cultivation 
V. PALUSTRIS L. var. PALUSTRIS Marsh V. 



MENTZELIA L. (183) 

M. ALBICAULIS Dougl. var. 
ALBICAULIS 

Acrolasia a. Rydb. 

A. tenerrima (Rydb.) Rydb. 

Bartonia a. Dougl. 

M. t_. Rydb. 
M. ALBICAULIS Dougl. var. 

GRACILIS (Rydb.) Darl. 

Acrolasia g. Rydb. 

M. g. Thomas & Lewis 
M. ARGILXOSA Darl. 
M. CHRYSANTHA Engelm. 

Nuttallia c. Greene 

Touterea c. Rydb. 
M. CONGESTAlNutt.) Torr. & Gray 

Acrolasia c. Rydb. 

M. DECAPETALA (Pursh) Urb. 

& GUg. 

Bartonia d. Pursh 

Touterea d. Rydb. 
M. DISPERSA sTWats. var. 
DISPERSA 

Acrolasia d. Rydb. 

A. integxifolia (S. Wats.) Rydb. 

M. i_. Rydb. 
M. DISPERSA S. Wats. var. COMPACTA 
(A. Nels.) Macbr. 

Acrolasia c. Rydb. 

M. c. A. Nels. 
M. DISPERSA S. Wats. var. LATIFOLIA 
(Rydb.) Macbr. 

Acrolasia 1. Rydb. 

M. U A. Nels. 
M. HUMILIS (A. Gray) Darl. 

Acrolasia h. Osterh. 

Nuttallia h. Rydb. 

Touterea h. Rydb. 



BLAZlNG-ST.-i 



Whitestem B, 



Tenpetal B. 



68 



',ELI.\ 



Oil !.\'TIA 



ZELU L. (con.) 

\1. LAE\ICAL;LIS (Dou.uI.) Wn-r. 

k Ch-.iy B. 

IJartonia 1 . Doui;! . 

M. acummata (Ryiib.) TkIcs. 

M. _!_. var. a. A. Nuls. Sv 
Mucbr. 

Xuilallia a. Rytlb. 

X. U Gi-JI-nc 

Toulcrca 1_. Ryilb. 
\1. LI-.UCOPHYLLA Braiidcg. 

M. orcophila Darl . 
M. MOLLIS Peck 
M. MULTIFLORA (Nuu.) A. Cray var. 

MULTIFLORA DcscTt B. 

Bartonia ni. .\utt . 

Xuttallia m. Rydb. 
\1. .MLLTIFLOlUv (Nutt.) A. Cray 

var. INTEGRA M. E. Jones 

M. _i_. Tides. 
\I. .N'lTENS Greene var. XITENS 

,\crolasia n. Rydb. 
M. NITEXS Greene var. JOXESII 
(L'rb. V Gily.) Darl. 

NL albicaulis var. j. Lirb. & 

~ Gilg. 

M. a. var. spectabilis M. E. Jones 
M. POTlTA A. Xels^ 
M. PTEROSPERMA Eastw. 

.Xuttollia p. Greene 

Touterea p. Rydb. 
M. PL'.MILA (XuTt.) Torr. ii Gray 

Bartonia p. Xutt. 

M. p. var. procera (Woot. is; 

~ " Standi .) Darl. 

XuttalUa p. Woot. Sc Standi. 

X. p. (Nutt.) Greene 

Touterea p. (Xutt.) Rydb. 
M. TORRE Yl A7Gray var. TORREYI 
\I. TORREYI A. Gray var. ACEROSA 
(i\l. E. Jones) Barneby 

M. a. M. E. Jones 
\I. TRlCLJSPIS A. Gray 

Biscuspidaria t . Rydb. 
M. VEATCIIIANA Kellogg 

M. albicaulis var. v. Urb. & 

~ GUg. 

M_. gracUentaTorr. & Gray var. 
v, Jeps. 



Maniniillaria 



M. I-;. Jone?- 



Pcdiocactus heermannii \V . 1' 



Marshall 
P. s. Britton & Rose 
E. SIMreONll I'.ngelni. var. KOHI'SIIOK 

Coult . 
E. WIllPPLEl Engelni. tiGibel. 

Sclerocactus w. Britton \ Rose 
E. .XERANTHEMOIDES F.ngclni . S.' Bigel. 

ECIIINOCEREUS Engelm. 

E. ENGELMAXII (Pari-y) Runipler 

Cereus e. Parry 
E. FEN DLERf (Engelm.) Runipler 
E. TRIGLOCHIDIATUS Engelni. var. 
MELANACANTHUS 
(Engelm.) L. Benson 
E. coccineus Engelm. 
E. TRfGLOCHIDIATUS Engelm. var. 
MOJAVENSIS (Engelm. & 
Bigel.) L. Benson 
Cereus m. Engelm. K; Bigel. 
E . m . Rumpler 

MAMMILLARIA Haw. 

M. ARIZONICA Engelm. 

Coryphantha a. Britton & Rose 
M. CHLORANTHA Engelm. 

Coryphantiia c . Britton & Rose 

M. deserti Engelm. 



M. 



MICROCARPA Engelm. 

NeomammUlaria m. Britton 



N. niUleri 



& Rose 
Britton & Rose 



M. TETRANCISTRA Engelm. 

Pliellosperma t. Britton Si Rose 
M. VIVIPARA (NuttO Haw. 

Cactus v . Nutt . 

Coryphantha v. Britton & Brown 



OPUNTIA Mill. 



LONYX A. Gray 
P. NITIDUS S. Wats. 
P. PAKRYI A. Gray 
P. THURBERI A. Gray 



SANDPAPER PLANT 
Smooth S. 



Thurlx;r S. 



CACTACEAE. Cactus FamUy (184, 185) 



IIXOCACTUS Lmk St Otto 
E. ACANTHODES Lemaire 

Ferocactus a. Britton & Rose 



ECHINOCACTUS 



E. JOHXSONII Parry 

Echinomastus j. Baxter 

Ferocactus j. Britton & Rose 
E. LECONTEI En'gelm. 

Ferocactus 1. Britton & Rose 
E. MESAE-VERDAE (Boiss.) L. Benson 

Coloradoam. Boiss. 
E. POLYANCISTRUS Engelm. & Bigel. 

Sclerocactus p. Britton & Rose 
E. PO LYC E PI lA LUS" Engelm . & Gibel. Cottontop E. 
E. SILERI Engelm. 

Utahia s. Britton Si Rose 
E. SIMPSONII~EngeIm. var. 
SIMPSONII 



O. ACANTHOCARPA Engelm. 
Si Bigel. 
Cylindropuntia a. Knuth 
O. AUREA Baxter 
G. BARKLEYANA (Daston) Rowley 

Micropuntia b. Daston 
O. BASILARIS Engelm. & Bigel. 

var. BASILARIS 
0. BASILARIS Engelm. Si Bigel. var. 
WHITNEYANA (Baxter) 
Marshall S; Bock 
O. w. Baxter 
O. BIcTeLOVII Engelm. 

Cylindropuntia b. Kuntze 
O. BRACHYRHOPOLICA (Daston) 
Rowley 
Micropuntia b. Daston 
O. CHLOROTICA Engelm. 8i Bigel. 
O. ECllINOCARPA Engelm. 8; Bigel. 
Cylindropuntia e. Knuth 
O. deserta Griffitlis 
O. ErTnACEA Engelm. 
O. FRAGILIS (Nun.) Haw. var. 
FRAGILIS 
Cactus f. Nutt. 
O. FRAGILIS ~(Nutt.) Haw. var. 
DENUDATA Wieg. & 
Backebg. 
O. GRACILICYLINDRICA (Wieg. S; 
Backebg.) Rowley 
Micropuntia g. Wieg. S; Backebg. 



ECniNOCEREUS 
Ivngelniann [■'. . 

l-endk-r F. 



MAMMILLARIA 



Fishhook M. 



PRICKLY-PEAR; 
C HOLLA 



Buckliorn C. 
Golden P. 



Beavertail P. 



Arizona Jumping 
P. 



DoUarjoint P. 
Strawtop P. 



Grizzlybear P. 
Brittle P. 



69 



OPUNTIA 



EPILOBRJM 



k Bigel. 
Benson 



OPUNTLA Mill, (con.) 

O. HYSTRICINA Engelm. & 

O. erinacea Engelm. I 
var. h. L. 
O. LAEVIS Coult. 
O. PARISH II Orcutt 

Corynopuntia p. Knuth 

O. standlyi Engelm. var. 
p. L. Benson 
O. PHAEACANTHA Engelm. 

0. angustata Engelm. & Bigel. 

O. procumbens Engelm. & Bigel. 

O. tortispina Engelm. & Bigel. 
O. POLYACANTHA Haw. 

O. p. var. tichophora (Engelm. 
& Bigel.) Coult. 

O . t . Engelm . & Bigel . 
O. PULCHELLA Engelm. 
O. PYGMAEA (Wieg. & Backebg.) Rowley 

Micropunta p. Wieg. & Backebg. 



ONAGRACEAE. Evening-primrose Family (186, 5) 



spikeprimrcse|< 

Dense S. 



Smooth P. 
Parish C . 



Plains P. 



O. RAMOSISSIMA Engelm. 

Cylindropuntia r . Knuth 
O. RHODANTHA K. Schum. 

O. erinacea Engelm. & Bigel. 
var. r. L. Benson 
O. RUBRIFOLIA Engelrn. 
O. SPECTATISSIMA (Daston) Rowley 

Micropuntia s. Daston 
O. TUBERCULOSIRHOPALICA (Wieg. & 
Backebg.) Rowley 

Micropuntia t. Wieg. & Backebg. 
O. WHIPPLEI Engelm. & Bigel. 

CyUndropuntia w. Knuth 
O. WIEGANDIl (Backebg.) Rowley 

Micropuntia w. Backebg. 
O. WOODS II Backebg. 

PEDIOCACTUS Britton & Rose 

P. BRADYI L. Benson 

P. PARADINEI B. W. Benson 

Pilocanthus p. B. W. Benson & 
Backebg. 



Holy Cross C. 



Whipple C . 



HEDGEHOG CAC- 
TUS 



ELAEAGNACEAE. Oleaster Family 



ELAE AGNUS L. 

E. ANGUSTIFOLIA L. 
E. COMMUTATA Bernh. 
E. argentea Pursh 

SHEPHERDIA Nutt. 

S. ARGENTEA (Pursh) Nutt. 

Elaeagnus utilis A. Nels. 

Lepargyrea a. Greene 
S. CANADENSIS (L.) Nutt. 

Elaeagnus c. A. Nels. 

Lepargyrea c_. Greene 
S. ROTUNDIFOLIA" Parry 

Lepargyrea r. Greene 



ELAEAGNUS 
Russian Olive 
Silverberry 



BUFFALOBERRY 
Silver B. 



Russet B. 



Roundleaf B. 



LYTHRACEAE. Loosestrife FamUy 

AMMANNIA L. AMMANL\ 

A. COCCINEA Rottb. Purple A. 

LYTHRUM L. LYTHRUM 

L. CALIFORNICUM Torr. & Gray 
L. SALICARIA L. Purple L. 

PEPLIS L. 

P. DIANDRA Nutt. 

Didiplis d. Wood 



BOISDUVALL\ Spach (187) 

B. DENSIFLORA (Lindl.) S. Wats, 
var. DENSIFLORA 
B. d. var. imbricata Greene 
B. douglasii Spach 
B. i_. Heller 

B. sparsifolia A. Nels. & Kennedy 
B. DENSIFLORA (Lindl.) S. Wats. var. 
SALICINA (Rydb.) Munz 
B. salicina Rydb. 
B. GLABELLA (Nutt.) Walp. 
B. MACRANTHA Heller 
B. PALLIDA Eastw. 

B. STRICTA (A. Gray) Greene Brooks. 

B. diffusa Greene 

B. parviflora Heller 
Gayophytum s. A. Gray 

CIRCAEA L. CIRCAEA 

C. ALPINA L. var. PACIFICA 

(Asch. & Magnus) M. E. 
Jones 

C. p. Asch. & Magnus 

CLARKIA Pursh (188) CLARKL\ 

C. LASSENENSIS (Eastw.) Lewis & 
Lewis 
Godetia 1. Eastw. 
C. PULCHELLA Pursh 
C. RHOMBOIDEA Dougl. 

Pliaeostoma r. A. Nels. 

EPILOBIUM L. (5, 189) 

E. ADENOCAULON Hausskn. 

var. ADENOCAULON 
E . c one tnnum Congd . 
E. ADENOCAULON HausskTi. var. 
OCCIDENTALE Trel. 
E. o. Rydb. 

E. watsonii Barbey var. o. 
C. L. Hitchc.~ 
E. ADENOCAULON Hausskn. var. 
PARISHII (Trel.) Munz 
E. calif ornicum Hausskn. 
E. c. var. p. Jeps. 
E. p. Trel.~ 
E. watsonii Barbey var . p. 
C. L. Hitchc." 
E. ALPINUM L. var. ALPINUM Alpine W. 

E. anagallidifolium Lam. 
E. ALPINUM L. var. CLAVATUM 
(Trel.) C. L. Hitchc. 
E. c. Trel. 
E. ALPINUM L. var. GRACILLIMUM 
(Trel.) C. L. Hitchc. 
E. oregonense Hausskn. 
E. ALPINUM L. var. LACTIFLORUM 
(Hausskn.) C. L. Hitchc. 
E. a. of most American authors, 

in large part, not L. 
E. 1. Hausskn. 
E. ALPINUM L. var. NUTANS (Hornem . ) 
Hook. 
E. hornemannii Reichb. 



WILLOW -WEEC 



Sticky W. 



E . n . Hornem . 
ANGUSTIFOLIUM L. 

Chamaenerion a. Scop. 

C. exaltatum Rydb. 

C. spicatum (Lam.) S. 

E. s. Lam. 
CIUATUM Raf. 

E. adenocaulon 

E 

E 



Fire weed 



F. Gray 



var. perplexans Trel. 



americanum Hausskn. 



p. A. Nels. 



1 



70 



fi.LOBIUM 



LOBRJM L. (con.) 

E. GLABERRIMUM Barbey var. 

GLABERRIMUM 
I-,. GLABERRIMUM Barbey var. 

FASTIGIATUM (Nun.) Trel. 
E. _(. Piper 

E. g. var. latiiolium Barbey 
E. platyphyllum Rydb. 
E. GLANDULOSUM Lehm . var. 

GLANDULOSUM Glandular W. 

E. drummondii Hausskn. 
E. exaltatum Drew. 
E. g. var. e. Munz 
E. ovatiiolium Rydb. 
E. palneri Rydb. 
E. rubescens Rydl5. 
E. sandbergii Rydl). 
E. saximontanum Hausskn. 
E. stranimeuni Rydb. 
H. GLANDULOSUM Lehm. var. MACOUNI 
(Trel.) C. L. Hitchc. 
E. haUeanum Hausskn. 
E. leptocarpum Hausskn. 
E. GLANDULOSUM Lehm. var. TENTJE 
(Trel.) C. L. Hitchc. 
E. brevistylum Barbey 
E. b. var. pringleanum 

(Hausskn.) Jeps. 
E. b. var. t. Jeps. 
E. b. var. ursinum (Parish) Jeps. 
E. delicatum Trel. 



OK NOT! I ERA 



G. NUTTALLII Torr. S: Gr.iy (See (S) or 
(•■)) on a discussion of iliis 
complex, 
diffusum Torr. (i c;ray 
d. var. villosum Munz 



eriospermum Gov. 
intermedium Rydb. 
lasiospermum Greene 



n. var 
n. var 



abramsii Munz 



Red W. 



E. p. Hausskn. 

E. p. var. u Munz 

E. u. Parish 
E. LATIFOLIUM L. 

Chamaenerion 1. Sweet 
E. MINUTUM Lindl."" 

E. foliosum (Torr. & Gray) Suksd. 

E. rn. var. U Torr. & Gray 
H. OBCORDATUM^A. Gray 
i:. PALUSTRE L. 

E. Imeare Muhl. 

E. wyomingense A. Nels. 
H. PANICULATUM Nutt. var. 

PANIC ULATUM Autumn W. 

E. adenocladon (Hausskn.) Rydb. 

E. subulatum (Hausskn.) Rydb. 
E. PA.NICU LATUM Nutt. var. JUCUNDUM 
(A. Gray) Trel. 

E. hammondi Howell 

E. J. A. Gray 
h. PANICULATUM Nutt. var. LAEVI- 
CAULE (Rydb.) Munz 

E. altissimum Suksd. 

E. L Rydb. 
E. PANICULATUM Nutt. var. TRACYI 
(Rydb.) Munz 

E. u Rydb. 

3;RA L. (190) GAURA 

G. COCCINEA Nutt. var. COCCINEA Scarlet G. 

G. multicaulis Raf. 
G. COCCINEA Nun. var. GLABRA 
(Lehm.) Torr. & Gray 
G. g. Lehm. 

G. incluta Woot. & Standi. 
G. PARVIFLORA Dougl. var. PARVIFLORA 
G. PARVIFLORA Dougl. var. LACHNO- 
CARPA Weatherby 
G. australis Griseb. 



3i'OPHYTUM Juss. (9, 191) 
G. HUMILE Juss. 

G. h. var. hirtellum Munz 
G. pumilum S. Wats. 



GROUND SMOKE 



_ _ Munz 

G. RACEMOSUM Torr. S.- Gray 

G. caesium Nutt . 

G. helleri Rydb. 

G. h. var. glabrum Munz 

G. r. var. c. Munz 
G. RAMOSISSIMUM Nutt. 

G. r. var. deflexuiii Hook. 

LUDWIGIA L. (142) 

L. PALUSTRIS (L.) Ell. var. 
AMERICANA (DC.) 
Fern. & Grisc . 
Isnardia ascendens Hall 

OENOTHERA L. (1, 5, 9, 193, 194) 

OE. ALBICAULIS Pursh 
Anogra a. Britton 
A. bradburiana (Torr. & Gray) 

Rydb. 
A. buitumi A. Nels. 
A. perplexa Rydb. 
A. pinnatifida (Nutt.) Spach 
Oe. b. Torr. & Gray 
Oe. p. Nutt. 
Oe. purshiana Steud. 
Oe. pursh ii G. Don 
OE. aTySSOIDES Hook. & Arn. var. 
ALYSSOIDES 
Sphaerostigrna a. Walp. 
S. implexa A. Nels. 
OE. A~LYSSOIDES Hook. & Arn. var. 
VILLOSA S. Wats. 
Oe. utahensis (Small) Garren 
Sphaerostigrna hitchcockii (Lev.) 

ATNels. 
S. macrophyllum (Small) Rydb. 
S. u. Small 
OE. ANDFnA Nun. 

Sphaerostigrna a. Walp. 
OE . BIENNIS L. 

Oe. rydbergii House 

Oe . strigosa Mack. & Bush, 

not Willd. 
Onagra s. Rydb. 
O. subulifera Rydb. 
OE. BOOTH II Dougl. 

Sphaerostigrna b. Walp. 
S. lemmoni A. Nels. 
S. senex A. Nels. 
OE. BRACHYCARPA A. Gray var. 

WRIGHTII (A. Gray) Lev. 
Lavauxia howardi (M. E. Jones) 

A. Nels. 
L. w. Small 
Oe. b. of Intermountam authors, 

not A. Gray 
Oe. h. M. E. Jones 
Oe. w. A. Gray 
OE. BREVIFLORA Torr. & Gray 

Taraxia b. Small 
OE. BREVIPES~A. Gray var. 
BREVIPES 
Chylismia b. Small 
Oe. divaricata Greene 
OE. BREVIPES A. Gray var. 
PALLIDULA Munz 
Oe. b. ssp. p. Raven 
Oe. p. Munz 



SEEDBOX 



EVENING - 
PRIMROSE 



Alyssum E. 



Andean Sundrops 
Common E . 



Golden E. 



71 



OENOTHERA 



OENOTHERA 



OENOTHERA L. (con.) 

OE. CAESPITOSA Nutt. var. 

CAESPITOSA Tufted E. 

Pachylophis c . Raimanii 
P. glaber A. Nels. 
OE. CAESPITOSA Nutt. var. 

CRINITA (Rydb.) Munz 
Pachylophis c. Rydb. 
OE. CAESPITOSA T;utt. var. 

JONESII Munz 
OE. CAESPITOSA Nutt. var. 

LONGIFLORA (Heller) Munz 
Anogra 1 . Heller 
Pachylophis 1. Heller 
OE. CAESPITOSA IJutt. var. MARGINATA 
(Nutt.) Munz 
Oe. idahoensis Mulford 
Oe . m . Nutt . 

Pachylophis cylindrocarpus A. Nels. 
P. m. Rydb" 
OE. CAESPITOSA Nutt. var. MONTANA 
(Nutt.) Dur. 
Oe . m . Nutt . 

Pachylophis hirsutus Rydb. 
P. macroglottis Rydb. 
P. m. Nutt. 
OE. CAESPITOSA Nutt. var. PURPUREA 
(S. Wats.) Munz 
Pachylophis canescens Piper 
OE 



ssp. 



CALIFORNICA S. Wats. 
CALIFORNICA 
Anogra c . Small 
OE. CALIFORNICA S. Wats. ssp. 

AVITA Klem 
OE. CAVERNAE Munz 
OE. CHAMAENERIOIDES A. Gray 

Sphaerostigma c. Small 
OE. CLAVAEFORMIS~Torr. & Frem. 

var. AURANTIACA (S . Wats.) 
Munz 
Chylismia a. Johansen 
Oe. c. ssp. a. Raven 
OE. CLAVAEFORMB Torr. & Frem. 

var. CITRINA Raven 
OE. CLAVAEFORMIS Torr. & Frem. 
var. CRUCIFORMIS 
(Kellogg) Munz 
Chylismia c. Howell 
Oe. c. ssp. c. (Kellogg) Raven 
Oe. c. Kellogg 
OE. CLAVAEFORMIS Torr. & Frem. 
var. PURPURASCENS 
(S. Wats.) Munz 
Oe . c_. ssp. integrlor Raven 
OE. CONTORTA Dougl. var. CONTORTA 

Sphaerostigma c. Walp. 
OE. CONTORTA Dougl. var. FLEXUOSA 
(A. Nels.) Munz 
Oe. parvula Nutt. 
Sphaerostigma fillforme A. Nels. 
S. flexuosum (A. Nels.) Rydb. 
S. p. Walp. 
OE. CONTORTA Dougl. var. PUBENS 
(S. Wats.) Gov. 
Sphaerostigma orthocarpum A. Nels. 

& Kennedy 
S. p. Rydb. 
OE. CORONOPIFOLIA Torr. & Gray 
Anogra c. Britton 
Raimannia c. Rose 
OE. DECORTICANS (Hook. & Arn.) Greene 
var. CONDENSATA Munz 
Oe . d. of Intermountam authors, in 
large part, not (Hook. & 
Arn.) Greene 



Desert E. 



OE. DECORTICANS (Hook. & Arn.) 

Greene var. DESERTORUM 
Munz 
OE. DELTOIDES Torr. & Frem. var. 

DECUMBENS (S. Wats.) Munz 
Anogra simplex Small 
Oe. ambigua S. Wats. 
Oe. d. of Intermountain authors, 

not Torr. & Frem. 
Oe. d. var. a. Munz 
Oe. d. ssp. a. Klein 
DELTOIDES Torr. & Frem. var. 
PIPERI Munz 
Oe. d. ssp. p. Klein 
DENTATA Cav". var. JOHNSTONII 

Munz 
EASTWOODIAE (Munz) Raven 
Oe. scapoidea Torr. & Gray var. 
e. Munz 
FLAVA (A. Nels.) Garrett 
LavaiLxia f. A. Nels. 



*l 



OE. 

OE. 
OE. 

OE. 
OE. 



Yellow E. 



OE. 
OE. 
OE. 

OE. 

OE. 
OE. 

OE. 

OE. 

OE. 

OE. 
OE. 

OE. 
OE. 



HETERANTHA Nutt. 
Jussieua subacaulis Pursh 
Oe. s. Garrett 
Taraxia s. Rydb. 
T. taraxacifolia (S. Wats.) 
Heller 
HETEROCHROMA S. Wats. 

var. HETEROCHROMA 
Chylismia h. Small 
HETEROCHROMA S. Wats. var. 
MONOENSIS Munz 
Oe. h. ssp. m. Raven 
HOOKERl TorrT & Gray var. 
ANGUSTIFOLIA Gates 
Oe. h. of Intermountain authors, 

not Torr. & Gray 
Oe. h. ssp. a. Munz 
HOOKERl Torr". & Gray var. 
HEWETTII (Cockerell) 
Cockerell 
Oe. h. Cockerell 
Oe. h. ssp. h. Cockerell 
HOOKERl Torr. & Gray var. 

HIRSUTISSIMA (A. Gray) Munz 
Oe. h. deVries, or Rydb. 
Oe. h. ssp. h. (A. Gray) Munz 
HOOKERl Torr". & Gray var. ORNATA 

(A. Nels.) Munz * 

Anogra o. A. Nels. 'I 

Oe. h. ssp. o. Munz ■ 

Oe. o. Rydb." 
LATIFOLIA (Rydb.) Munz 
Anogra cinerea Rydb. 
A. U Rydb. 
LAVANDULAEFOLIA Torr. & Gray 

var. LAVANDULAEFOLIA Lavenderleaf E. 
Galpinsia 1. Small 
LAVANDULAEFOLIA Torr. & 

Gray var. GLANDULOSA i 

Munz I 

LONGISSIMA Rydb. var. [ 

LONGISSIMA I 

LONGISSIMA Rydb. var. GLUTEI 

(A. Nels.) Munz 
Oe. c. Nels. 
Oe. 1. ssp. c. Munz 
M'EGALANTHA (Munz) Raven 
Oe. heterochroma var. m. Munz 
mTcRANTHA Hornem. var7 EX- 
FOLIATA (A. Nels.) Munz 
Oe. abramsii Macbr. 
Oe. m. var. a. Jeps. 
Sphaerostigma m. var. e. A. Nels. 
S. pallidum Abrams 



I 



72 



(MnilERA 



lil-;iUILA 



lERA L. (con.) 
;. MINOR (A. Ncls.) Muiiz 
var. MINOR 
Oe. aJvssoidt'S var. minutl- 



OK. 
OH. 



flora S. Wats. 
Sphaerostigma m. A. Nels. 
S. m. (S. WatsT) Rydb. . not 

Fisch. li C. A. Meyer 
S. torruni (Lev.) A. Ncls. 
Nil. NOR (A. Nels.) Munz var. 

CUSICKII Muiiz 
MULTIJL'GA S. Wats. 
Chylismia hirta .A. Nels. 
C. m. Small 

C. parvUIora (S . Wats.) Rydb. 
C. vcnosa A. Nels. ii Kennedy, 

not Shull & Bartlett 
Oe. m. var. p. Munz 



OH. WALKHRl (A. Nels.) Raven 
ssp. WALKI'RI 
Chylismia w. A. Nels. 
Oe. multijuga var. (irientalis Munz 
OE. \VALKER1 (A. Nels.) Raven ssp. 
rORTILLS Ot'PS.) Raven 
Oe. scapoidea var. t. Jeps. 
OE. XYLOCARPA Gov. 



eirec:iialr:e 

Garrett I'. 



Z.^USCHNERIA Presl (1^)5) 

Z. GARRE'n^II A. Nels. 
Z. latUolia (Hook.) 

Greene var. g. 
I lilend 



HALORAGIDACEAE. Water Milfoil Family 



Oe. phlebophylla Tides. 
Oe. watsoni Tides. 



11 E. 


ML'NZII Raven 


OE. 


NEVADENSIS Kellogg 




Sphaerostigma n. Heller 




S. tortuosum A. Nels. 


OE. 


PALLIDA Lmdl. 




.Anogra douglasiana (Spach) 




Spach 




A. leptophylla (Torr. & Gray) 




Rydb. 




A. p. Brirton 




Oe. 1. (Torr. & Gray) Nutt. 


OE. 


PALMERI S. Wats. 




Taraxia p. Small 


iiE. 


PARRYl S. Wats. 



HIPPURIS L. 

H. VULcIARIS L. 



MYRIOPHYLLUM L. 



Pale E. 



OE. 



OE. 



OE. 



OE 



OE 
OE 



OE 
OE 



OE 



OE. 



Chylismia p. Small 

Oe. scapoides Torr. & Gray 

var. p. M. E. Jones 
PRIMIVERIS A. Gray 

Lavau.xia lobata A. Nels. 

L. p. Small 

Oc. buionis M. E. Jones 

Oe. jolmsoni Parry 

Pachylophis j. Rydb. 
PTEROSPERM^A S. Wats. 

Chylismia p. Small 

Sphaerostigma p. A. Nels. 
REFRACTA S. W~ats . 

Oe. deserti M. E. Jones 

Sphaerostigma d. Heller 

S. r. Small 
SCAPOIDEA Torr. & Gray ssp. 
SCAPOIDEA 

Chylismia s. 

C. £. var. seorsa A. Nels. 

Oe . £. var. £. (A. Nels.) Munz 
SCAPOIDEA Torr. & Gray ssp. 

BRACHYCARPA Raven 
SCAPOIDEA Torr. & Gray ssp. 

UTAH ENS IS Raven 
SPECUICOLA Raven ssp. SPECUICOLA 
SPECUICOLA Raven ssp. HESPERIA 

Raven 
TANACETIFOLIA Torr. & Gray 

Oe. nuttaUii Torr. & Gray, 
not Sweet 

Taraxia longiflora Nutt . 

T. t_. Piper 

T. tiloirana A. Nels. 
TRICHOCALYX Nutt. 

Anogra rhizomata A. Nels. 

A. u Small 

A. violacea A. Nels. 

A. vreelandii Rydb. 



M. BRASILIENSE Canib. 

M. proserpinacoides Gillies 
M. HIPPUROIDES Nutt. 
M. SPICATUM L. var. SPICATUM 

M. verticUlatum L. 
M. SPICATUM L. Var. EXALBESCENS 
(Fern.) Jeps. 

M. e. Fern. 

M. s. ssp. e. Hult. 



ARALIACEAE. Ginseng FamUy (W()) 

ARALIA 



MARESTAIL 
M. 

WATER MILFOIL, 

PARROTFEATHER 
Brazilian W. 



ARALL\ L. 

A. NilDICAULlS L 
A. RACEMOSA L. 



American Spike- 
nard 



A. arizonica Eastw. 



UMBELLIFERAE. Parsley Family (5, b, 'i, 197, 198) 

ALETES Coult. 8i Rose 

A. MACDOUGALI Coult. & Rose 

Cyniopterus m. Tides. 

Oreoxis m. Rydb. 



ansyleaf E. 



ANETHUM L. 

A. GRAVEOLENS L. 

ANGELICA L. 

A. ARGUTA Nutt. 

A. lyallii S. Wats. 

A. piperi Rydb. 
A. BREWERI A. Gray 
A. KINGII (S. Wats.) Coult. & Rose 

Selinum k. S. Wats. 
A. LINEARILOBA A. Gray 
A. PINNATA S. Wats. 

A. leporina S. Wats. 
A. ROSEANA Henderson 

Rompelia r. K. -Pol. 
A. WHEELERI s". Wats. 

A. dilatata A. Nels. 

APIUM L. 

A. GRAVEOLENS L. 

Celeri g. Britton 

BERULA Hoffm. 

B. ERECTA (Huds.) Gov. var. 

INCISA (Torr.) Cronq. 



DILL 



ANGELICA 



Brewer A. 



Small -leaf A. 



Wheeler A. 



CELERY 
WUd C. 



BERULA 



73 



BERULA 



CYMOPTERUS 



BERULA Hoffm. (con.) 

B. e. of American authors, 
not (Huds.) Gov. 
B. pusilla (Nutt.) Fern. 
Slum e. Huds. 
S . i_. Torr. 
S. p. Nutt. , not Poir. 

CARUM L. 

C. CAR VI L. 

CAUCALIS L. 

C. MICROCARPA Hook. & Arn. 



Caraway 



Falsec arret 



HEMLOCKPARSLEY 



Poisonhemlock 



CORIANDER 
C. 



CICUTA L. WATERHEMLOCK 

C. DOUGLASII (DC.) Coult. & Rose Douglas W. 

C. cinicola A. Nels. 
C. d. var. occidentalis (Greene) 

M. E. Jones 
C. o. Greene 

CONIOSELINLIM Hoffm. 

C. SCOPULORUM (A. Gray) Coult. 
& Rose 
C. coloradense Osterh. 

CONIUM L. 

C. MACULATUM L. 

CORIANDRUM L. 

C. SATIVUM L. 

CYMOPTERUS Raf. 

C. ABORIGINUM M. E. Jones 

Aulospermum a. Mathias 
C. ACAULIS (Pursh)~Raf. 

C. leibergii Coult. & Rose 
C. ANISATUS A. Gray 

Pseudocymopterus aletifolius Rydb. 

P. a. (A. Gray) Coult. & Rose 

Pseudopteryxia a. (Rydb.) Rydb. 

P. a. (A. Gray)~Rydb . 

Pteryxia a. (A. Gray) Mathias & 
Constance 
C. BASALTICUS M. E. Jones 

Aulospermum b. Tides. 

Coriophyllus b. Rydb. 
C. BIPINNATUS S. Wats. 

Cynomarathrum macbridei A. Nels. 

Pseudocymopterus b. Coult. & Rose 

Pseudoreoxis b. Rydb. 



BULBOSUS A. Nels. 
Phellopterus b. Coult. 



& Rose 



P. camporum Rydb. 
C. CINERARIUS A. Gray 

Aulospermum c. Coult. & Rose 
C. CORRUGATUS M.~E. Jones 

Rhysopterus c. Coult. & Rose 
C. COULTERl (M. E. Jones) Mathias 

C. corrugatus M. E. Jones var. 
c . M. E. Jones 

C. c. var. scopulicola M. E. Jones 

Phellopterus jonesii (Coult. & Rose) 
Rydb. 

Rhysopterus ]_. Coult. & Rose, not 
C. J. Coult. & Rose 
C. DUCHESNENSIS M. E. Jones 

Aulospermum d. Tides. 
C. FENDLERI A. Gray Chimaya 

C. decipiens M. E. Jones 
C. GILMANI Morton 
C. GLAUCUS Nutt. 

Aulospermum g. Coult. & Rose 
C. GLOBOSUS (S. Wats.) S. Wats. 



C. HENDERSONII (Coult. & Rose) 
Cronq. 
Pseudocymopterus h. Coult. 

& Rose" 
P. anisatus (A. Gray) Coult. & 
Rose var. longilobus 
(Rydb.) Tides^ 
Pseudopteryxia h. Rydb. 
P. ]_. Rydb. 

Pteryxia h. Mathias & Constance 
C. IBAPENSIS M. E. Jones 

Aulospermum i. Coult. & Rose 
C. JONESII Coult. &"Rose 

Aulospermum j. Coult. & Rose 
Coriophyllus j. Rydb. 
C. LONGIPES S. Wats. 

Aulospermum 1. Coult. & Rose 
Cogswellia lapidosa (M. E. Jones) 

Rydb. 
Cymopterus 1. (M. E. Jones) 

M. E. Jones 
Lomatiuml. (M. E. Jones) Garrett 
Peucedanum 1. M. E. Jones 
C. MEGACEPHALOs M. E. Jones 
C. MINIMUM (Mathias) Mathias 
Aidospermum m. Mathias 
C. MULTINERVATUS"(Coult. & Rose) 
Tides. 
C. purpurascens M. E. Jones (18'^5), 
not 1893 
C. NEWBERRYI (S. Wats.) M. E. Jones 
Coloptera jonesii Coult. & Rose, 

note. j. Coult. & Rose 
C. n. Coult. & Rose 
Cymopterus fendleri var. n. 

M. E. Jones 
C. n. var. j. M. E. Jones 
C. NIVALIS S. Wats. 

Pseudocymopterus n. Mathias 



Pseudoreoxis n 



PETRAEUS M. 
Pteryxia p. 



, Rydb. 
Jones 



Coult. & Rose 



C. PURPURASCENS (A. Gray) M. E 
0893), not 1895 
Cymopterus utahensis M. E. 
Phellopterus p. Coult. & Rose 
& Standi. 
Wats. 



, Jones 
Jones 



P. u. Woot, 

C. purplTreus S 

Aulospermum betheli Osterh. 
A. p. Coult. & Rose 
Coriophyllus b. Rydb. 
C. p. Rydb. " 
C. RIPLEYI Barneby 

C. r. vax. saniculoides Barneby 
C. ROSErM. E. Jones 

Aulospermum r. M. E. Jones 
Coriophyllus r. Rydb. 
C. TEREBINTHINA THook.) Torr. & Gray 
var. ALBIFLORA (Torr. & 
Gray) M. E. Jones 
C. a. Torr. & Gray 
Pteryxia a_. Nutt . 
P. t. var. a. Mathias 
C. TEREBINTHINA (Hook.) Torr. & Gray 
var. CALCAREA (M. E. Jones) 
Cronq. 
C. c. M. E. Jones 
C. t. of Intermountain authors, in 
large part, not (Hook.) 
Torr. & Gray 
Pteryxia c. (M. E. Jones) Coult. & Rose 
P. t. Coult. var. c. Mathias 
C. TEREBINTHINA (Hook.) Torr. & Gray 
var. CALIFORNICA (Coult. & 
Rose) Jeps. 



74 



YMOPTERUS 



LOMA'riWM 



YMOPTERUS Rai. (con.) 

C. c . M. H. Jones 
Pteryxia c. Coult. & Rose 
P. t. Coull. var. c_. Mathias 
C. W.VTSONI (Coult. & Rose) M. E. Jones 
Aulospermum \v. Coult. & Rose 



\UCUS L. 

D. CAROTA L. 

Caucalis c . Crantz 

(V.\i;iUM L. 

K. ALISMAEFOLIUM Greene 

E. mininium (Coult. & Rose) 
Coult. & Rose 
H. ARTICU LATUM Hook. 

11 MCULUM Adans. 
1'. \ULGARE Mill. 

liRBOURLA Coult. & Rose 

H. TRACHYPLEURA (A. Gray) 
Coult. & Rose 
Thaspium t. A. Gray 

IRACLEUM L. 

II. LANATUM Michx. 
H. douglasii DC. 
Sphondylium 1. Greene 

I DROCOTYLE L. 

II. VERTICILLATA Thunb. 

H. cuneata Coult. & Rose 
H. VERTICILLATA Tliunb. var. 

TRIRADIATA (A. Rich.) 
Fern. 
H. prolifera Kellogg 
H. trilobulata Gandoger 

r.USTlCUM L. 

L. CANBYl Coult. & Rose 
L. FILICINUM S. Wats. var. 

FILICINUM 
L. FILICINUM S. Wats. var. 

TENUIFOLIUM (S. Wats.) 
Mathias & Constance 
L. oreganum Coult. & Rose 
L. u S. Wats. 
L. GRAYI Coult. & Rose 

L. cusickii Coult. & Rose 
L. PORTERI Coult. k Rose var. 
PORTERI 
L. affme A. Nels. 
L. goldniani Coult. & Rose 
L. madrense Rose 
L. nelsoni Coult. & Rose 
L. simulans Coult. & Rose 
L. PORTERI Coult. & Rose var. 
BREVILOBUM (Rydb.) 
Mathias & Constance 

LvlATIUM Raf. (199) 



CARROT 
Wild C. 



ERYNGO 



Beethistle E. 



FENNEL 
Common F. 



COWPARSNIP 
Common C . 



PENNYWORT 
Whorled P. 



LIGUSTICUM 



Femleaf L. 



Grays L. 



Porter L. 



AMBIGUUM (Nun.) Coult. & Rose 
Cogswellia a. M. E. Jones 
Peucedanum a. Nutt. 
BICOLOR (S. wits.) Coult. & Rose (5) 
Cogswellia b. M. E. Jones 
L. leptocarpum of the Wasatch 
Region references, 
not (Torr. & Gray) 
Coult. & Rose 
Peucedanum b. S. Wats. 



DESERT PARSLEY; 

BISCUITROOT; 

LOMATIUM 
Wyeth B. 



L. CANBYl (Coult. & Rose) c:<>ull . ti Ros 
Cogswellia c. M. E. Jones 
Peucedanum c. Coult. & Rose 
L. CIRCUMDATUM (S. Wats.) Coult. 
& Rose 
Cogswellia c. M. E. Jones 
Peucedanum c. S. Wats. 
L. COUS (S. Wats. r Coult. & Rose 
Cogswellia c. M. E. Jones 
Peucedanum c. S. Wats. 
L. DISSECTUM (Nutt.) Mathias & 

Constance var. DISSECTUM 
Ferula d. A. Gray 
Leptotaenia d. Nutt. 
L. foliosa (Hook.) Coult. & Rose 
L. DISSECTUM (Nutt.) Mathias & 

Constance var. EATONII 
(Coult. & Rose) Cronq. 
Leptotaenia e. Coult. & Rose 
L. mullifida Nutt. var. e. 
M. E. Jones 
L. DISSECTUM (Nutt.) Mathias & Con- 
stance var. MULTIFIDUM 
(Nurt.) Mathias Si Constance 
Ferula m. A. Gray 
Leptotaenia d. var. m. Jeps. 
L. m. Nutt. 
L. DONNELLII (Coult. >k Rose) Coult. 
& Rose 
Cogswellia d. M. E. Jones 
Peucedanum d. Coult. & Rose 
sTRose) Coult. & 
GRAYI 



Wallowa B. 



Cous B. 



GRAYI (Coult 

Rose var 
Cogswellia g. Coult. & Rose 
C. mUlefolia (S. Wats.) M. 



E. Jones 



L. m. Macbr. 
Peucedanum g. 



Coult. & Rose 
P. g. var. aberrans M. E. Jones 
P. m. S. Wats., not Sonder 
L. GRAYHCoult. & Rose) Coult. & 

Rose var. DEPAUPERATUM 
(M. E. Jones) Mathias 
Cogswellia millcfolia (S. Wats.) 
M. E. Jones var. d. 
M. E. Jones 
L. HENDERSONII (Coult. & Rose) Coult. 
Si Rose 
Cogswellia h. M. E. Jones 
Leptotaenia h. Matliias & Constance 
Peucedanum h. Coult. Si Rose 
L. JUNIPERINUM (M. E. Jones) Coult. Si Rose 
Cogswellia j. M. E. Jones 
Peucedanum j. M. E. Jones 
L. LATILOBUM (Rydb.) Mathias 

Cynomarathrum 1. Rydb. 
L. LEPTOCARPUM (Torr. Si Gray) 
Coult. Si Rose 
Cogswellia I. M. E. Jones 
L. ambiguum var. 1. Jeps. 
Peucedanum a. var. 1. Coult. 

Si""Rose ~ 
P. bicolor S. Wats. var. 

gumbonis M. E. Jones 
P. L Nutt. ex Torr. 8i Gray, 
in syn. 
L. MACDOUGALI Coult. Si Rose 
Cogswellia jonesii (Coult. 8i 

Rose) M. E. Jones 
C^. rn. M. E. Jones 
L. foeniculaceum (Nutt.) Coult. 

& Rose var. m. Cronq. 
L. j. Coult. 8i Rose 
L. semisepultum Peck 



Bicolor B. 



MacDougal L. 



75 



LOMATIUM 



OSMORHIZA 



LOMATIUM Rat. (con.) 

L. MACROCARPUM (Hook. & Arn.) Bigseed L. 

Coult. & Rose 

Cogswellia m. M. E. Jones 

Ferula m. Hook. & Arn. 

Peucedanum m. Nurt. 
L. MEGARRHIZUM~1a. Nels.) Mathias 

Cynomarathrum m. Rydb. 

Peucedanum m A. Nels. 
L. MINIMUM (MatiiTas) Mathias 

Cogswellia m. Mathias 
L. MOHAVENSE (C'oult. & Rose) 
Coult. & Rose 

Cogswellia argensis (M. E. 

Jones) Coult. & Rose 

C. rn. M. E. Jones 

L. a. Coult. & Rose 

Peucedanum a. M. E. Jones 

P. m. Coult .~& Rose 
L. MONTANUM Coult. & Rose 

Cogswellia m. M. E. Jones 

L. purpureum A. Nels. 

Peucedanum m. Blank. 
L. NEVADENSE (sT'Wats.) Coult. & 
Rose var. NEVADENSE 

Cogswellia n. M. E. Jones 

C. n. var. cupulata (M. E. Jones) 



M. 



L . n . var . 
Peucedanum 



P. n. var. c. 

nevaDense (S. 

Rose var 
& Rose) Jcps. 
Cogswellia decipiens 



E. Jones 

Coult. & Rose 
, S. Wats. 
M. E. Jones 
Wats.) Coult. & 
. PARISHII (Coult. 



M. E. Jones 
Jones 



C. n. var. p. M. E 
C. p. Coult. & Rose 
L. p. Coult. & Rose 
Peucedanum p. Coult. & Rose 
L. NEVADENSE (sTWats.) Coult. & 

Rose var. PSEUDORIENTALE 
(M. E. Jones) Munz 
Cogswellia n. var. p. M. E. Jones 
L. NLIDICAULE (Pursh) Coult. & Rose Barestem L. 
Cogswellia n. M. E. Jones 
Peucedanum n. Nutt. 
L. NUTTALLII (A.~Gray) Macbr. 
var. NUTTALLII 
Cogswellia n. M. E. Jones 
Cynomaratlirum n. Coult. & Rose 
Peucedanum kingii S. Wats. 
L. NUTTALLII (A. Gray) Macbr. var. 
ALPINUM (S. Wats.) Mathias 
Cogswellia n. M. E. Jones var. 

a. M. E. Jones 
Cynomaratlirum a. Coult. & Rose 
L. a. Macbr. 

Peucedanum kingii S. Wats. var. 
a. Coult. & Rose 
L. PARRYl (S. Wats.) Macbr. 

Cogswellia cottami M. E. Jones 
C. p. M. E. Jones 
Cynomarathrum p. Coult. & Rose 
Peucedanum p. S. Wats. 
P. scopulorum M. E. Jones 
L. PLUMMERAE (Coult. & Rose) Coult. 
& Rose var. PLUMMERAE 
Cogswellia p. M. E. Jones 
Peucedanum p. Coult. & Rose 
L. PLUMMERAE (Coult. & Rose) Coult. 
& Rose var. SONNEl 
(Coult. & Rose) Jeps. 
Cogswellia s. M. E. Jones 
L. s. CoultT & Rose 



L. RAVENII Mathias & Constance 
L. SCABRUM (Coult. & Rose) Mathias 
Cogswellia s. M. E. Jones 
Cynomarathrum s. Coult. & Rose 
L. TRITERNATUM (Pursh) Coult. & 
Rose ssp. TRITERNATUM 
Cogswellia t. M. E. Jones 
Peucedanum t. Nutt. 
L. TRITERNATUM" (Pursh) Coult. & 
Rose ssp. TRITERNATUM 
var. ANOMALUM (M. E. 
Jones) Mathias 
Cogswellia a. M. E. Jones 
C. gigantea (Coult. & Rose) 

Coult. & Rose 
L. a. M. E. Jones 
L. g. Coult. & Rose 
L. TRITERNATUM (Pursh) Coult. 

& Rose ssp. TRITERNATUM 
var. MACROCARPUM 
(Coult. & Rose) Mathias 
Cogswellia robustior (Coult. & 
Rose) Coult. & Rose 
C. t. M. E. Jones var. r_. M. E. 

Jones 
L. r. Coult. & Rose 
L. TRITERNATUM (Pursh) Coult. & 

Rose ssp. PLATYCARPUM 
(Torr.) Cronq. 
Cogswellia p. M. E. Jones 
C. simplex (Nutt.) M. E. Jones 
L. p. Coult. & Rose 
L. s. Macbr. 
Peucedanum s . Nutt . 

MUSINEON Raf. 

M. DIVARICATUM (Pursh) Nutt. var. 
HOOKERI Torr. & Gray 

Adorium h. Rydb. 

M. angustifolium Nutt. 

M. trachyspermum Nutt. 
M. LINEARE (Rydb.) Mathias 

Daucophyllum I. Rydb. 
M. TENUIFOLIUM Nutt. 

Daucophyllum t. Rydb. 

OREOXIS Raf. 

O. ALPINA (A. Gray) Coult. & Rose 

Cymopterus a. A. Gray 
O. BAKERI Coult. & Rose 

Cymopterus b. M. E. Jones 

OROGENIA S. Wats. 

O. LINEARIFOLIA S. Wats. 
O. 1. var. lata Payson 

OSMORHIZA Raf. (200) 

O. CHILENSIS Hook. & Arn. 
O. brevipes Suksd. 
O. divaricata Nutt. 
O. nuda Torr. 
O. n. var. d. Jeps. 
Uraspermum b. Farw. 
d^ 



Nineleaf L. 



J 



I 



OREOXIS 
Alpina O. 



Indian potato 



SWEETROGl 



U. d. Farw. 
U . n . Kunt ze 
Washingtonia b. 



Coult. & Rose 



W. d. Britton 

W. n. Heller 
O. DEPAUPERATA Phil. 

O. obtusa (Coult. & Rose) Fern. 

Washingtonia o. Coult. & Rose 
O. OCCIDENTALIS fNutt.) Torr. 

O. ambigua (A. Gray) Coult. 
& Rose 



Sweetanice 



76 



lORHI'/A 



I'VKOl.A 



lORIIIZA Ral. (con.) 

Glycosiiui a. A. Gray 
G. bolandun (A. Gray) A. Gray 
G. maxima Rydb. 
Washingtonia a. CouU . & Rose 
\V. 0. Coult. i; Rose 



■POLIS Ral'. 
O. FENDLERl (A. Gray) Heller 
Archemora f. .■\. Gray 
Tiedemaiinia f. Coult. S: Rose 

riNACA L. 
P. SATIVA L. 

IDERIDU Reichenb. 
P. BOLANDERl (A. Gray) A. Nels. 
& Macbr. 
Eulophus b. Coult. & Rose 
E. cuspidatus Jeps. 
P. GAIRDNERI (Hook. & Arn.) 
Mathias 
Atenia g. Hook. & .Arn. 
A. garremi (A. Nels.) Rydb. 
Carum g. A. Gray 
C. g. -AT X'els. 
P. PARlSHll (Coult. & Rose) A. Nels. 
i Macbr. 
Eulophus p. Coult. & Rose 
E. simplex Coult. & Rose 
P". s. A. Nels. & Macbr. 

ISTERA S. Wats. 
P. EASTWOODAE (Coult. & Rose) 
Mathias & Constance 
Ligusticella e. Coult. & Rose 
P. NEVADENSIS (A. Gray) S. Wats. 
Cymopteris n. A. Gray 
P. albensis Jeps. 

DOCYMOPTERUS Coult. & Rose 

MONTANUS (A. Gray) Coult. 

& Rose 
Cogswellia lemmoni (Coult. 

& Rose) M. E. Jones 
Cymopterus grayanus Tides. 
C. ligusticoides M. E. Jones 
C. 1. var. puniceus Tides. 
C. ]_. var. lenuifolius (A. Gray) 

M. E. Jones 
Lomatium 1. Coult. & Rose 
P. multifidus (Rydb.) Rydb. 
P. purpureus (Coult. & Rose) Rydb. 
P. u Rydb. 

P. tidestromii Coult. & Rose 
P. sylvaticus A. Nels. 
P. versicolor Rydb. 

"OPTERUS Coult. & Rose 
K. PLURIJUGUS Coult. & Rose 

Cymopterus p. M. E. Jones 

k; M'LA L. (201) 

S. GRAVEOLENS Poepp. 

S. nevadensis S. Wats. 
S. septentrionalis Greene 

U L. 

S. SUAVE Walt. 

S. cicutaefoiium Schrank 



Zl/.IA Koch 

Z. AlTlvRA (A. Gray) 1-ern. 

Z. a. var. occidentalis 1-erii. 



ZIZIA 



COWBANE 
FentUer C. 



PARSNIP 
Garden P. 



Yampa 



PSEUDOCY- 
MOPTERUS 



SANICLE 



WATERPARSNIP 
Hemlock W. 



INOSCIADIUM A. Gray 

S. CAPITELLATUM A. Gray 
Selinum c. S. Wats. 



WOOLLYHEAD- 

PARSNIP 
Range W . 



l.:i)RNACEAi;. Dogwood l-amily (2112) 

DOGWOOD 



CORNUS L. 

C. SrOLONIEERA Michx. var. 
STOLONIFERA 

C. instoloneus A. Nels. 

C. ijiterior (Rydb.) Peters. 

C. nelsoni Rose 

S"vida i. (A. Nels.) Kydb. 

S. L Rydb. 

S. sericea L. ssp. s. Fosberg 

S. s. Heller 
C. STOLONIFERA Michx. var. 

OCCIDENTALIS (Torr. & 
Gray) C. L. llitchc. 

C. o. Cov. 

C. pubescens Nutt. 

Svida p. Standi. 



GARRYACEAE. Silk tassel Familv 



Redosier D. 



SILKTASSEL 



Yellowleal S. 



GARRYA Dougl. 

G. FLAVESCENS S. Wats. var. 
FLAVESCENS 
G. mollis Greene 
G. FLAVESCENS S. Wats. var. 

PALLIDA (Eastw.) Bacig. 
G. p. Eastw. 



PYROLACEAE. Wmtergreen Family 

CHIMAPHILA Pursh PIPSISSFWA 

C. UMBELLATA (L.) Barton var. 

OCCIDENTALIS (Rydb.) 
Blake 
C. o. Rydb. 
C. u. ssp. o. Hull. 

MONESES Salisb. 

M. LINIFLORA (L.) A. Gray 
M. reticulata Nutt. 
M. u. var. r. Blake 
Pyrola u. L. 

PTEROSPORA Nutt. PINEDROPS 

P. ANDROMEDEA Nutt. Woodland P. 

PYROLA L. (2(13, 204) SHINLEAF; 

WINTER- 
GREEN; 
PYROLA 
P. ASARIFOLIA Michx. var. 

ASARIFOLIA Alpine P. 

P. a. var. bracteata 

(Hook.) Jeps. 
P. a. var. iiicarnata (Fisch.) 



Common P. 



WOODNYMPH 



P. 



Fern, 
var. uliginosa (Torr. & 
Gray) F'arw. 
P. b. Hook. 
P. i. Fisch. 
P. "u. Torr. & Gray 
P. ASARIFOLIA Michx. var. 

PURPUREA (Bunge) Fern. 
P. DENTATA Smith 

P. d. var. Integra A. Gray 
P. picta Smith ssp. d. Piper 
P. p. ssp. i. Piper 
P. ELLIPTIC A Nun. 



Toolhleal P. 



Waxflowcr P. 



PYROLA 



GLAUX 



Rydb. 



PYROLA L. (con.) 
P. MINOR L. 

Erxlebenia 
P. PICTA Smith 
P. SECUNDA L. 

P. s. var. obcusata Turcz 

Ramischia s. Garcke 
P. VIRENS SchweTgg 

P. chlorantha Sw. 



PRIMULACEAE. 



SARCODES Torr. 

S. SANGUINEA Torr. 



Snowline P. 



Whitevein P. 
Sidebells P. 



SNOW PLANT 
S. 



ERICACEAE. Heath Family 

ARCTOSTAPHYLOS Adans. (1, 205) 
A. NEVADENSIS A. Gray 

Uva-ursi n. Abrams 
A. PARRYANA Lemmon var. 

PINETORUM (Roll.) 
Wies. & Schreib. 
A. p. Roll. 
A. PATULA Greene 

A. p. var. incarnata Jeps. 

A. platyphylla (A. Gray) Kuntze 

A. pungens HBK. var. platy- 

phylla A. Gray 
Uva-ursi p. (Greene) Abrams 
A. PUNGENS HBK. 

Uva-ursi p. Abrams 

A. UVA-URSI (L.) Spreng. 

Uva-ursi u. Britton 

CASSIOPE D. Don 

C. MERTENSLANA (Bong.) G. Don 

GAULTHERIA L. 

G. HUMIFUSA (Grah.) Rydb. 
G. myrsinites Hook. 
Vaccinium h. Grah. 

ICALMIA L. 

K. POLIFOLIA Wang. var. MICRO- 
PHYLLA (Hook.) Rehd. 
K. m. Heller 

LEDUM L. (206) 

L. GLANDULOSUM Nutt. 

L. caliiornicum Kellogg 
L. g. ssp. g. var. c . 

C. L. Hitchc. 

PHYLLODOCE Salisb. 

P. EMPETRIFORMIS (Sw.) D. Don 
Menziesia e. Sw. 
Bryantlius e. A. Gray 

VACCINIUM L. (207) 



MANZANITA 
Pinemat M. 



Pine M. 
Greenleaf M, 



Pointleaf M. 
Bear berry 



CASSIOPE 
Mertens C. 



WINTERGREEN 
Western W. 



LAUREL, KALMIA 
Alpine Bog K. 



LABRADOR TEA 
Western L. 



MT. HEATHER 



BLUEBERRY; 
HUCKLEBERRY; 
WHORTLEBERRY 



V. CAESPITOSUM Michx. 

V. arbuscula (A. Gray) Merriam 

V. c. var. a. A. Gray 

V. globulare of Intermountaln 
authors, not Rydb. 

V. nivictum Camp 
V. MEMBRANACEUM Dougl. 

V. macrophyllum (Hook.) Piper 
V. MYRTILLUS L. 

V. oreophilum Rydb. 
V. OCCIDENTALE A. Gray 
V. SCOPARIUM Leib. 

V. erythrococcum Rydb. 

V. microphyllum (Hook.) Rydb. 



Big W. 

Myrtle W . 

Westernbog B. 
Grouse W. 



Primrose Family 

ROCKJASM 



* 



ANDR OSAGE L. (208) 

A. CARINATA Torr. 

A. chamaejasme of American 
authors, (mainly 
Intermountaln authors) 
not Host 
Drosace c. (Torr.) A. Nels. 
A. FlLIFORMIS~Retz 

A. capUlaris Greene 
A. OCCIDENTALIS Pursh 

A. arizonica A. Gray 
A. o. var. a^. St. John 
A. o. var. simplex (Rydb.) 
~ ~ St. John 

A. s. Rydb. 
A. SEPTENTRIONALIS L. var. PUBERU- 
LENTA (Rydb.) Knuth 
A. p. Rydb. 
A. SEPTENTRIONALIS L. var. SUB- 
LIFERA A. Gray 
A. diffusa Small 



Western R 



A. 


plnetorum Greene 






A. 


s. 


of American authors 


, in 


A. 


s. 


large part, 
var. d. Knuth 


not 


L. 


A. 


s. 


var. p. Knuth 






A. s. (A. Gray) Rydb. 
. SEPTENTRIONALIS L. var. 


SUB 






UMBELLATA A. 


Nel 


S . 


A. 


s. 


Small 







DODECATHEON L. SHOOTLVG:! 

D. ALPINUM (A. Gray) Greene Alpine S. 

D. a. ssp. majus H. J. Thompson 
D. jeffreyi Van Houtte var. a 
A. Gray 
D. CONJUGENS Greene 

D. glastlfolium Greene 
D. DENTATUM Hook. ssp. DENTATUM Dentate S. 
D. DENTATUM Hook. ssp. ELLISL^E 
(Standi.) H. J. Thompson 
D. e. Standi. 
D. JEFFREYI Van Houtte Jeffreys. 

D. dlspar A. Nels. 



D. exUlfolium Macbr. 
D. tetrandrum Suksd. 



Payson 



D. PLILCHELLUM (Raf.) Merrill 
ssp. PULCHELLUM 
D. pauciflorum Greene 
D. p. var. shoshonensis A. Nels. 
D. radicatum Greene 
D. sinuatum (Rydb.) Rydb. 
D. PULCHELLUM (Raf.) Merrill ssp. 
MONANTHUM (Greene) 
H. J. Thompson 
D. pauciflorum Greene var. 

m . Greene 
D. radicatum Greene ssp. m. 
H. J. Thompson 
D. PULCHELLUM (Raf.) Merrill ssp. 
WATSONII (Tides.) H. J. 
Thompson 
D. pauciflorum Greene var. w. 

c7l. Hitchc. 
D. radicatum Greene ssp. w. 

H. J. Thompson 
D. w. Tides. 
D. REDO LENS (Hall) H. J. Thompson 
D. jeffreyi var. r. Hall 



GLAUX L. 



G. MARITIMA L. 

G. m. var. obtusifolia Fern. 



SALTWOR. 

SEA MIL! 

Sea Millcwo 



78 



[MACHIA 



OKNTIANA 



[MACHIA L. 
L. THYKSIFLORA 

1ULA L. (209) 
P. CUSICKIANA (A. Gray) A. Gray 

P. brodheadae M. E. Jones 
P. HUNNEWELLII Fern. 
P. INCANA M. E. Jones 

P. americana Rydb. 
P. MAGUIREI L. O. WUliams 
P. PARRYI A. Gray 

P. mucronata Greene 

P. p. var. brachyantha Rydb. 
P. SPECUTCOLA Rydb. 

DLUS L. 

S. FLORIBUNDUS HBK. 

RON EM A Raf. 
S. CILL'\TUM (L.) Ral\ 

Lysimachia c. L. 
S. LANG EO LATUM (Walt.) A. Gray 

Lysimachia 1. Walt. 



LOOSESTRIFE 
Water L. 



PRIMROSE 



Parry P. 



WATER- 
PIMPERNEL 



STEIRONEMA 
Fringed S. 

Lancelcaf S. 



Lcucocraspedum c. (Mullord) 
Rydb. ~ 

Swertia c. (A. Gray) St. John 

S. modocensis St. John 
F. ALBOMARGINATA S. Wats. 

F. a. var. jjiduta (Tides.) Card 

F. r. Tides. 
F. PAN ICU LATA Torr. 

F. utahensis M. E. Jones 

Lcucocraspedum u. Rydb. 

Swertia bigelovii Kuntze 

S. u. St. John 
F. PUBERU LENTA A. Davids. 

Swertia p. Jeps. 
F. SPECIOSA Dougl. 

F. angustifolia (Rydb.) Rydb. 
F. macrophylla Greene 
Swertia radiata (Kellogg) Kuntze 
Tessaranthium a. Rydl). 
T. m. Rydb. 
T. r. Kellogg 
T. s. Rydb. 



Whilemargin G 



Showy G. (Elk 
weed) 



OLEACEAE. Olive or Ash FamUy (7) 



iSTIERA Poir. 

F. NEOMEXIC.ANA A. Gray 
Adelia n. Knuth 

tiNUS L. 
F. ANOMALA Torr. 

F. a. var. triphylla M. E. 
Jones 
F. CUSPIDATA Torr. var. M.\CRO- 
PETALA (Eastw.) Rehd. 
F. m. Eastw. 
F. DIPETALA Hooi<. & Arn. 
F. VELUTINA Torr. 

F. coriacea S. Wats. 

F. pennsylvanica Marsh ssp. 

V. G. N. MUler 
F. V. var. c. Rehd. 

nil i|<A Humb. & Bonpl. 

M. SCABRA A. Gray 

M. SPINESCENS A. Gray 



FORESTIERA 
New Mexican F . 



ASH 
Singleleaf A. 



Fragrant A. 

Twopetal A. 
Velvet A. 



MENODORA 
Rough M. 
Spiny M. 



LOGANIACEAE. Logania FamUy 



CLl-IA L. 
li. LiTAHENSIS Cov. 



BUTTER FLY BUSH 
Utah B. 



GENTIANACEAE. Gentian Family 

fALRlUMHill CENTAURY 

r. CALYCOSUM (Buck.) Fern. 

C. arizonicum (A. Gray) Heller 
. . URVISTAMINEUM (Wittr.) Ahrams 
' . IXALTATUM (Griseb.) W. F. Wight 
C. \UTTALL1I(S. Wats.) Heller 

JERA Walt. (210, 211) GREEN GENTIAN 

'f. ALBICAULIS Dougl. var. 

CUSICKII (A. Gray) 
C. L. Hitchc. 
F. a. of Inlermountain authors, 
not Dougl. 



F. 


caerulea Mulford 


F. 


c . A. Gray 


F. 


nitida Benth. var. c. (A. 




Gray) A. Nels. & 




Macbr. 



GENTIANA L. (212) 

G. AFFINIS Griseb. 

Dasystephana 



var. AFFINLS 



GENTIAN 
Rocky Mountain 
Pleated ( I . 



Rydb. 
Greene 

FORWOODII 



Pneumonanthe a . 
AFFINIS Griseb. ~var 

(A. Gray) Kusnez. 

Dasystephana f. Rydb. 

G . _[. A. Gray" 

Pneumonanthe f. Greene 
AFFINIS Griseb. ~var. MAJOR 

A. Nels. & Kennedy 
AFFINIS Griseb. var. PARVI- 

DENTATA Kusnez. 
ALGIDA Pall. 

Dasystephana romanzovii 
(Ledeb.) Rydb. 

G. a. var. r. Kusnez. 

G. r. LedebT 
AMARELLA L. ssp. AMARELLA 

Amarella acuta (Michx.) Raf. 

A. tortuosa (Rydb.) Rydb. 

G. a. Michx. 

G. a. Michx. var. stricti - 



Annual G. 



G. 



folia Rydb. 
a. L. var. a. (Michx.) 

Herder 
helleri Brig. 



G. scopulorum (Greene) Tides. 
G. s. (Rydb.) A. Nels. 
G. U Rydb. 
G. AMARELLA L. ssp. HETEROSEPALA 
(Engelm.) Gillctt 
Amarella h. Greene 
G. h. Engelm. 
G. BARBEXlATA Engelm. 

Gentianella b. Gillett 
G. CALYCOSA Griseb. var. Rainier Pleated 

CALYCOSA G. 

Dasystephana c. Rydb. 
G. cusickii Gandoger 
Pneumonanthe c. (Griseb.) 
Greene 
G. CALYCOSA Griseb. var. ASEPALA 
(Maguire) C. L. Hitchc. 
G. c. ssp. a. Maguire 
G. idahoensis Gandoger 
G. DETONSA Rottb. var. UNICAULIS 
(A. Nels.) C. L. Hitchc. 
Anthopogon elegans (A. Nels.) 

Rydlj. 
G. c. A. Nels. 
G. e. var. u. A. Nels. 



79 



GENTIANA 



ASCLEPIAS 



GENTIANA L. (con.) 

G. U A. Nels. 

Gentianella d. G. Don. ssp. e. 
Gillett 
G. FREMONTII Torr. 

Chondrophylla U A. Nels. 

G. humilis of American authors, 
not Salisb. 
G. HOLOPETALA (A. Gray) Holm 

Gentianella detonsa G. Don. 
ssp. h. Gillett 
G. NEWBERRYl A. Gray Newberry G. 

Dasy Stephana n. Arthur 

G. tiogana Heller 

Pneiimonanthe n. Greene 
G. OREGANA Engelrn. Oregon G. 

Dasystephana o. Rydb. 

G. affinis var. ovata A. Gray 
G. PARRYl Engelrn. Parry G. 

Dasystephana p. 

G. bracteosa Greene 

G. p. var. b. A. Nels. 
G. PROSTRATA Haenke 

Chondrophylla am eric ana 

(Engelm.) A. Nels. 

C. p. Anders. 

G. p. var. a. Engelm. 
G. SIMPLEX A. Gray 

Anthopogon s . Rydb . 

Gentianella s^. GUlett 
G. TENELLA RotF. 

Amarella monantha (A. Nels.) 
Rydb. 

A. t. Cockerell 

G. m_. A. Nels. 

G. t. var. m. Rouss. & Raym. 

Lomatogonium t. Love & Love 

SWERTIA L. SWERTIA 

S. PERENNIS L. Alpine bog S. 

S. congesta A. Nels. 
S. fritUlaria Rydb. 
S. palustris A. Nels. 
S. scopulina Greene 



A. ambigens Greene 
A. macranthum Rydb. 
A. scopulorum Greene 
A. ANDROSAEMIFOLIUM L. 



A. a 



var. 

PUMILUM A. Gray 
var. nevadense Jeps. 



A. a. var. rhomboideum (Greene) 
Beg . & Bel . 

A. calophyllum Greene 

A. plumbeum Greene 

A. p. (A. Gray) Greene 

A. r. Greene 
CANNABINUM L. var. GLABERRI- 
MUM A. DC. 

See Woodson for complete synonymy 

A. c. of western authors, not L. 

A. c_. var. pubescens (Mitchell) DC. 

A. p. Mitchell 
CANNABINUM L. var. SUKSDORFIl 
(Greene) Beg. & Bel. 

A. angustifolium Woodson 

A. jonesii Woodson 



A . s . Greene 
A. s. var. a. Woodson 
A. MEDIUM Greene 

A hybrid between A. androsaemi- 

folium and A. can- 

nabinum 
For complete synonymy, see Woodson 
A. floribundum Heller 
A. lividum Greene 
A. m. var. f. Woodson 
A. m. var. 1. Woodson 
A. SIBIrICUM Jacq". var. SALIGNUM 
(Greene) Fern. 
A. hypericifolium Ait. 
A. h. var. £. Beg. & Bel. 
A. nevadense Goodding 
A. s. Greene 
A. s. of Intermoimtain authors, 

not Jacq. 



ASCLEPIADACEAE. MUkweed FamUy (215) 



MENYANTHACEAE. Buckbean Family 



MENYANTHES L. 

M. TRIFOLIATA L. 



BUCKBEAN 
Common B. 



APOCYNACEAE. Dogbane Family 



AMSONIA Walt. (213) 

A. BREVIFOLIA A. Gray 
A. E.\STWOODIANA Rydb. 
A. JONESII Woodson 

A. latifolia M. E. Jones, not 

Michx. 
A. texana Rydb., not Heller 
A. TOMENTOSA Torr. & Frem. 
A. brevifolia var.£. Jeps. 
A. t. var. stenophylla Kearney 
& Peebles 

APOCYNUM L. (214) 

A. ANDROSAEMIFOLIUM L. var. 
ANDROSAEMIFOLIUM 
A. a. L. var. incanum A. DC. 
A. J. G. S. Miller 
Cynopaema a. Lunell 
A. ANDROSAEMIF'OLIUM L. var. 
GLABRUM Macoun 



AMSONIA 



Eastwood A. 



DOGBANE; 
INDIAN HEMP 

Spreading D. 



ASCLEPIAS L. (216) 

A. ASPERULA (Dene.) Woodson 
Acerates a. Dene. 
Asclepias capricornu Woodson 
ssp. occidentalis 
Woodson 
Asclepiodora a. Fourn. 
A. CORDIFOLLA (Benth.) Jeps. 
Acerates c. Benth. 



MlLKWEf )i 



Asclepias ecomuta Kellogg 
Benth. 
ssp. 



Gomphocarpus 



CRYPTOCERAS S. Wats. 
CRYPTOCERAS 
Acerates latifolia Torr. & Frem., 



DAVIS II 



not Raf. 
A. CRYPTOCERAS S. Wats, ssp 
(Woodson) Woodson 

A. d. Woodson 
A. CUTLER! Woodson 
A. ENGELMANNL\NA Woodson 

Acerates auriculata Engelm. 

Asclepias a_. Holz, not HBK. 

Gomphocarpus a. K. Sch. 
A. ERIOCARPA Benth." 

A. fremomii Torr. 

A. kotolo Eastw. 
A. EROS A Torr. 

A. leucophylla Engelm. 
A. FASCICULARIS Dene. 

A. fasciculata Hemsl. 

A. macrophylla Nutt. 

A. mexicana of American authors, 

~ iiot CAV. 



Woollypoi 



Desert M 



80 



COLUUIIA 



■l.\S L. (con.) 
.. IIALLII A. Gray 

A. curvipes A. Ni-ls. 

A. lonchophylla GrL'cru; 
. l.\d.\RN'ATA L. 
,. IXVOLL'CRATA Engclni. 
,. LABRIFORMIS M. E. Jones 
.. MACROSPERMA Eastw. 

A. involucrata var. tomentosa 
Eastw. 
.. RL'SHYI (Vail) Woodson 

Acerate? r. Vail 



Halls M . 



Swamp M . 
Dwarl M. 



Slio\\y M. 
Skeleton M. 



Asclepias engelmanniana var. 
r. Kearney 
A. RLTHL\E MagGire 

A. eastwoodiana Barneby 
■'.. SPEtlOSA Torr. 

A. douglasii Hook. 
.. SUBL'LATA Dene. 
.. SUBVERTICILL.ATA (A. Gray) 

\aH 
A. TUBEROSA L. ssp. TERMIXALIS 
Woodson 
A. t. ssp. interior Woodson, 
as to Intermountain 
plants, up to I'^S-J 

lANCHUM L. 
C. UTAHENSE (Engelm.) Woodson 

COSTEMMA R. Br. 
S. CYNAXCHOIDES Dene. ssp. 

HARTWEGII (Vail) R. Holm 
Funastrum h. SclUechter 
F. heterophyllum (Engelm.) 

Standi . , a synonym to: 
S. h. of Intermountain authors, 
not Engelm. 
^. HIRTELLUM (A. Gray) R. Holm 
Funastrum h. Schlechter 



COWOLMJLACEAE. Mornmg -glory FamUy 



SWALLOWWORT 



C'.NOLVULUS L. 

C. ARVENSIS L. 

C. ambigens House 
<:. LONGIPES S. Wats. 
C. SEPIUM L. 

C. americanus (Sims) Greene 

C. repens L. 

Cl:SSA L. 

C. TRUXILLENSIS HBK. var. 
TRUXILLENSIS 
C. depressa Goodding 
^, C. erecta Rydb. 

C. TRUXILLENSIS HBK. var. MINIMA 
(HeUer) Munz 
Cm. Heller 



GLORYBIND 
European G. 



Hedge G . 



CALII-ORNICA Choisy var. 

APICIJLATA lingelm. 
C. c. of Interniounlain authors. 

not Choisy 
Many hosts 
CAMPESTRLS Yuncker 

C. arvensis Hook., not Beys. 
C. a. var. calycina (Engelm.) 



C. 



Engelm. 
pentdgona Engelm. 
c. Engelm. 



Ihi«l D. 



Clover D. 



Gronovius D. 



Many hosts, mostly leguminous |ilant 
C. CEPHALANTHl Engelm. 

C. tenuiflora Engelm. 

Many hosts 
C. CORY LI Engelm. 

C. crenulata Engelm. 

C. inflexa Engelm. 

Many hosts 
C. CURTA (Engelm.) Rydb. 

C. megalocarpa Rydb. 

Many hosts 
C. CUSPIDATA Engelm. 

Many hosts 
C. DENTICULATA Engelm. 

Many hosts 
C. EPITHYMUM Murray 

Mostly of leguminous plants 
C. GRONOVII Willd. 

C. umbrosa Beyr. 

Many hosts 
C. INDECORA Choisy var. BIFIDA 

Yuncker 
C. INDECORA Choisy var. NEURO- 

PETALA (Engelm.) Yuncker 

C. i. of Intermountain autliors, 
not Choisy 

C. n. Engelm. 

Many hosts 
C. NEVADENSIS Johnst. 

C. salina Engelm. var. apoda 
(Yuncker) Y'uncker 

C. veatchii Brand var. a. Yuncker 

On Atriplex species 
C. OCCIDENTALIS Millsp. 

C. californica var. breviflora 
Engelm. 

Many hosts 
C. PENTAGONA Engelm. 

C. arvensis Beyr., not Hook. 

Many hosts, mostly leguminous 
plants 
C. SALINA Engelm. 

C. squamigcra (Engelm.) Piper 

Mostly on plants of saline regions 
C. WARNERI Yuncker 



POLEMONIACEAE. Plilox Family (219, 22(1. 221) 



Saltnursh D. 



CUSCUTACEAE. Dodder Family 

ibuTA L. (217, 218) 

C. APPROXIMATA Babington var. 
URCEOLATA (Kuntze) 
Y'uncker 
C. anthem i A. Nels. 
C_. gracilis Rydb. 
C. planiflora of American 

authors, not Kuntze 
C_. u. Kuntze 
Parasitic on leguminous crops 



DODDER 



COLLOMIA Nutt. 


(222) 


C. DEBILIS 


(S. Wats.) Greene 


C. d. 


var. Integra Pays. 


C. d. 


ssp. trifida (Pays.) 




Wlierry 


C. d. 


var. t. Pays. 


C. hu 


rdlei A. Nels. 


C. h. 


var. i. A. Nels. 


C. h. 


var. t. A. Nels. 



COLLOMIA 



GUia d. S. Wats. 
GRANDIFLORA Dougl . 

C. g. var. axillaris A. Nels. 

C. 

C. 



g. ssp 

scabra Greene 



diffusa (Mulford) Piper 



COLLOMIA 



GILIA 



Slenderleaf C. 



COLLOMIA Nutt. (con.) 

Cilia g. A. Gray 

C. g. var. a. A. Nels. & Macbr. 

Navarretia g. Kuntze 

C. LINEARIS Nutt. 

C. parvLflora Hook. 

Cilia I. A. Cray 

Navarretia \_. Kuntze 
C. TENELLA A. Gray 

Cilia leptotes A. Gray 

CTT. A. Nels. & Macbr. 

Navarretia I. Kuntze 
C. TINCTORIA Kellogg 

C. aristella (A. Gray) Rydb. 

C. linearis var. subulata 
A. Cray 

GUia a. A. Gray 

G^. L var. £. A. Gray 

G. u Kellogg 

Navarretia a. Kuntze 

ERIASTRUM Woot. & Standi. (223) ERIASTRUM 

E. DENSIFOLIUM (Benth.) Mason 
Gilia d. Benth. 
Huegelia d. Benth. 
Navarretia d. Kuntze 
Welwitschia d. Tides. 
E. DIFFUSUM (A. "Gray) Mason 
Gilia fUifolia Nutt. var. d. 

A. Gray 
Huegelia d. Jeps. 
Welwitschia d. Rydb. 
W. f_. Rydb. "var. d. Tides. 
E. EREMICUM Oeps.) Mason ssp. 
EREMICUM 
Cilia e^. Craig 
Huegelia e. Jeps. 
E. EREMICUM "(Jeps.) Mason ssp. 

YACERI (M. E. Jones) Mason 
Gilia e. var. arizonica Craig 
G. e^. var. y. Crajg 
G. virgata (Benth.) Steud. var. 
y. M. E. Jones 
E. SPARSIFLORUM (Eastw.) Mason var. 
SPARS IF LORUM 
Cilia s. Eastw. 
G. filifolia (Benth.) Steud. var. 

s_. Macbr. 
Huegelia f. Benth. var. s. Jeps. 
E. faifolium (= G_. i_. Nutt. H.U Jeps., 
and Welwitschia f. Rydb.) 
and E . luteum(G. floccosa 
A. Gray H. f_. Howell, and 
Welwitschia f. Rydl^.) have 
been misapplied to Inter- 
mountain material, of which 
most falls into this species 
complex. See Mason for a 
complete discussion 
E. SPARSIFLORUM (Eastw.) Mason var. 
WILCOXII (A. Nels.) Cronq. 
E. w. Mason ^ 

GUia w. A. Nels. 
Navarretia w. Kuntze 
Welwitschia w. Rydb. 



GILL\ Ruiz & Pavon (5, 9, 224, 225, 226, 
227, 228) 
C. AGGREGATA (Pursh) Spreng. 

var. AGGREGATA 
G. formosissima Woot. & 

Standi. 
G. a. ssp. f. Wherry 
G. pulchella Dougl. 
Ipomopsis a. V. Grant 
I. a. ssp. f. Wherry 



GILIA 
Skyrocket C. 



G. AGGREGATA (Pursh) Spreng. 

var. ARIZONICA (Greene) 
Fosb. 
G. a. Rydb. 

Ipomopsis a. V. Grant ssp. 
~ "a. (Greene) V. & 
A. Grant 
I. a. (Greene) Wherry 
G. AGGR"EGATA (Pursh) Spreng. var. 
ATTENUATA A. Gray 
G. a. A. Nels. 

Ipomopsis a. V. Grant ssp. a. 
Ta. Gray) V. & A~' 
Grant 
G. AGGREGATA (Pursh) Spreng. var. 
BRIDGES II A. Gray 
G. b. Wherry 
Ipomopsis a. ssp. b. V. & A. 

Grant 
I. b. Wherry 
C. ALTqUANTA a. & V. Grant ssp. 

BREVILOBA A. & V. Grant 
C. a. of Intermountain references, 
~ "" not A. & V. Grant 

G. AUSTROOCCIDENTALIS (A. & V. 
Grant) A. & V. Grant 
G. inconspicua (Smith) Sweet 

ssp. a. A. & V. Grant 
G. BRECCIARUM M. e". Jones 
C. CAESPITOSA A. Gray, not A. Nels. 
G. CALCAREA M. E. Jones Sticky G.i 

G. pinnatifida of Intermountain 
authors, not Nutt. 
G. CAMPANULATA A. Gray 

Navarretia c. Kuntze 
G. CANA (M. E. Jones) Heller ssp. 

SPECIFORMIS A. & V. Grant 
C. CANA (M. E. Jones) Heller ssp. 
TRICEPS (Brand) A. & V. 
Grant 
G. cana of Intermountain authors, 
not (M. E. Jones) 
Heller 
G. latiflora (A. Gray) A. Gray 
ssp. t. Mason & 
A. Grant 
G . tenuiflora Benth . var . u Brand 
G. CAPILLARIS Kellogg ~ Hairsten 

G. leptalea (A. Gray) Greene 

ssp. c. Brand 
G. sinister M. E. Jones 
G. CLOKEYI Mason 

G. ochroleuca M. E. Jones ssp. 

c . Mason & Grant 
G. ophthalomoides Brand ssp. 
c_. A. & V. Grant 
G. CONGESTA Hook. var. CONGESTA Ballhead : 
G. burleyana A. Nels. 
G. c. var. b. Const. & Roll 
G. c. ssp. iberifolia (Benth.) 

Brand 
G. j_. Benth. 
G. nevadensis Tides. 
Ipomopsis c. V. Grant 
G. CONGESTA Hook. var. FRUTESCENS 
(Rydb.) Cronq. 
G. L Rydb. 
Ipomopsis f. V. Grant 
C. CONGESTA Hook. var. MONTANA 
(A. Nels. & Kennedy) Const. 
& Roll. 
G. m. A. Nels. & Kennedy 
Ipomopsis c. ssp. m_. V. Grant 
G. CONGESTA Hook. var. PALMIFRONS 
(Brand) Cronq. 
G. c. ssp. p. Brand 
G . p. RydbT 



82 



LKITODAC 1 Yl.ON 



• Kuiz & Pavon (con.) 
>.. CONGESTA Hook. var. 
\'IR1DIS Cronq. 
i... DEPRESSA M. E. Jones 

Ipomopsis d. V. Grant 
G. FIUFORMIS Parry 

Tmtinabulum f. Rydb. 
G. GILIOIDES (Bentir.) Greene 

Allophyllum g. A. & V. Grant 
G. GUNNISON! Tor'r. & Gray 
Ipomopsis g. V. Grant 
G. HAYDENI A. Gray 
G. HUTCHINSIFOLIA Rydb. 

G. leptomeria A. Gray ssp. 
rubella (Brand) 
Mason & A. Grant 
G. INCONSPICUA (Smilh) Sweet Shy G . 

G. INTERIOR (Mason & A. Grant) 
A. Grant 
G. tenuiflora Benth. ssp. 

1. Mason is; Grant 
G. INYOENSIS Johnston 
G. LATIFOLIA S. Wats. 
G. LAXIFLORA (Coult.) Osterh. 

Ipomopsis I. V. Grant 
G. LEPTANTHA "Parish ssp. 

SALTICOLA (Eastw.) 
A. & V. Grant 
G. alpina Eastw., not 

(Wedd.) Brand 
G. s. Eastw. 
' G. LEPTONIERIA A. Gray var. 
LEPTOMERIA 
G. U var. myriacantha 
M. E. Jones 
G. 1. var. tridentata 

M. E. Jones 
G. subacaulis Rydb. 
C. LEPTOMERIA A. Gray var. 

MICROMERLA (A. Gray) 
Cronq. 
G. I. ssp. m. Mason & A. Grant 
G. m. A. Gray 
G. LONGIFLORA (Torr.) G. Don 

Ipomopsis 1. V. Grant 
G. MCVICKERAE M. E. Jones 
■ G. MODOCENSIS Eastw. 

G. tetrabreccia A. St V. Grant 
G. MULTIFLORA Nutt. 

Ipomopsis m. V. Grant 
G. OPHTHALMOIDES Brand 

G. 0. ssp. clokeyi of A. & V. 

Grant, not G. c. Mason 
G. POLYANTHA Rydb. var. POLYANTHA 

Ipomopsis p. V. Grant 
G. POLYANTHA Rydb. var. WHITINGI 

Kearney & Peebles 
G. POLYCLADON Torr. 

Ipomopsis p. V. Grant 
, G. PUMILA Nutt." 

G. trifida Benth., not Nutt. 
Ipomopsis p. V. Grant 
G. RIPLEYI Bameby 

G. gilmanii Jeps. 
G. ROSEATA Rydb. 

G. nuda (Eastw.) Rydb. 
Ipomopsis r. V. Grant 
G. SCOPULORUM" M. E. Jones 

G. s^. var. deformis Brand 
G. SINUATA Dougl. var. SINUATA 

G_. inconspicua var. s. A. Gray 

G. latiflora of Intermountain authors, 

not (A. Gray) A. Gray 
G. tenuiflora Benth. var. s. Jeps. 



G. SINUATA Dougl. var. TWKEUYI 
(Rydb.) Cronq. 
G. \_. Rydb. 
G. SPICATA Nun. var. SITCATA Spike (_; 

G. s. var. deserta A. Nels. 
G. trifida Nutt.. not Hcnth. 
Ipomopsis s. V. Grant 
G. SPICATA NuttT var. CEPIiA- 

LOIDEA (Rydb.) Const, 
ti Roll. 
G. c^. Rydb. 
G. SPICATA Nutt. var. ORCIIIDACEA 
(Brand) Cronq. 
G. conge sta var. o. Brand 
G. SPICATA Nutt. vyr. TRIDACTYLA 
(Rydb.) Const. & Roll. 
G. ^. Rydb. 

G. tnlida in Brand, not Nutt. 
G. STELLATAlk'Uur 
C. STENOTHYRSA A. Gray 
G. SUBNUDA Torr. 

C. s. ssp. supcrba (Eastw.) 

Brand 
G. s. Eastw. 
G. TENERRIMA A. Gray 
G. TENUITUBA Rydb. 

G. aggregata var. macrosiphon 
(Wherry) Kearney Si 
Peebles 
Ipomopsis t. V. Grant 
G. TRANSMONTANA (Mason & A. 
Grant) A. Si V. Grant 
G. ochroleuca of Intermountain 

authors, not M. E. Jones 
G. o. ssp. t. Mason 8i A. Grant 



VIOLACEUM Heller 
Allophyllum v. A. 



Si V. Grant 



GYMNOSTERIS Greene 

G. NUDICAULIS (Hook. & Arn.) Greene 
Gilia n. A. Gray 
Gymnosteris pulchella Greene 
Linanthus n . Howell 
Navarretia n. Kuntze 



G. PARVULA Heller 
Gilia p. Rydb. 
Gymnosteris rydbergii Tides. 

LANG LOIS LA Greene 

L. MATTHEWSll (A. Gray) Greene 
Gilia m. A. Gray 
Loeselia m. A. Gray 
Navarretia m. Cov. 
L. PUNCTATA TCov.) Goodding as to 
author, not Heller 
Gilia setosissima (Torr. Si 

Gray) A. Gray var. 
p . Cov . 
L. lanata Brand 
L. SCHOTTII (Torr.) Greene 
Gilia s. A. Gray 
L. flaviflora A. Davids. 
Navarretia s. Torr. 
L. SETOSISSIMA jTorr. Si Gray) Greene 
GUia £. A. Gray 
L. s. var. campyloclados Brand 
Navarretia s_. Torr. & Gray 

LEPTODACTYLON Hook. SiAm. 
L. CAESPITOSUM Nutt. 

Gilia c. A. Nels., not A. Gray 
G. pungens var. c. A. Gray 



8.-^ 



LEPTODACTYLON 



PHLOX 



LEPTODACTYLON Hook. & Arn. (con.) 
L. PUNGENS (Torr.) Nutt. ssp. 
PUNGENS 
Gilia hookeri (Dougl.) Benth. 



Prickly Phlox 



G. 


lUacina Brand 


G. 


p. Bentli. 


L. 


brevifolium Rydb. 


L. 


h. Nutt. 


L. 
L. 
L. 


patens Heller 
p. ssp. h. Wherry 
p. ssp. pulchriflorum 
(Brand) Mason 


L. 

L. 


p. ssp. squarrosa 

(A. Gray) Wherry 
p. var. s. Tides. 


L. PUNGENS (Torr.) Nutt. ssp. 




HALLII (Parish) Mason 


Gil 


ia h. Parish 


G. 


p. Benth. ssp. h. Brand 


G. 


tenuiloba Parish 



L. h. Heller 
L. WATSONI (A. Gray) Rydb. 
Gilia w . A. Gray 

LINANTHASTRUM Ewan 

L. MELINGII (Wiggins) Wherry 

Leptodactylon m. Wiggins 
L. NUTTALLII (A. Gray) Ewan ssp. 
NUTTALLII 

Gilia n. A. Gray 

Leptodactylon n. Rydb. 

Linanthus n. Greene 

Siphonella n. Heller 
L. NUTTALLII (A. Gray) Ewan ssp. 

FLORIBUNDUS (A. Gray) Ewan 

Gilia f. A. Gray 

Leptodactylon f. Tides. 

L. n. Rydb. var.£. Jeps. 

Linanthus n. Greene ssp. f. Munz 

Siphonella f. Jeps. 

LINANTHUS Benth. (1) 

L. ARENICOLA (M. E. Jones) 
Jeps. & Bailey 

Gilia a. M. E. Jones 

L. mohavensis Mason 
L. AUREUS (Nutt.) Greene var. AUREUS 

Dactylophyllum a. Heller 

Gilia a . Nutt . 

Leptosiphon a. Benth. 
L. AUREUS (Nutt.)'"Greene var. 

DECORUS (A. Gray) Jeps. 

Gilia a. var. d. A. Gray 

L. a. ssp. d. Mason 
L. BIGELOVII (ATGray) Greene var. 
BIGELOVIl 

Gilia b. A. Gray 
L. BlGELOVil (A. Gray) Greene var. 
JONESII (A. Gray) Jeps. 
& Mason 

Gilia j. A. Gray 
L. CILIATUS (Benth.) Greene 

G il ia c . Benth . 

Leptosiphon c. Jeps. 
L. DEMISSUS (A. Gray) Greene 

Gilia d. A. Gray 

G. dactylophylla Torr. 
L. DICHOTOMUS Benth. 

Gilia d. Benth. 
L. HARKNESSIl (Curran) Greene 

Gilia h. Curran 

Navarretia h. Kuntze 
L. PARRYAE (A. "Gray) Greene 

Dactylophyllum p. Heller 

GUia kennedyi Porter 

G. p. A. Gray 



L. PHARNACEOIDES (Benth.) Greene 
Gilia p. Benth. 

G. liniflora Benth. ssp. p. Brand 
G. L var. p. A. Gray 
G. tenella Nutt. 
L. 1. Greene ssp. p. Mason 
L. SEPTENTRIONALIS Mason 
Gilia s. St. John 
L. harknessii var. s. Jeps. & 

Bailey 
L. liniflorus of Intermountain 

reference, not (Benth.) 

Greene 

MICROSTERIS Greene (See (5) for complete 
synonymy.) 
M. GRACILIS (Hook.) Greene var. 
GRACILIS 
CoIIomia g. Dougl. 
C. micrantha Kellogg, and 
M. m. Greene are customarily mis- 
applied to var. humilor, 
but are actually var. 
gracilis 
Phlox g. Greene 
M. GRACILIS (Hook.) Greene var. 

HUMILIOR (Hook.) Cronq. 
Collomia humilis Dougl. 
M. humilis Greene 
M_. g. ssp. h^. (Greene) V. Grant 
Phlox g. Greene ssp. h. (Greene) 
Mason 

NAVARRETIA Roem. & Pavon (I, 229) 
N. BREWERI (A. Gray) Greene 

Gilia b. A. Gray 
N. INTERTEXTA (Benth.) Hook. var. 
PROPINQUA (Suksd.) Brand 
N. i. of Interinountain authors, 

not (Benth.) Hook. 
N. p. Suksd. 
N. LEUCOCEPHALA Benth. 
N. MINIMA Nutt. 

Gilia m. A. Gray 



LOX 


L. (230) 


PHLOX 


P. 


ACULEATA A. Nels. 


Idaho P. 


P. 


AUSTROMONTANA Gov. var. 






AUSTROMONTANA 


Desert P 




P. aciculifolia Kennedy 






P. a. Gov. ssp. densa 






(Brand) Wbcrry 






P. a. Gov. ssp. vera Wherry 






P. d. Brand 






P. diffusa Benth. ssp. sub- 






carinata Wherry 





P. d. Benth. var. s. Peck 
P. douglasii Hook. var. a. 

(Gov.) Jeps. & Mason 
P. AUSTROMONTANA Gov. var. 
PROSTRATA E. Nels. 
P. acerba A. Nels. 
P. a. Gov. ssp. p. Wherry 
P. jonesii Wherry 
P. CLUTEANA A. Nels. 
P. CONDENSATA (A. Gray) E. Nels. 
P. caespitosa Nutt. var. c. 

A. Gray 
P. covillei E. Nels. 
P. dejecta A. Nels. & Kennedy 
P. douglasii Hook. var. c. 
(E. Nels.) Jeps. 
P. gxiseola Wherry 



P. g. ssp. tumulosa (Wherry) 

Wherry 
P. t. Wherry 



I'OI.F.MONU'M 



'X L. (con.) 

P. DIFFUSA licnUi. var. DIFFUSA Sprcadini; 1', 

P. douglasii Hook. var. 
d. Jcps. 
P. DIFFUSA Bunth. var. LONGI- 
STYLIS (Wherry) Peck 
P. d. ssp. J_. Wlicrry 
P. GL.ADIFORMISIm. H. Jones) 
E. Nels. 
P. caesia Eastvv. 
P. gooddingii A. Xels. & 

Kennedy 
P. longifolia Nun. var. g. 
M. E. Jones 
P. HOODII Rich. ssp. HOODII Hoods P. 

P. ditlusa ssp. sclerantliifolia 

(Rydb.) Wherry 
P. glabraia (E. Nels.) Brand 
P. h. var. g. E. Nels. 
P. h. ssp. laiiata (Piper) Munz 
P. r. Piper 
P. s. Rydb. 
P. HOODII Rich. var. CANESCENS 
(Torr. S; Gray) Peck 
P. c . Torr. S: Gray 
P. h. ssp. c . Wherry 
P. KELSE"'Y1 Brinon ssp. SALINA 
(M. E. Jones) Wherry 
P. douglasii var. s. M. E. 
Jones 
P. LONGIFOLIA Nutt. Longleaf P. 

P. cemua E. Nels. 
P. cortezana A. Nels. 
P. humilis Dougl . 
P. 1. ssp. calva Wherry 
P. I. var. c. (Wherry) Peck 
P. 1. ssp. compacta (Brand) 
Wherry 
var. c. (Brand) Peck 
ssp. c. (A. Nels.) Wherry 
var. filifolia A. Nels. 



STANSBURYI ('|-orr.) Heller 
var. S'l'ANSBURYI 
P. longituba Heller 
P. superba Brand 
Sl^.-rNSBURYl (Torr.) HelUr 
var. BRHVIFOLIA 
(A. C;ray) F. Nels. 
P. grayi Wool. (4 Standi. 
P. longifolia ssp. b. Wlierry 



Siaiisburv !', 



1. 



or Mason 
var. b. A. Gray 



P 

P. visenda A. Nel 
VARIABILIS Brand 
\1SC1DA E. Nels. 



P. I 
P. ]_ 
P. }_ 
P. ]_ 
P. \_ 
P. 1 



ssp. h. (Dougl.) Wherry 
var. h. (Dougl.) Peck 
ssp. longipes (M. E. Jones) 
Wherry 
P. K var. T (M. E. Jones) Peck 
P. 1. var. puberula E. Nels. 
P. 1. ssp. viridis (E. Nels.) Wherry 
P. "p. (E. Nels.) A. Nels.) 
P. v. E. Nels. 

P. V. ssp. c. (Brand) Wherry 
P. V. ssp. 1. (M. E. Jones) Wherry 
P. MLfLTrp LORA~A . Nels. Flowery P. 

P. costata Rydb. 
f. depressa (E. Nels.) Rydb. 
P. m. ssp. d. Wherry 
P. m. ssp. patula (A. Nels.) 

Wherry 
P. p. A. Nels. 
P. MUSCOIDES Nutt. 

P. bryoides Nutt. 
P. caespitosa Nutt. ssp. m. Brand 
P. hoodii ssp. m. Wherry 
P. PULVINATA (Wherry) Cronq. 

P. caespitosa of Intermountain 



P. c. 



authors, not Nutt. 
ssp. platyphylla Wherry 



P. c. ssp. p. Wherry 

P. douglasii Hook, of Intermountain 
authors, a synonym of 
true P. c. Nutt. 
SPECIOSA Pursh var. OCCIDENTALIS 
(Dur.) Peck 

P. o. Dur. 

P. s. of Intermountain authors, 
not Pursh 

P. s. ssp. o. Wherry 



POLEMONIUM L. (231, 2.i2) 
P. EXIMIUM Greene 

P. chartaceum Mason 

P. conJertum A. Gray var. 

c_. Jeps. 
P. c. A. Gray var. e. Jeps. 
P. FOLIOSISSIMUM A. Gray 
P. albiflorum Eastw. 
P. archibaldae A. Nels. 
P. decurrens Brand 
P. f. ssp. robustum (Rydb.) 

Brand 
P. grande Greene 
P. molle Greene 
P. pterospermum A. Nels. & 

Cockerel! 
P. r. Rydb. 
P. MICRANTHUM Benth. 

Polemoniella m. Heller 



OCCIDENTALE Greene 
P. acutifloruni Willd. s 

o. Hulten 
P. caeruleum L. ssp. 



sp. 





amygdalinum 




(Wherry) Munz 


P. 


c. ssp. 0. J. F. Davids. 


p. 


heller i Brand 


p. 


intermedium (Brand) Rydb. 


p. 


0. ssp. a. Wherry 


p. 


o. var. i. Brand 


ILCHERRIMUM Hook. var. 




aiLCHERRlMUM 


P. 


haydenii A. Nels. 


P. 


llndleyi Wherry 


P. 


mexicanum Nutt., nor Cerv 


P. 


montrosensis A. Nels. 


P. 


nevadense Wlierry 



Sticky P. 



POLHMONIllM 



Lealv I'. 



Litllebells P. 



Western P. 



Skunkleaf P. 



P. parviflorum Nutt. 

P. p. Hook. var. p. (Nutt.) 
A. Nels. 
P. PULCHERRIMUM Hook. var. 

CALYCINUM (Eastw.) Brand 

P. californicum Eastw. 

P. calycinum Eastw. 

P. columbianuni Rydb. 

P. oregonense Gandoger 
P. PULCHERRIMUM Hook. var. DELl- 
CATUM (Rydb.) Cronq. 

P. d. Rydb. 

P. p. ssp. d. Brand 

P. scopulinum Greene 
P. VISCOSUM Nutt. ssp. VISCOSUM 

P. confertum A. Gray 

P. grayanuni Rydb. 

P. speciosum Rydb. 
P. VISCOSUM Nutt. ssp. MELLITUM 
(A. Gray) J. F. Davids. 

P. brandegi (A. Gray) Greene 

P. b. ssp. m. Wherry 

P. iri. A. NeTs. 



Sticky r. 



8S 



EMMENANTHE 



PHAGE LIA 



HYDROPHYLLACEAE. Waterleaf Family (233) 
EMMENANTHE Benth. 

E. PENDUUFLORA Benth. 



WHISPERING - 

BELLS 
Yellow W . 



ERIODICTYON Benth. 

E. ANGUSTIFOLIUM Nutt. 

EUGRYPTA Nutt. (234) 

E. GHYSANTHEMIFOLLA (Benth.) 

Greene var. BIPINNATIFIDA 
(Torr.) Gonstance 
EUisia torreyi A. Gray 
Eucrypta x_. Heller 
E. MIGRANTHA (Torr.) Heller 

Nyctelea m. Woot. & Standi. 

N. pinetorum (M. E. Jones) Tides. 

ITiacelia p. M. E. Jones 

HESPEROCHIRON S. Wats. 

H. GALIFORNICUS (Benth.) S. Wats. 
Capnorea incana Greene 
G. lasiantha Greene 
C. macUenta Greene 
G. watsoniana Greene 
H . c . var . _i_. Brand 
H. c. var. w. Brand 
H. J_. Garrett 
H. PUMILUS (Griseb.) Porter 

Capnorea cUiatus (Greene) 

Greene 
C. p. Greene 
H. c. Greene 

H. p. Porter var. c^. (Greene) 
Brand 

HYDROPHYLLUM L. (235) 

H. CAPITATUM Dougl. var. 
GAPITATUM 
H. densillorum Nutt. 
H. pumilum Geyer 
H. CAPITATUM Dougl. var. 

ALPINUM S. Wats. 
H. alpestre A. Nels. & 
Kennedy 
H. FENDLERl (A. Gray) Heller 
H. occidentale (S. Wats.) 
~ A. Gray var. i_. 

A. Gray 
H. OCCIDENTALE (S. Wats.) 
A. Gray 
H. 0. var. watsoni A. Gray 
H. w. Rydb'i 

NAMA L. (236) 

N. ARETIOIDES (Hook. & Arn.) 
Brand 
Conanthus a. S. Wats. 
C. multiflorus Heller 
MarUaunidium a. Gov. 



YERBASANTA 
Narrowleaf Y. 



WATERLEAF 
Ballhead W . 



Fendler W. 



Western W. 



NAMA 



N. a. var. m. Jeps. 

N. psammophilum Goodman 
N. DEMISSUM A. Gray var. DEMISSUM 

Conanthus d. Heller 

MarUaunidium d. Kuntze 
N. DEMISSUM A. Gr^ var. DESERTI 

Brand 
N. DENSUM Lemmon var. DENSUM 

Conanthus d. Heller 
N. DENSUM Lemmon var. PARVI- 
FLORUM (Greenm.) 
G. L. Hitchc. 

Conanthus p. Greenm. 
N. DEPRESSUM Lemmon 

Conanthus d. Lemmon 



NEMOPHIL^\ 
Great Basin 



N. DICHOTOMUM (Ruiz & Pavon) 
Choisy 
MarUaunidium d. Kuntze 
N. angustUoIium (A. Gray) 
~ A. Nels. 

N. ROTHROCKII A. Gray 
Conanthus r. Heller 
MarUaunidium r. Kuntze 

NEMOPHILA Nutt. (237) 

N. BREVIFLORA A. Gray 

N. petrophUa L. O. WUliams 

Viticella b. Macbr. 
N. PARVIFLORA Dougl. AUSTINAE 
(Eastw.) Brand 

N. a. Eastw. 

N. explicata A. Nels. & Macbr. 

N. inconspicua Henders. 

N. p. of Intermountain authors, 
not Dougl. 

Viticella p. Macbr. var. a_. Macbr. 
N. PEDUNCULATA Dougl. 

N. nevadensis Gandoger 

Viticella p. Macbr. 
N. SPATULATA"~Cov. 

Viticella s. Macbr. 



PHACELIA Juss. (5, 9, 238, 239, 240, 241, 

242, 243, 244, 245, 246. 247, 

248, 249) PHACELIA 

P. ADENOPHORA J. T. Howell 

Miltitzia glandullfera (Torr.) 
Heller, not P. g. 
Piper 
P. AFFINIS A. Gray var. AFFINIS 

P. rugulosa Lemmon 
P. AFFINIS A. Gray var. PATENS 

J. T. Howell 
P. ANELSONI Macbr. 
P. AUSTROMONTANA J. T. Howell 

P. humilis Torr. & Gray var. 
lobata Davids. 

P. L Jeps. 
P. BARNEBYANA J. T. Howell 
P. BICOLOR Torr. var. BIGOLOR 
P. BICOLOR Torr. var. LEIBERGII 

(Brand) A. Nels. & Macbr. 

P. adspersa Brand 

P. U Brand 
P. GALTHIFOLLA Brand 
P. CEPHALOTES A. Gray 

P. curvipes Parry, not Torr. 
P. COERULEA Greene 

P. invenuata A. Gray 
P. CRENULATA Torr. var. CRENULATA 

P. intermedia Woot. 
P. CRENULATA Torr. var. AMBIGUA 
(M. E. Jones) Macbr. 

P. a. M. E. Jones 
P. CRENULATA Torr. var. CORRUGATA 
(A. Nels.) Brand 

P. c. A. Nels. 

P. orbicularis Rydb. 
P. CRENULATA Torr. var. VULGARIS 

Brand 
P. CRYTANTHA Greene 

P. c. var. derivata J. Voss 

P. eremica Jeps. 
P. CURVIPES Torr. var. CURVIPES 
P. CURVIPES Torr. var. MACRANTHA 
(Parish) Munz 

P. aldersonii Greene 

P. davidsonii A. Gray 

P. pratensis Heller 
P. DEMISSA A. Gray var. DEMISSA 

P. knight i A. Nels. 

P. nudicaulis Eastw. 



86 



I-, LIA 



PI I AC H LI A 



Glandular P. 



l-LLA Juss. (con.) 

P. DEMISSA A. Gray var. IIETERO- 

TRICHA J. T. Howell 
P. DISTANS Bcnth. 

P. animophila Greene 
P. d. var. austraJis Brand 
P. FIUFORMIS Brand 
P. FREMONTII Torr. 

P. brarmani Kellogg 
P. hallii Brand 
P. FRIGIDA Greene 

P. dasyphylla Greene 
P. (. ssp. d. Heckard 
P. GERANIIFOLIA Brand 

P. perityloides Gov. var. 
jaegeri Munz 
P. GLABBERRIMA (Torr.) J. T. Howell 
EmmunaiitJit, g. Torr. 
Miltitzia g. Brand 
P. GLAXDULIFERA Piper 

P. ivesiana Torr. var. g. 

A. Nels. & Nfacbr. 
P. luteopurpurea A. Nels. 
P. GLANDULOSA Nutt. 

P. bakeri (Brand) Macbr. 
P. GLECHOMIFOLLA A. Gray 
P. GYMNOCLADA Torr. 
P. HASTATA Dougl. var. HASTATA 
P. aJpina Rydb. 
P. biennis A. Nels. 
P. burkeri Rydb. 
P. canescens Nutt. 
P. h. var. a. (Rydb.) Cronq. 
P. h. var. leucophylla (Torr.) 

Cronq. 
P. heterophylla Purshvar. a. 

aTNcIs. 
P. K Torr. 

P. 1. Torr. var. a. Dundas 
P. HASTATA Dougl. var. COMPACTA 
(Brand) Cronq. 
P. c. Greene, nom. nud. 
P. c. (Brand) J. T. Howell 
P. h. var. c. (Greene) Macbr. 
P. h. ssp. c. (Brand) Heckard 
P. heterophylla Purshvar. c. 

(Greene) Jeps. 
P. leucophylla Torr. var. c. 
(Greene) Macbr. 
P. HETEROPHYLLA Pursh ssp. 

HETEROPHYLLA VarUeaf P. 

P. magellanica (Lam.) Gov. 
var. h. Kuntze or 
Jeps. 
P. HETEROPHYLLA Pursh ssp. 

VIRGATA (Greene) Heckard 
P. monosperma A. Nels. 
P. peirsoniae Williams 
P. v. Greene 
P. HUMIUS Torr. & Gray var. HUMILIS 

P. violacea Brand 
P. HUMILIS Torr. & Gray var. 

DUDLEYI J. T. HoweU 
P. HYDROPHYLLOIDES Torr. 
P. IDAHOENSIS Henders. Idaho P. 

P. INCANA Brand 
P. INCONSPICUA Greene 
P. INDECORA J. T. Howell 
P. INTEGRIFOLIA Torr. 
P. INUNDATA J. T. Howell 
Emmenanthe parviflora 

A. Gray 
Miltitzia p. Brand, not 
P. p. Pursh 



Threadleal P. 



IVI-SIANA Torr. var. lVhSL'\NA 

I'. campe.stris A. Nels. 
LAXIFLORA |. T. Howell 
LEMMONII A. Gray 

P. heterosperma Parisli 

P. polysperma Brand , 
LINEARIS (Pursh) llolz 

P. menziesii Torr. 
LUTE A (Hook. )i Arn.) J. T. 
Howell var. LUI'EA 

Emmenanthe 1. A. Gray 

Miltitzia 1. Rydl). 
LUTE A (Hook. & Arn.) J. T. Howell 

var. t:ALVA Cronq. 
LUTEA (Hook. iiArn.) J. P. Howell 
var. SCOPLILINA (A. Nels.) 
Cronq. 

Emmenanthe salina A. Nels. 

E. scopulina A. Nels. 

Miltitzia salina Rydb. 

M. scopulina Rydb. 

P. salina J. T. Howell 

P. scopulina J. T. Howell 
MINUTISSIMA Henders . 

P. foliosepala A. Nels. & Kennedy 
MUSTELINA Gov. 
NEGLECTA M. E. Jones 
NEOMEXICANA Thurber var. ALBA 
(Rydb.) Brand 

P. a. Rydb. 
NEOMEXICANA Thurber var. PSEUDO- 

ARIZONICA (Brand) Voss 
NEVADENSIS J. T. Howell 
PALMERI Torr. var. PALMERI 

P. integrifolia var. p. A. Gray 
PALMERI Torr. var. FOETIDA 
(Goodding) Brand 

P. _f . Goodding 
PARISHII A. Gray 
PEDICULOIDES (J. T. Howell) 
Constance 

P. ivesiana var. p. J. T. Howell 
PEIRSONIANA J. T. Howell 
PULCHELLA A. Gray var. PLILCHELLA 
PULCHELLA A. Gray var. GOODDINGII 
(Brand) J. T. Howell 

P. 'g. Brand 
RAMOSISSIMA Dougl. var. 

RAMOSISSIMA Branching P. 

P. decumbens Greene 
RAMOSISSIMA Dougl. var. 

EREMOPHILA (Greene) 
Macbr. 

P. e. Greene 
RATTANII A. Gray 
ROTUNDIFOLL\ Torr. 
SAXICOLA A. Gray 
SERICEA (Grab.) A. Gray var. 

SERICEA Silky P. 

Eutoca s. Grab. 
SERICEA (Grah.) A. Gray var. 
CILIOSA Rydb. 

P. c. Rydb. 

P. s. ssp. c . Gillett 
SERRATA J. Voss 
SPLENDENS Eastw. 

P. glandulosa ssp. s. Brand 
TANACETIFOLIA BentlT. Tansy P. 

TETRAMERA J. T. Howell 

Emmenanthe pusilla A. Gray 

Miltitzia p. Brand, not P. p. Torr. 
THERMALIS "Greene 

P. firmomarginata A. Nels. 
UTAHENSIS J. Voss 
VALLIS-MORTAE J. Voss 



87 



PHOLISTOMA 



CRYPTANTI! 



PHOLISTOMA Lilja 

P. MEMBRANACEUM (Benth.) 
Constance 
Ellisia ni. Benth. 

TRICARDIA Torr. 

T. WATSONII Torr. 



BORAGINACEAE. Borage FamUy (250) 



AMSINCKIA Lehm. 

A. INTERMEDIA Fisch. & Meyer 

Suksdorf (251) has proposed over 
100 species that fall 
under this species. 
Very few, if any, of 
these names are in 
the literature 
A. LYCOPSOIDES Lehm. 

Reported as being in Nevada, 
the record is in 
question 
A. MENZIESII (Lehm.) A. Nels. & 
Macbr. 
A. idalioensis M. E. Jones 



FIDDLENECK 
Fireweed F . 



Tarweed F. 



Menzies F. 



A. 


RETRORSA Suksd. 




A. rugosa Rydb. 


A. 


TESSELLATA A. Gray 


A. 


VERNICOSA Hook. & Am. 




A. carinata A. Nels. & Macbr 




A. carnosa M. E. Jones 



ANCHUSA L. 

A. OFFICINALIS L. 

ASPERUGO L. 

A. PROCUMBENS L. 

BORAGO L. 

B. OFFICINALIS L. 

COLDENIA L. 

C. CANESCENS DC. 

C . c . var . subnuda 



ALKANET 



CATCHWEED; 
MADWORT 



BORAGE 
Common B. 

COLDENIA 
Spreading C. 



I. M. Johnst. 
Stegnocarpus c. Torr. 
C. HISPIDISSIMA (Torr.) A. Gray 

Eddy a h. Torr. 
C. NUTTALLII Hook. NuttallC. 

TiquUia n. Torr. 
Tiquiliopsis n. Heller 
C. PLICATA (Torr.l Cov. DesertmatC. 

C. palmeri of Intermountain 

authors, not A. Gray 
(Tiquiliopsis palmeri 
(A. Gray) RydbT) ~ 

CRYPTANTHA Lehm. (1, 5, 9, 12, 

252, 253) CRYPTANTHA 

Section I - Oreocarya 
(Perennials) 

C. ABATA I. M. Johnst. 

C. modesta Pay son, not Brand 

Krynitzkia depressa M. E. Jones, 
not C. d. A. Nels. 
C. BAKERI (Greene) Payson 

Oreocarya b. Greene 

O. eulophus Greene 
C. BARNEBYI I. M. Johnst. 
C. BREVIFLORA (Osterh.) Payson 

Oreocarya b. Osterh. 



C. CAESPITOSA (A. Nels.) Payson 

Oreocarya c. A. Nels. 
C. CAPITATA (Eastw.) I. M. Johnst. 

Oreocarya c. Eastw. 
C. CONFERTIFLORA (Greene) Payson 
Oreocarya alata (M. E. Jones) 

A. Nels. 
O. c. Greene 
O. lutea Greene 
C. ECHINOIDES (M. E. Jones) Payson 

Krynitzkia e. M. E. Jones 
C. FLAVA (A. Nels.) Payson 
Oreocarya f. A. Nels. 
C. FLAVOCULATA (A. Nels.) Payson 
Oreocarya cristata Eastw. 
O. eastwoodae A. Nels. & 

Kennedy 
q. i_. A. Nels. 
O. shockleyi Eastw. 
C. FULVOCANESCENS (A. Gray) 
Payson 
Eritrichium f. A. Gray 
Krynitzkia f. A. Gray 
Oreocarya f. Greene 
C. GRAHAMII I.~M. Johnst. 
C. HOFFMANNIl I. M. Johnst. 

Oreocarya h. Abrams 
C. HUMILIS (Greene) Payson 

Oreocarya echtnoides Macbr.,' 
not C . e . (M. E. 
Jones) Payson 
O. hispida A. Nels. & Kennedy 
q. h. Greene 
C. INSOLITA (Macbr.) Payson 

Oreocarya i. Macbr. 
C. INTERRUPTA~(Greene) Payson 
C. spiculifera (Piper) Payson 
Oreocarya cUio-hirsuta A. Nels. 

& Kennedy 
O. i. Greene 
O. s. Piper 
C. JAMESll (Torr.) Payson var. 

ABORTIVA (Greene) Payson 
Hemisphaerocarya a. Brand 
Krynitzkia multicaulis (Torr.) 
M. E. Jones var. a. 
M. E. Jones 
Oreocarya a. Greene 
O. suffruticosa (Torr.) Greene 
var. a. Macbr. 
C. JAMESII (Torr.) Payson var. CINEREA 
(Greene) Payson 
Hemisphaerocarya c . Brand 



Oreocarya c. 
O. lemmoni 



Greene 
Eastw. 



O. suffruticosa (Torr.) Greene 
var . c . Payson 
JAMESII (Torr.) Payson var. 

DISTICHA (Eastw.) Payson 
Oreocarya d. Eastw. 
JAMESII (TorrT) Payson var. MULTI- 
CAULIS (Torr.) Payson 
C. j. (Oreocarya suffruticosa (Torr.) 
Greene & Hemisphaero- 
carya s. Brand) of Inter - 
mountain authors, in 
large part, not (Torr.) 
Payson 
m . Brand 
setosa (M. E. Jones) 



var 
var 



H. 
H. 

Brand 
Krynitzkia m_. M. E. Jones 
K. m. var. £. M. E. Jones 
Oreocarya m. Greene 
O. s. var. m. Payson 



CKVri ANTIIA 



iANTllA Ll-Iiih. (con.) 
u. JAMHSU (Torr.) Payson vjr. 
PUSTULOSA (RycU).) 
Harrington 

C . p . Payson 

Hemisphaerocarya sullruticosa 
(Torr.) Brand var. 
p. Brand 

Oreocarya p. Rydb. 
C. JOXESIAXA (Payson) Payson 

Oreocarya j. Payson 
C. LONGIFLOR.-r(A. Nels.) Payson 

Oreocarya 1. A. Nels. 
C. MEXSANA (NK E. Jones) Payson 

Krynitzkia m. M. E. Jones 

Oreocarya m. Payson 
C. NANA (Eastw.T Payson var. NANA 

Oreocarya n. Eastw. 
C. NANA (Eastw.y Payson var. COM - 
MIXTA (Macbr.) Payson 

Oreocarya c. Macbr. 
C. NANA (Eastw.) Payson var. 

OVLNA Payson 
C. NANA (Eastw.) Payson var. 

SHANTZII (Tides.) Payson 

Oreocarya dolosa Macbr. 

O. s. Tides^ 
C. NTJBIGENA (Greene) Payson 

C. andina attr. to I. M. Johnston 
by Peck, Man. High. 
PI. Oreg. 

C. hypsophila I. M. Johnsr. 

Oreocarya n. Greene 
C. OSTERHOUTIllPayson) Payson 

Oreocarya o. Payson 
C. PARADOXA (A". Nels.) Payson 

Oreocarya p. A. Nels. 
C. PROPRIA (A. .Nels. & Macbr.) Payson 

Oreocarya p. A. Nels. & Macbr. 
C. ROLLINSll I.'NI. Johnst. 
C. RUGULOSA (Payson) Payson 

Oreocarya r. Payson 
C. SEMIGLABRA ~Barneby 
C. SERICEA (A. Gray) Payson var. 
SERICEA 

Krynitzkia s. A. Gray 

Oreocarya argentea Rydb. 

O. s. Greene 
C. SERICEA (A. Gray) Payson var. 

PERENNIS (A. Nels.) Payson 

Oreocarya p. Rydb. 
C. SETOSISSIMA Ja. Gray) Payson 

Eritnchium s. A. Gray 

Krynitzkia s. A. Gray 

Oreocarya s. Greene 
C. SUBRETUSA i7m. Jolinst. 

Oreocarya s. /Vbranis 
C. TENUIS (Eastw.) Payson 

Oreocarya t. Eastw. 
C. VIRGINENSIS Tm. E. Jones) Payson 

Oreocarya v. Macbr. 
C. WETHERlLUr(Eastw.) Payson 

Oreocarya \v. Eastw. 

Section 11 - Krynitzkia 
(Annuals) 

C. AFFINIS (A. Gray) Greene 

C. confusa Rydb. 

Krynitzkia a. M. E. Jones 
C. AMBIGUA (A. "Gray) Greene 

C. multicaiilis A. Nels. 

Eritnchium angustifolium 

S . Wats., not Torr . 

Krynitzkia a. A. Gray 



C. ANGUSTII'OLIA Clorr.) Greene 

liritrichiuin a. lorr.. not 

~ ^S.^Wais. 

Krynitzkia a. A. (Jr.iy 
C. BARBIGERA (A. Gray) Greene 

Entrichium b. A. Gray 

Krynitzkia b. A. Gray 

K. mixta M. E. Jones 
C. CIlfcUMSCISSA (Hook. & Arn.) 
1. M. Jolmst. var. 
CIRCUMSCISSA 

C. depressa A. Nels. 

Entrichium c. A. Gray 

Greeneocharis c. Rytll5. 

Krynitzkia c. A. Gray 
C. CIRCUMSCISSA (Hook. & Arn.) 

1. M. Johnst. var. HISPIDA 
(Macbr.) 1. M. Johnst. 

C. dichotoma (Greene) 1. M. Johnst. 

Greeneocharis c. var. h. Macbr. 

G. d. Greene 
C. CRASSlSEPALA (Torr. & Gray) Greene 

C. dicarpa A. Nels. 

Eritrichium c. Torr. & Gray 

Krynitzkia c^. A. Gray 
C. DECIPIENS (mT E. Jones) Heller 

Krynitzkia d. M. E. Jones 
C. DUMETORUM~(Greene) Greene 

Krynitzkia d. Greene 
C. ECHINELLA G~reene 
C. FENDLERl (A. Gray) Greene 

C. wyomingensis Gandoger 

Krynitzkia f. A. Gray 
C. FLACCIDA (oLugl.) Greene 

Myosotis f. Dougl. 
C. GLOMERIFLORA Greene 
C. GRACILIS Osterh. 

C. hillmanii A. Nels. & Kennedy 
INAEQUATA 1. M. Johnst. 

Johnstonella i. Brand 
KELSEYANA Greene 
MARITIMA (Greene) Greene 

C. m. var. pilosa 1. M. Johnst. 



C. 



Krynitzkia m. Greene 

Greene 
(Torr.) 1. M. 



K. ramosissima 



MICRANTHA 

Johnst. var. MICRANTHA 
Eremocarya m. Greene 
Eritrichium m. Torr. 
MICRANTHA (Torr.) 1. M. Jolinst. 

var. LEPIDA (A. Gray) 1. M. 
Johnst. 
C. m. ssp. 1. Mathew S; Raven 
Eremocarya m. var. 1. Macbr. 
Eritrichium m. var.J^. A. Gray 
MIRABUNDA Br^d 
MURICATA (Hook. 6; Arn.) A. Nels. 

& Macbr. var. DENTICULATA 
(Greene) I. M. Johnst. 
C. d. Greene 
Krynitzkia d. Greene 
MURICATA (llook. & Arn.) A. Nels. 
& Macbr. var. JONESIl (A. 
Gray) I. M. Johnst. 
C. j. Greene 
Krynitzkia j. A. Gray 
NEVADENSIS "a. Nels. !;< Kemiedy 
C. arenicola Heller 
C. leptophylla Rydb. 
C. scoparia A. Nels. 
OXYGONA (A. Gray) Greene 

Eritrichium o. A. c;ray 
PATTERSONII (A. Gray) (;reene 
Krynitzkia p. A. Gray 



89 



CRYFrANTHA 



CRYPTANTHA Lehm. (con.) 

C. PTEROCARYA (Torr.) Greene 
var. PTEROCARYA 
Eritrichium p. Torr. 
C. PTEROCARYA (Torr.) Greene 
var. CYCLOPTERA 
(Greene) Macbr. 
C. c. Greene 
Krynitzkia c. Greene 
C. RACEMOSA (S~. Wats.) Greene 
C. sutfruticosa Piper 
Eritrichium r. S. Wats. 
Johnstonella r. Brand 
Krynitzkia r. Greene 
C. RECURVATA Cov. 
C. TORREYANA (A. Gray) Greene 
var. TORREYANA 
C. flexuosa (A. Nels.) A. Nels. 
C. torreyi Rydb. 
Krynitzkia t. A. Gray 
C. TORREYANA (A. Gray) Greene 
var. CALYCOSA (A. 
Gray) Greene 
C. c. Rydb. 
C. UTAHENSIS (A. Gray) Greene 

C. submoUis (A. Gray) Cov. 
Krynitzkia u. A. Gray 
C. WATSONII (A ."Gray) Greene 

C. vinctens A. Nels. & Macbr. 
Krynitzkia w. A. Gray 

CYNOGLOSSUM L. 

C. OFFICINALE L. 

ERITRICHIUM Schrad. (254) 

E. NANUM (Vai.) Schrad. var. 
ELONGATUM (Rydb.) 
Cronq. 
E. argenteum Wight 
E. elongatum Wight 
E. e. var. a. I. M. Johnst. 

HACKELIA Opiz (255) 

H. CINEREA (Piper) I. M. Johnst. 

Lappula c . Piper 
H. CUSICKII (Fiper) Brand 
H. arida (Piper) I. M. 
Johnst. var. 
c . I. M. Johnst. 
Lappula a. Piper var. c. 

A. Nels. & Macbr. 
L. c. Piper 
H. DIFFUSA (Lelim.) I. M. Johnst. 

Lappula d. Greene 

H. FLORIBUNDA (Lehm.) I. M. 

Johnst. 

Lappula f. Greene 

H. JESSICAE (McGregor) Brand 

L. floribunda var. j. Jeps. 

& Hoov. 
L. J. McGregor 
H. PATENS (Nutt.) I. M. Johnst. 
var. PATENS 
H. coerulescens (Rydb.) Brand 
H. diffusa var. c. I. M. Johnst. 
H. nelsonii Brand 
Lappula c. Rydb. 
L. subdecumbens (Parry) A. Nels. 
L. s. var. c. Garrett 
H. PATENS (Nutt.y I. M. Johnst. var. 
SEMIGLABRA Cronq. 



Forget-me-not 



HOUND'S TONGUE 



STICKSEED; WILD 
FORGET-ME-NOT 



HELIOTROPIUM L. (256) 

H. CONVOLVULACEUM (Nutt.) 
A. Gray var. CALI- 
FORNICUM (Greene) 
I. M. Johnst. 
Euploca c. Nutt. ssp. c. 

Abrams 
H_. c. Greene 

H. c.(=E. c. Nutt.) of western 
authors, not (Nutt.) 
A. Gray 
H. CURASSAVICUM L. var. 
OBOVATUM DC. 
H. spathulatum Rydb. 
H. CURASSAVICUM L. var. OCULATUM 
(Heller) I. M. Johnst. 
H. o. Heller 

H. spathulatum Rydb. ssp. o. Ewan 
H. c. (=H. xerophilum Cockerell) 
of Intermountain authors, 
not L. 

LAPPULA Moench. S 

L. ECHINATA GUib. E 

L. erecta A. Nels. 
L. fremontii (Torr.) Greene 
L. REDOWSKIl (Hornem.) Greene 
var. REDOWSKIl 
L. occidentalis (S. Wats.) 

Greene 
L. r. var. o. Rydb. 
L. REDOWSKIl (Hornem.) Greene 
var. CUPU LATUM (A. 
Gray) M. E. Jones 
L. c. Rydb. 
L. infelix Greene 
L. r. var. texana (Scheele) 

Brand 
L. t. Britten 
L. REDOWSKIl (Hornem.) Greene 
var. DESERTORUM 
(Greene) 1. M. Johnst. 
L. d. Greene 
L. leucotricha Rydb. 

LITHOSPERMUM L. (257) 

L. ARVENSE L. 

Buglossoides a. 1. M. Johnst. 
L. INCISUM Lehm." 

L. angustifolium Michx., not 

Forsk 
L. breviflorum Engelm. & 

ATCray 
L. linearifolium Goldie 
L. MULTIFLORUM Torr. 
L. cognatum Greene 
L. RUDE RALE Dougl. 

L. lanceolatum Rydb. 

L. pilosum Nutt. 

L. r. var. j_. A. Nels. 

L. r. var. macrospermum 

Macbr. 
L. r. var. torreyi (Nutt.) 

Macbr. 
L. u Nutt. 

MERTENSIA Roth. (258, 25P) 

M. ARIZONICA Greene var. 

ARIZONICA 
M. ARIZONICA Greene var. 

LEONARD] (Rydb.) 
I. M. Johnst. 
M. a. var. umbratalis Macbr. 
M. f. Rydb. 
M. sampsonii Tides. 



90 



I'BNSIA 



1 ENSIA RotJi. (con.) 
M. AKIZONICA Greene var. 

SUBNUDA (Macbr.) 
L. O. Williams 
M. toiyabensls Macbr. var. 
s. Macbr. 
M. BREVISTYLA S. Wats. 

M. alpina (Torr.) G. Don 
var. b. M. E. 
Jones 
M. CILL\T.A (James) G. Don var. 
ClLLf\TA 
var. latUoba 



Shonstvic B. 



Mountain H. 



M. 



M. 



L. O. WUliams 
c. var. longipedunculata 

A. Nels. 
c. var. polyphylla (Greene) 

A. Nels."~ 
c. var. punctata (Greene) 

A. Nels. 
subpubescens (Rydb.) 

Macbr. & Payson 
inconjjruens Macbr. & Payson 



pallida Rydb. 



M. picta Rydb. 

M. s. Rydb. 
M. CILIATA (James) G. Don var. 
STOMATECHOIDES 
(Kellogg) Jeps. 

M . s . Kellogg 
M. FRANCISCANA Heller 

M. alba Rydb. 

M. pratensis Heller 
M. FUSIFORMIS Greene 

M. congcsta Greene 

M. papiUosa Greene var. 
T. A. Nels. 
M. LONGIFLORA Greene 
M. MACDOUGALII Heller 
M. OBLONGIFOLIA (Nutt.) G. Don 
var. OBLONGIFOLIA 

M. nelsonii Macbr., in part 
M. OBLONGIFOUA (Nutt.) G. Don 
var. NEVADENSIS (A. 
Nels.) L. O. Waiiams 

M. coronata A. Nels. 

M. n. A. Nels. 

M. praecox Smiley 
M. TOfYABENSlS Macbr. 
M. VIRIDIS (A. Nels.) A. Nels. 

M. amoena A. Nels. 

M. bakeri Greene 

M. b. var. a. A. Nels. 

M. cooperae Peck 

M. cusickii Piper 

M. foliosa A. Nels. 

M. f. var. a. 1. M. Johnst. 

M. ovata Rydb. 
M. VIRIdIS a. Nels. var. CANA 

(Rydb.) L. O. Williams 

M. c_. Rydb. 

M. canescens Rydb., not Kauff. 

M. VIRIdIS A. Nels. var. DILATATA 

(A. Nels.) L. O. WUliams 

M. coriacea A. Nels. 

YOSOTIS L. 

M. LAXA Lehm. 
M. SCORPIOIDES L. 

M. palustris (L.) Lehm. 

ICTOCARYA DC. 

P. HETEROCARPA (1. M. Johnst.) 
I. M. Johnst. 



Franciscan B. 



Spindle root B. 



Small B. 



Oblongleaf 



P. PKNICILLAFA (Hook, i.: Arn.) 
A. DC. 
P. linearis of Inteniioum.iin 
authors, not (Ruiz 
t.- Pjvon) DC. 
P. L var. p. M. I-. Jones 
P. PIATYCARPA (Miinz li 1. M. lolinst.) 
Muiiz & I. M. Johnst. 
P. linearis (Ruiz & Pavon) DC. 
var. p. Cronq. 
P. RECUR VATA 1. M.lohnst. 
P. SETOSA A. Gray 

PLAGIOBOTHRYS liscli. & C. A. 
Meyer (260) 
P. ARIZONICUS (A. Gray) Greene 
P. HARKNESSll (Greene) A. Nels. 
& Macbr. 
P. kingii (S. Wats.) A. Gray 

var. h. Jeps. 
Sonnea h. Greene 
P. HISPIDUS A. Gray 

Sonnea h. Greene 
P. JONESll A. "Gray 

Sonnea J. Greene 
P. KlNGlI (S.lVats.) A. Gray 

Sonnea k. Greene 
P. LEPTOCLADUS (Greene) I. M. 
Johnst . 
Allocarya 1. Greene 
A. oricola Piper 
A. orthocarpus Greene 
A. subglochidiata (A. Gray) 

Piper 
A. wUcoxii Piper 
f. o. (Greene) I. M. Johnst. 
P. MOLLIS (A. Gray) 1. M. Johnst. 

Allocarya m. Greene 
P. SCOULERl (Hook. & Arn.) 1. M. 

Johnst. var. PENICILLATUS 
(Greene) Cronq. 
Allocarya cognata Greene 
A. cusickii Greene 



Shortkai c: 



POPCORN- 
1' LOWER 



Jones P. 



hispidulus Greene 
nelsonii Greene 
nitens Greene 



Greenleaf B. 



A 
A 

A 

A. p. Greene 

A. scopulorum Greene 

P. cogiiatus I. M. Johnst. 

P. cusickii 1. M. Johnst. 

P. h. I. M. Johnst. 

P. nelsonii I. M. Johnst. 

P. nitens I. M 

P 



Johnst. 
scopulorum I. M. Johnst. 



TENELLUS (Nutt.) A. Gray 
P. asper Greene 



VERBENACEAE. Verbena or Vervaui Family 



FORGET-ME-NOT 
Bay F. 
True F . 



COMBSEED 



LIPPIA L. 

L. WRIGHTII A. Gray 
Aloysia w. Heller 

VERBENA L. (261) 

V. BRACTEATA Lag. & Rodr. 
V. bracteosa Miclix. 



LIPPIA 
Wright L. 



VERBENA 
Bigbracht V. 



V. CANESCENS HBK. 

V. CAROLINA L. 

V. GOODDINGII Brig. var. GOODDINGII 

V. bipinnatifida Nutt. var. g. Jeps. 
V. GOODDINGII Brig. var. NEPETI- 
FOLL\ Tides. 

V. arizonica Briq., not A. Gray 

V. verna A. Nels. 
V. HASTATA L. Blue V. 

V. MACDOUGALII Heller 



AGASTACHE 



SALVIA 



LABIATAE. Mint FamUy (5, 6, & 9) 



M. ramaleyi A. Nels. 
M. stricta Woot. 



AGASTACHE Clayt. (262) 

A. CUSICKII (Greenm.) HeUer 
var. PARVA Cronq. 
A. c. of Intermountain authors, 

not Heller 
Lophanthus c. Greenm. 
A. PALLIDIFLORA" (Heller) Rydb. 

Brittonastrum p. Heller 
A. URTICIFOLIA (Benth.) Kuntze 
var. URTICIFOLIA 
Lophanthus u. Benth. 
A. URTICIFOLIA (Benth.) Kuntze 
var. GLAUCIFOLL\ 
(Heller) Cronq. 
A. g. Heller 

DRACOCEPHALUM L. 

D. NUTTALLII Britton 

Physostegia n. Fassett 
P. parvlflora Nutt. 

HEDEOMA Pers. 

H. NANUM (Terr.) Briq. 

LAMIUM L. 

L. AMPLEXICAULE L. 
L. PURPUREUM L. 

LEONURUS L. 

L. CARDIACA L. 

LYCOPUS L. 

L. AM ERIC ANUS Mulil. 

Phytosalpinx a. Lunell 
L. AS PER Greene" 

Lycopus lucidus of American 

authors, not Turcz 
Phytosalpinx a. Lunell 

MARRUBIUM L. 

M. VULGARE L. 

MELISSA L. 

M. OFFICINALIS L. 

This species may possibly be in 
our area, but no 
specimens or records 
of this have been seen 

MENTHA L. 

M. ARVENSIS L. var. GLABRATA 
(Benth.) Fern. 
M. a. var. viUosa (Benth.) 

S. R. Stewart 
M. canadensis Michx. 



GIANTHYSSOP 



M. PECTINATA Nutt. 

M. nuttallii A. Nels. 



DRAGONHEAD 



MOCK PENNY- 
ROYAL 



DEAD NETTLE 
Henbit D. 
Purple D. 

MOTHERWORT 
Common M. 

BUGLEWEED 
American B. 



MONARDELLA Benth. (264) 

M. LANCEOLATA A. Gray 
M. sanguinea Greene 
M. LINOIDES A. Gray 

M. anemonoides A. Gray 
M. ODORATISSIMA Benth. ssp. 
ODORATISSIMA 
Madronella o. Piper 
M. ODORATISSIMA Benth. var. 
DISCOLOR (Greene) 
St. John 
Madronella d . , Greene 
M. nervosa (Greene) Greene 
M. d. Greene 
M. n. Greene 
M. 0. ssp. d. Epling 
M. ODORATISSIMA Benth. var. 

GLAUCA (Greene) St. John 
Madronella g. Greene 
M. oblongifolia Rydb. 
M. purpurea (Howell) A. Nels. 
M. rubella (Greene) Greene 
M. sessilifolia Rydb. 
Monardella g. Greene 
M. o. ssp. g. Epling 
M. r. Greene 
M. ODORATISSIMA Benth. ssp. 

PALLIDA (Heller) Epling 
Madronella p. Heller 
Monardella p. Heller 
M. ODORATISSIMA Benth. ssp. PARVI- 
FOLIA (Greene) Epling 
Madronella niuriciUata (Greene) 

Greene 
M. p. Rydb. 
Monardella m . Greene 



Pony B. 



MONARDEL 



Narrowleaf I 



Pacific M. 



li 



HOREHOUND 
Common H. 



BALM 
Common 



MINT 



M. glabrior (Hook.) Rydb. 

M. penardi Rydb. 

M. rubeUa Rydb. 
M. PIPERITA L. 
M. SPICATA L. 

MOLDAVICA Adans. 

M. PARVIFLORA (Nutt.) Britton 
Dracocephalum p. Nutt. 

MOLUCCELLA L. 

M. LAEVIS L. 

MONARDA L. (263) 

M. FISTULOSA L. var. MENTHAE- 
FOLIA (Grab.) Fern. 
M. comata Rydb. 
M. m. Grab. 



Peppermint 
Spearmint 

DRAGONHEAD 
American D. 



BEEBALM 



M. p. Greene 

NEPETA L. 

N. CATARIA L. 

POLIOMINTHA A. Gray 

P. INCANA (Torr.) A. Gray 
Hedeoma i. Torr. 

PRUNELLA L. 

P. VULGARIS L. 

P. V. ssp. lanceolata 

(Barton) Hulten 
P. V. var. 1. Fern. 

SALAZARL\ Torr. 

S. MEXICANA Torr. 

SALVIA L. (265) 

S. AETHIOPIS L. 

S. COLUMBARIAE Benth. 

Pycnosphace c. Rydb. 
S. DORR 11 (Kellogg! Abrams ssp. 
DORRII 
Audibertia d. Kellogg 
Audibertiella d. Briq. 
Ramona d. Briq. 



NEPETA 
Camip 

ROSEMARY 
Hoary R . 



SELFHEAL -' 
Common S. 



BLADDER -S 
Mexican B. 



SAGE 



California C i 



DORRII (Kellogg) Abrams ssp. 

ARGENTEA (Rydb.) Munz 
Audibertiella a, Rydb. 
S. carnosa Dougl. ssp. a. Epling 
DORRII (Kellogg) Abrams ssp. 

CARNOSA (Dougl. ex Jeps.) 
Abrams 



92 



liAf:01>A 



L. (con.) 

Audibcrtia incana Ucnth., 

not S. i. Man. t< Gal. 
S. c. Dougl. exlSenth., as a 

ssiionym 
S. d. var. c . Cronq. 
IXmKlT (Kellogg) .Xbrams ssp. 

GILMANII (Epling) Abrams 
S. caniosa IJougl. ssp. g. Epling 



LARIA L. (26b, 207) 
AXGUSTIFOLIA Pursh 

S. veronicifolia Rydb. 
.\.\T1RRHIN01DES Bl-hUi. 

S. nevadensis Eastw. 



SKL'LLCAP 
Narrowk-al S. 



-.. GALERICL'LATA L. 

S. epilobiifolia llaniUron 
S. XANA A. Gray ^S'ar. NANA 

S. footeana Mulford 
S. NANA A. Gray var. SAPPHARINA 
Barnebv 



H> 


'S L. 


HEDGE NETTLE 
BETONY 


S. 


ALBENS A. Grav 




S. 


PALUSTRIS L. var. PILOSA 
(Nutt.) Fern. 
S. aspcrrima Rydb. 
S. p. ssp. p. Epling 
S. p. Nutt." 
S. scopulorum Greene 




s. 


RIGIDA Nutt. 

S. r. ssp. rivularis (Heller) 





Epling 
S. r. Heller 
ROTHROCKII A. Gray 
TEUCRIFORMIS Rydb. 



GERMANDER; 
WOOD SAGE 



BLUECURLS 



:RIUM L. (2b8) 

CANADENSE L. var. 

ANGUSTATUM A. Gray 
CANADENSE L. var. OCCI- 
DENTALE (A. Gray) 
McCltntock & Eplmg 
T. c. of Intermountam authors, 

not L. 
T. o. A. Gray 

^ lEMA L. (269) 
AUSTROMONTANUM Lewis 
OBLONGUM Benth. 
SIMULATUM Jeps. 



SOLANACEAE. Potato or Nightshade Famdy 



I.' i SARACHA A. Gray 
> . CORONOPUS (Dunal) A. Gray 
Solanum c. Dunal 

C. NANA (A. Gray) A. Gray 

Saracha n. A. Gray 

V RA L. (270) 

D. STRAMONIUM L. var. 

STRAMONIUM 
D. STRAMONIUM L. var. 

TATULA (L.) Torr. 
D. U L. 

Y(CYAMUS L. 
H. NIGER L. 



L. l^OOPEKI A. Gray 

L. shoekleyi A . Gray 
L. HALIMIFOLIUM Mill. 

L. vulgare (Ait.) Dunal 
L. PALLIDUM Miers var. PALLIDUM 
L. PALLIDUM Miers var. OLIGO- 

SPKRMUM c:. L. Hiiclit. 
L. rORRFYl A. Gray 

L. t. var. filiforine M. E. [unes 

NICOTLANA L. (272) 

N. APTENHATA Torr. 

N. torreyana A. Nils. & Macbr. 
N. PALMERI A. Gray 

N. trigonophylla Dunal var. p. 
M. E. Jones 
N. TRIGONOPHYLLA Dunal 

ORYCETES S. Wats. 

O. NEVADENSIS S. Wats. 

PHYSALIS L. 

P. CRASSIFOLIA Benth. 

P. cardiophylla Torr. 

P. c . var. c . A. Gray 

P. FENDLERI A. "Gray var. 

FENDLERI 
P. FENDLERI A. Gray var. CORDI- 

FOLIA A. Gray 
P. HEDERAEFOLL\ A. Gray 
P. HETEROPHYLLA Nees 
P. LONGIFOLIA Nutt. var. LONCI- 
FOLIA 
P. 1. var. laevigata A. Gray 
P. LONGFfOLIA Nutt. var. SUB- 
GLABRATA (Mack. & 
Bush) Cronq. 
P. s. Mack. & I3ush 

SOLANUM L. (273) 

S. CAROLINENSE L. 

S. DULCAMARA L. 

S. ELAEAGNIFOLIUM Cav. 

S. flavidum Torr. 
S. JAM'EsTI Torr. 
S. NIGRUM L. var. DOUGLASII 
(Dunal) A. Gray 

S. d. Dunal 
S. NIGRUM L. var. VIRGINICUM L. 

S. americanuni Mill. 

S. n. of American authors, not L. 

S. nodiflorum Jacq. 
S. ROSTRATUM Dunal 

Androcera lobata (Pursh) Nutt. 

A. r. Rydb"^ 
S. SARACHOIDES Sendt. 

Bosleria nevadensis 



Cooper W. 

M. 

Pale W. 

lorrey W. 



rOBAtXXJ 
C:oyote I . 



GROUND- 
CHERRY 



Clammv G 



NIGHTSHADE 



Bitter N. 



Buffalobur N. 



A. NcU 



S. nigrum var. vUlosum (L.) 

Mill., ami 
S. V. of American authors, not L 
S. TRFfLORUM Nutt. 



Culleaf N. 



i'( M L. (271) 

L. .\NDERSONII A. Gray 

L. a. var. pubescens S. Wats. 



JIMSON WEED 
J. 



HENBANE 
Black H. 

MATRIMONY VINE; 

WOLFBERRY 
Anderson W. 



SCROPHULARIACEAE. F'ig'wort Family (274, 275) 

ANTIRRHINUM L. SNAPDR;\GON 

A. FILIPES A. Gray 

A. cooperi A. Gray 
Asarina f. Pennell 

A. KINCni S."VVats. 

BACOPA Aubl. 

B. EISENII (Kellogg) Pennell 

B. rotundifolia of California 

and Nevada authors, 
not (Michx.) Wettst. 



WATER HYSSOP 



93 



BACOPA 



CASTILLl 



BACOPA Aubl. (con.) 

B. ROTUNDIFOLIA (Michx.) Wettst. 
Moiiniera r. Michx. 

BESSEYA Rydb. (276) 

B. ALPINA (A. Gray) Rydb. 
Synthyris a. A. Gray 
B. WYOMINGENSiS (A. Nels.) Rydb. 
B. cinerea (Raf.) Pennell, m 

name only 
B. gymnocarpa (A. Nels.) Rydb. 
Synthyris g. Heller 



Disk W. 



KITTENTAILS 
Alpine K. 

Wyoming K. 



S. w 
S . w. 



HeUer 

var. g. A. Nels. 



CASTILLEJA Mutis (1, 2, 5, 9) 



C. ANGUSTIFOLIA (Nutt.) G. Don 

C. bennittii A. Nels. & Macbr. 

C. buffumii A. Nels. 
C. APPLEGATEI Fern. 

C. pinetorum Fern. 
C. ARACHNOIDEA Greenm. 

C. eastwoodiana Pennell 

C. floccosa Pennell ex Peck 

C. payneae Eastw. 

C. pumicicola Pennell 
C. BARNEBYANA Eastw. 
C. CALCICOLA Pennell 
C. CHLOROTICA Piper 
C. CHROMOSA A. Nels. 

C. angustiiolia var. collina 



INDIAN PAINT- 
BRUSH; PAINTED 
CUP 

Northwestern P. 



(A. Nels.) Garrett 
a. var. dubia A. Nels. 
collina A. Nels. 



C. desertorum Geyer, not 
Geyer ex Rydb. 
C. douglasii of Nevada references, 

not Benth. 
C. dubia A. Nels. 
C. miniata Dougl. var. 

chromosa Garrett 
C. CHRYSANTHA Greenm. 
C. indecora Piper 
C. wallowensis Pennell, Ownbey (5) 
says this is a hybrid be- 
tween C. chrysantha X 
C. rhexifolia 
C. CLOKEYI Pennell 
C. COVILLEANA Henders. 

C. multisecta A. Nels. 
C. CUSICKII Greenm. 
C. lutea Heller 
C. pilifera A. Nels. 
C. villosa Rydb. 
C. ELKOENSIS Edwin 
C. EXILIS A. Nels. 

C. stricta Rydb. 
C. FLAVA S. Wats. Yellow P. 

C. brachyantha Rydb. (4) 
C. breviilora A. Gray, not 

Benth. 
C. curticalix A. Nels. & Macbr. 
C. FLAVESCENS Pennell 
C. FRATERNA Greenm. 
C. GLANDULIFERA Pennell 
C. GRACILLIMA Rydb. 

C. ardifera Macbr. & Pays. 
C. ampliflora Rydb. 
C. HISHDA Benth. var. HISPIDA 

C. bradburyi (Nutt.) G. Don 
C. desertorum Geyer ex Rydb. , 
not Geyer 



HISPIDA Benth. var. ACUTA (Pennell) 
M. Ownbey, or Pennell ex Peck 
C. h. ssp. a. Pennell 
C . taedifera Pennell 



INTEGRA A. Gray 
LANATA A. Gray 
LAPIDICOLA Heller 

C. rubida of Nevada references, 
not Piper 

C. suksdorfii of Nevada refer- 
ences, not A. Gray 
LEONARDl Rydb. 
LINARIAEFOLIA Benth. var. 
UNARIAEFOLIA 

C. arcuata Rydb. 

C. candens Dur. & Hilg. 
LINARIAEFOLIA Benth. var. 

OMNIPUBESCENS (Pennell) 
Clokey 

C. 1. forma o. Pennell 
LONG IS PICA ATNels. 

C. ochracea Eastw. 

C. pratensis Heller 

C. psittacina (Eastw.) Pennell 

C. robiginosa Macbr. & Pays. 

C . steenensis Pennell 
MAG NISTYLIS Edwin 
MINIATA Dougl. 

C. confusa Greene 

C. crispala Piper 

C. m. var. c. A. Nels. & 
Macbr. 

C. oblongifolia A. Gray 

C. trinervis Rydb. 

C. tweedyi Rydb. 

C. 

C. 



Wholeleaf 



Wyoming 



Scarlet P 



variabilis Rydb. 
vreelandii Rydb. 



MINOR (A. Gray) A. Gray 

C. affinis var. m. A. Gray 
NANA Eastw. ~ 

C. ambigua M. E. Jones, 

not Hook. & Arn. 

C. Inconspicua A. Nels. & Kennedy 

C. rubida Piper var. monoensis 
(Jeps . ) Edwin 
OCCIDENTALIS Torr. 

C. parvula Rydb. 
PALLESCENS (Nutt.) Greenm. var. 

PALLESCENS Pale P. 

PALLESCENS (Nutt.) Greenm. var. 
INVERTA (A. Nels. & 
Macbr.) Edwin 
PILOSA (S. Wats.) Rydb. White P. 

Orthocarpus p. S. Wats. 
PRUINOSA Fem7 

C . globosa Eastw. 

C. nevadensis Eastw. 
PUBERULA Rydb. 

C. brachyantha Rydb. var. 

subinflata E. H. Kelso 

C. flavoviridis L. Kelso 
PULCHELLA Rydb. 
PYRAMIDALIS Edwin 
RHEXIFOLIA Rydb. Splitleal 

C. humilis Rydb. 

C. lauta A. Nels. 

C. obtusiloba Rydb. 

C. oregonensis Gandoger 
RUSTICA Piper 
SCABRIDA Eastw. 
SULPHUREA Rydb. Sulfur P, 

C. brunnescens Rydb. 

C. luteovirens Rydb. 

C. septentrionalis of Inter- 
mountain authors, 
not Lindl . 

C. wyomingensis Rydb. 



LICJA 



MIMl'LUS 



■Mil l.l-JA Minis (con.) 
> . I'KAINII Edwin 
I . \ISCIDA Rydb. 

C. applegatei Fern. var. n. 
Ownbey 
' . \1SCIDULA A. Gray 

J I 1 ,sIA Nutt. (277) 
I . ^;HILDII Parry 

C. breviflora Suksd. 
C. inconspicua Congd. 
I , I'.RANDIFLORA Dougl. 

C. diehlii M. E. Jones 
C. parviflora Lindl . var. 

d . Pennell 
C. tenella (Pursh) Piper 
L'. PARMFLORA Dougl. 
C. grandiflora var. 

pusilla A. Gray 
c . SPARSIFLORA Fisch. & C. A. 
Meyer var. BRUCAE 
(M. E. Jones) Newsom 
C. b. M. E. Jones 
I. . rORREYI A. Gray var. TORRE YI 

C. t. var. brevicarinata Newsom 
i.-. TORREY! A. Gray var. LATI- 
FOLIA Newsom 



COLLINS lA 



Bluelips C. 



Littleflower C . 



LINARIA Mill. 

L. DALMATICA (L.) Mill. 

Antirrhinum d. L. 
L. GENISTnFOLL-\~(L.) Mill. 

Antirrhinum g. L. 
L. VUTgARIS Hill" 

L. linaria Karst. 



) )'•, 



C. 



,ANTHUS Nutt. (1, 278) 
CANESCENS A. Gray 

Adenostegia c . Greene 

A. parryi (A. Gray) Greene 

Chloropyron c. Heller 

C. p. Heller" 

Cordylanthus p. A. Gray 
CAPITATUS NuttT 

Adenostegia bicolor (A Nels.) 
Rydb. 

A. c. Greene 

C. b. A. Nels. 
HELLERl (Ferris) Macbr. 

Adenostegia h. Ferris 
KING 11 S. Wats." 

Adenostegia k. Greene 
LAXIFLORUS A. Gray 

Adenostegia 1. Greene 
N'EVADENSIS Edwm 
P.ARVIFLORUS (Ferris) Wiggins 

Adenostegia p. Ferris 
RAMOSUS Nutt.~ssp. RAMOSUS 

Adenostegia ciliosa Rydb. 

A. r. Greene 
RAMOSUS Nutt. ssp. SETOSUS 

Pennell 
TECOPENSIS Munz & Roos 
TENUIFOLIUS Pennell 
TENUIS A. Gray ssp. TENUIS 

Adenostegia t. Greene 
TENUIS A. Gray ssp. SETOSUS 

Pennell 
WRIGHTII A. Gray var. WRIGHTII 

Adenostegia w. Greene 
WRIGHTII A. Gray var. PAUCI- 

FLORUS Kearney & Peebles 



BIRDBEAK 



LINDERNIA All. 

L. ANAGALLIDEA (Michx.) Pennell 

Gratiola a. Michx. 
L. DUBIA (L.) "Pcnncll 

Gratiola d. L. 

Ilysanthes gi-atioloides Bemh. 

L d. Bainh. 

MAURANDYA Ort. 

M. ANTIRRHINIFLORA Humb. & 
Bon pi . 
Antirrhinum a. A. S. Hitchc. 
A. maurandioides A. Gray 
Asarma a. Pennell 

MIMULUS L. (27>), 2S11) 

M. AUSTINAE (Greene) Grant 

Eunanus a. Greene 
M. BIGELOVIl "(A. Gray) A. Gray 
var. BIGELOVIl 
Eunanus b. A. Gray 
M. BIGELOVIl TA. Gray) A, Gray 

var. CUSPIDATUS Grant 
M. BRACHYSTYLIS Edwin 
M. BREVIFLORUS Piper 
M. BREWERl (Greene) Gov. 

Eunanus b. Greene 
M. CARDINALIS Dougl. var. 

CARDINALIS 
M. CARDINALIS Dougl. var. 

VERBENACEUS (Greene) 
Kearney & Peebles 
M. V. Greene 
M. COCCINEUS Congd. 

M. stamineus Grant 
M. washoensis Edwin 
M. wolfii Eastw. 



IXJADFLAX 
Dalmatian I. 

BrDOmleat" 1. 

Buner -and -eggs 

T. 



FALSI- PIMPl-.K- 
NEI. 



MAURA NDIA 



MONKEY 
FLOWER 



Criinson M . 



Bushy B. 



1(10LA L. 

G. EBRACTEATA Benth. 
G. NEGLECTA Torr. 

G . virginiana of western 
authors, not L. 
I 
»»^ELLA L. 

L. AQUATICA L. var. AQUATICA 

L. a. var. americana Glueck 
L. AQUATICA L. var. TENLIIFOLIA 
Hoffm . 



Wright B. 



HEDGEHYSSOP 



MUDWORT 
Water M. 



M. CUSICKII (Greene) Piper 
Eunanus c. Greene 
M. bigelovii var. ovatus A. Gray 
M. DENSUS Grant 
M. EASTWOODIAE Rydb. 

M. cardinalis Eastw. not Dougl. 
M. FLORIBUNDUS Dougl. var. FLORI- 
BUNDUS 
M. deltoideus Gand. 
M. FLORIBUNDUS Dougl. var. MEM- 

BRANACEUS (A. Nels.) Grant 
M. rn. A. Nels. 
M. GLABRATUS HBK. var. FREMONTII 
(Benth.) Grant 
M_. geyeri Torr. 
M. g. of Intermountain authors, 
~ ~ not HBK. 

M. jamesij Torr. & Gray 
M. GLABRATUS HBK. var. UTAHKNSIS 

Pennell 
M. GUTTATUS DC. var. GUTTATUS 
(281) 
M. glaucescens of Nevada refer- 
ences, not Greene 
M. laxus Pennell 
M. maguirei Pennell 
M. rivularis Nutt.. not Donn 



Common M . 



95 



MIMULUS 



MIMULUS L. (con.) 

M. GUTTATUS DC. var. 

DEPAUPERATUS (A. Gray) 
Greene 

M. hallii Greene 

M. g. var. gracilis (A. Gray) 
G . Campbell in part 

M. longulus Greene 

M. microphyllus Benth. 

M. nasutus Greene 

M. n. var. m_. Grant 

M. thermalis A. Nels. 
M. LEFTALEUS A. Gray 

Eunanus 1. Greene 
M. LEWlSIl Pursh 

M. 1. var. cetonensis 

"" ~ A. Nels. 

M. roseus Dougl. 
M. MEPHITICUS Greene 

Eunanus m. Greene 



0. HISPIDUS Benth. 

O. falcatus Eastw. 
O. tenuis Heller 



Lewis M. 



M. MONTIOIDES A. Gray 
iM. MOSCHATUS Dougl. var. 

MOSCHATUS 
M. MOSCHATUS Dougl. var. 

LONGIFLORUS A. Gray 
M. macranthus Pennell 
M. NANUS Hook . & Arn . 
Eunanus n. Holz 



Muskplant M. 



Dwarf M. 



E. tolmiei Benth. 

M. u Rydb. 
M. PARRYI A. Gray 

Eunanus p. Greene 
M. PILOSUS (Benth.) S. Wats. 

Herpestis p. Bentli. 

Mimetantlie p. Greene 



Mimulus exUis Dur. & Hilg. 



M 



PRIMULOIDES Benth. var. PRIMU- 

LOIDES Primrose M. 

M. PRIMULOIDES Benth. var. 

PILOSELLUS (Greene) 
Smiley 
M. nevadensis Gandoger 
M. p. Greene 
M. RETfSCHNEIDERAE Edwin 
M. RUBELLUS a. Gray 

M. gratioloides Rydb. 
M. SPiSSUS Grant var. SPISSUS 
M. SPISSUS Grant var. LINCOLN- 

ENSIS Edwin 
M. SUKSDORFII A. Gray 
M. TILINGI Regel var. TILINGI 

M. minor A. Nels. 
M. TIUNGI Regel var. CORALLINUS 
(Greene) Grant 
M . c. Greene 
M. TORREYI A. Gray 

Eunanus t. Greene 
M. WASHINGTONENSIS Gandoger 
M. ampliatus Grant 

MOHAVEA A. Gray MOHAVE A 

M. BREVIFLORA Gov. 
M. CONFERTIFLORA (Benth.) 
HeUer 
M. viscida A. Gray 

ORTHOCARPUS Nurt. (282) OWLCLOVER 

O. BRACTEOSUS Benth. 

O. b. var. albus Keck 
O. CAMPESTRIS Benth. 

O. columbinus M. E. Jones 
0. COPELANDIl Eastw. var. 

CRYPTANTHUS (Piper) Keck 
O. c. of Nevada references, not 

Eastw. 
O. c. Piper 



O. h. var. t. Macbr. & Pays. 

Triphysaria h. Rydb. 
O. LACERUS BentiT. 

O. brownli Eastw. 
O. LUTEUS Nutt. 

O. strictus Benth. 
O. PURPURASCENS Benth. 

0. p. var. palmeri A. Gray 
O. PURPUREO -ALBUS A. Gray 
O. TENUIFOLIUS (Pursh) Benth. 
O. TOLMIEI Hook. & Arn. 

PEDICULARIS L. 

P. ATTOLLENS A. Gray 

Elephantella a. Heller 
P. BRACTEOSA Benth. var. 

PAYSONIA (Pennell) 
Cronq. (5) 
P. b. of Intermountain authors, 

not Benth. 
P. p. Pennell 
P. CENTRANTHERA A. Gray 

P. c. var. exulans M. E. Peck 
P. CONTORTA Benth. 
P. CRENULATA Benth. 

P. albomarginata M. E. Jones 
P. GRAYI A. Nels. 
P. GROENLANDICA Retz. 
Elephantella g. Rydb. 
P. surrecta Benth. 
P. g. ssp. s. Piper 
P. PARRYI A. Gray var. PARRYI 
P. PARRYI A. Gray var. PURPUREA 
Parry 
P. anaticeps Pennell 
P. hallii Rydb. 
P. RACEMOSA Dougl. var. ALBA 
(Pennell) Cronq. 
P. r. ssp. a. Pennell 
P. SEMIBARBATA~A. Gray 

PENSTEMON Mitch. (1, 5, Q, 283) 

P. ABIETINUS Pennell 

P. ACAULIS L. O. WUliams 

P. ACUMINATUS Dougl. Sharplea 

P. ALBERTINUS Greene Alberta 1 

P. caelestinus Pennell 
P. ALBOMARGINATUS M. E. Jones 
P. AMBIGUUS Torr. ssp. AMBIGUUS Gilia P. 

Leiostemon a. Greene 
P. AMBIGUUS Torr. ssp. LAEVIS- 

SIMUS Keck 
P. ANGUSTIFOLIUS Nutt. ex Pursh 
ssp. VENOSUS Keck 
P. a. of Intermountain authors, 
not Nurt. ex Pursh 
P. ARENARIUS Greene 

P. deustus Dougl. var. a. Jeps. 
P. ARENICOLA A. Nels. 
P. ATTENUATUS Dougl. var. 
ATTENUATUS 
P. a. ssp. hyacinthinus Pennell 
P. confertus Dougl. var. a. 

M. E. Jones 
P. propinguus Greene 
P. ATTENUATUS Dougl. var. MILI- 
TARY (Greene) Cronq. 
P. a. ssp. m. Keck 
P. assurgens Keck 
P. m. Greene 
P. BARBATUS (Cav.) Roth var. Beardlip ' 

BARBATUS 



96 



PIA'S I i-:Mf:\ 



li).\ Mitcli. (con.) 
i^AKBATL'S (Cjv.) Roili var. 

PUBERULL'S A. Grav 
:;AR1!ATL'S (Cav.) Roth vjr. ' 

TORRHYl (Bfiilh.)A. Cray 
P. b. ssp. u Keck 
P. J,. Bcnth. 
BARBATUS (pjw) Roth var. 

TRICHA.NDhR A. Cray 
P. b. ssp.j_. Keck 
P. £. Rydb. 
P. BRACTEATUS Keck 
P. BREVIFLORUS Lijidl . ssp. BRE\I- 
FLORUS, not (A. Gray) 
A. Xels. 
P. BREVIFLORL'S Lrndl. ssp. 

GLABR IS E PALL'S Keck 
P. BRIDGESIl A. Gray var. 

BRIDGESII 
P. BRIDGESII A. Gray var. 

AMPLEXICAULIS Moanct (12) 
P. CAESPITOSL'S N'utt. ssp. 
CAESPITOSUS 
CAESPITOSUS Nutt. ssp. 

DESERTIPICTI (A. 
.Xels.) Keck 
A. d. A. Nels. 
CAESPITOSUS Nutt. ssp. 

PERBREVIS Pennell 
CAESPITOSUS Nutt. var. SUF- 
FRUTICOSUS A. Gray 
P. c_. ssp. s. Keck 
P. s. Rydb. 
CAR.XOSUS Pennell 
CI.XERASCENS Greene 
CIMCOLA Keck 

P. truncatus Pennell 
CLEBURNEl M. E. Jones 
P. auricomus A. .Niels. 
Grav 



Stubflowcr P. 



Bridges P. 



Mat P. 



. COMARRHENUS A 
. CONCINWUS Keck 
. CONFUSUS i\I. E. Jones 
. CONGESTUS (M. E. Jones) 
Pennell 
P. acuminatus var. c. 
M. E. Jones 
P. pachyphyllus A. Gray ssp. 
^. Keck 
. CRANDALLII A. Nels. ssp. 
CRANDALLII 
P. xylus A. Nels., as to 

specimens cited, 
not to P. caespi - 
tosus var. suffruti- 
cosus A. 
CRANDALLII AT 



Dustv P. 



Crandall P. 



Gray 
ssp. 



Nels 
ATRATUS Keck 
. CLISICKII A. Gray 

P. macbridei A. Nels. 
iVANANTHUS Hook. ssp. 
CYANANTHUS 
P. glaber Pursh var. c. A. Gray 
CYANANTHUS Hook. ssp. 
COMPACTUS Keck 
CYANANTHUS Hook. ssp. 

LONGIFLORUS Pennell 
CYANANTHUS Hook. ssp. SUB- 

GLABER (A. Gray) Pennell 
P. fremontii Torr. & A. Gray 
var. s. A. Gray 
CYANEUS Pennell 
CYA.NJOCAULIS Payson 
DAVIDSONII Greene var. 
I PRAETERITUS Cronq. 

P. d. of Intermountain authors, 
I not Greene 



Cusick P. 



Wasatch P. 



DI-l'Sll'.S Oouyl. -^sp. DiaiSIUS Siabl.iniir 

DFUSrUS i:>uugl. var. I IKTl'RANnFK 
(I'orr. S Gray) C^ronq. 
P. d. ssp. h. Pennell t« Keck 
P. h. I'orr. Si G.-ay 
Dl'l'srUS Dougl. ssp. SUDANS 

(M. E. Jones) IVnndl 5< Keck 
P. s. M. E. lonts 



■'P 



P. DOLIUS M. E. Jones 
P. EATONI A. Gray var. l-:Ar()NI 
P. EATONI A. Gray vai-. (.'NDOSL'S 
M. E. Jones 
P. coccinatus Rydb. 
P. e. ssp. u. Kick 
P. ERIA.NTHERUS Pursh 
P. cristatus Nutt. 
P. e. ssp. saliens (Rydb.) 

Pennell 
P. s. Rydb. 
P. FLORIDUS T. S. Brandeg. 

FLORIDL'S 
P. FLORIDUS T. S. Brajideg. ssp. 
AUSTINII (Eastw.) Keck 
P. a. Keck 
P. FREMONTII Torr. & Gray 

P. glaber l\irsh var. f. M. F. 

Jones 
P. leptanthus Pennell 
P. FRUTICIFORMK Gov. ssp. 
AMARGOSAF Keck 
P. FRUTICOSUS (Pursh) Greene 
P. crassifolius Lindl . 
P. douglasii Hook. 
P. {_. var. c_. Krautler 
P. L var. d. Schneid. 
P. GAIRDNERI Hook. 
P. GARRETTII Pennell 
P. GLANDULOSUS Dougl. 

P. staticifolius Lindl . 
P. GRACILENTUS A. Gray 
P. GRAHAMII Keck 
P. HALLII A. Gray 
P. HETERODOXUS A. Gray 
P. depressus Greene 
P. HUMILIS Nutt. var. IIUMILLS 
P. brevis A. Nels. 
P. cinercus Piper 
P. collinus A. Nels. 



lones P, 
1-aion I' 



F'uzzyionguc P 



Pananiint P 



oni r 



Bush P. 



Gairdner P. 
Garretts P. 
Stickysteni P. 

Slinisteiii I'. 



Heretic P 



Low P. 



. HUMILIS Nutt. ssp. BRFVI- 

FOLIUS (A. Gray) Keck 
P. b. A. Nels. 
P. h. var. b. A. Gray 
. HUMILIS Nutt. ssp. OBTUSH'OLIUS 
(Pennell) Keck 
P. o. Pennell 
. JAMESII Benth. ssp. OPHIANTIIUS 
(Pennell) Keck 
P. 2- ">f Intermountain authors, 

not Benth. 
P. 2- ^sP- breviculus Keck 
P. o. PenncTi 
P. pLlosigulaius .'\. Nels. 
JONESU Pennell 
KECKII Clokey 
KI.NGII S. Wats. 
LAETUS A. Gray var. ROEZLII 
(Kegel) Jeps. 
P. J_. ssp. r. Keck 
P. r. Regel 

P. r. var. violaceus 7'. S . Brandeg. 
LAE\LS Pennell 
LAXUS A. Nels. 

P. watsonii A. Gray ssp. 1, Keck 
LEIOPHYLLUS Pennell 
LEMMONI A. Gray 
LENTUS Pennell ssp. LENTUS 



Kings P. 



Idaho P, 



Lenimons P. 



PENSTEMON 



PENSTEMON Mitch, (con.) 

P. LENTUS Pennell ssp. ALBI- 

FLORUS Keck 
P. LEONARDI Rydb. 
P. UNARIOIDES A. Gray ssp. 
COLORADOENSIS 
(A. Nels.) Keck 
P. c. A. Nels. 
P. LINARToiDES a. Gray ssp. 

SILERl (A. Gray) Keck 
P. coloradoensis A. Nels. 
ssp. s. Pennell 
P. 1. var. s. A. Gray 
P. UNARIOIDES A. Gray ssp. 

VIRIDIS Keck 
P. MISER A. Gray 
P. MOFFATTII Eastw. ssp. 

MOFFATTII 
P. MOFFATTII Eastw. ssp. 
MARCUS II Keck 
P. pseudohumllis M. E. 

Jones, not Rydb. 
P. MONOENSIS Heller 

P. divergens M. E. Jones 
P. MONTANUS Greene 

P. woodsii A. Nels. 
P. NANLIS Keck 
P. NEWBERRYI A. Gray 

P. menziesii Hook. var. 
n. A. Gray 
P. OSTERHOUTIll'ennell 
P. PACHYPHYLLUS A. Gray 
P. nitidus Dougl. var. 

major Benth. 
P. PALMERI A. Gray ssp. PALMERI 

P. macranthus Eastw. 
P. PALMERI A. Gray ssp. EGLANDU- 

LOSUS Keck 
P. PARVUS Pennell 
P. PAYETTENSIS A. Nels. & Macbr. 
P. PAYSONIORUM Keck 
P. PERPULCHER A. Nels. 

P. mmidokanus A. Nels. & 
Macbr. 
P. PETIOLATUS T. S. Brandeg. 
P. aboriginum M. E. Jones 
P. calcareus M. E. Jones 
P. PLATYPHYLLUS Rydb. 

P. latifolius (S. Wats.) Krautter 
P. PROCERUS Dougl. var. PROCERUS 
P. confertus var. p. Gov. 
P. p. ssp. a. Keck 
P. PROCERUS Dougl. var. ABERRANS 
(M. E. Jones) A. Nels. 
P. confertus var. aberrans 

M. E. Jones 
P. p. ssp. a. Keck 
P. PROCERUS Dougl. var. FORMOSUS 
(A. Nels.) Cronq. 
P. cacuminis Pennell 
P. chionophilus Greene 
P. _f. A. Nels., not (Wendl.) 

Trautv. 
P. p. ssp. f. Keck 
P. pulchellus Greene, not Lindl. 
P. tolmiei Hook. ssp. £. Keck 
P. PROCERUS Dougl. ssp. MODESTUS 
(Greene) Keck 
P. m. Greene 
P. RADICOSUS A. Nels. 

P. lineolatus Greene 
P. ROTHROCKII A. Gray 

P. shockleyi S. Wats. 
P. RUBICUNDUS Keck 



Leonard P. 



Malheur P. 



Cordroot P. 



Newberry P. 



Thickleaf P. 



Palmer P. 



Minidoka P. 



Littleflower P. 



Matroot P. 
Rothrock P. 



P. RYDBERGII A. Nels. var. 

RYDBERGII Rydberg P. 

P. aggregatus Pennell 

P. interruptus Greene 

P. lassenianus Greene 

P. oreocharis Greene 

P. productus Greene 

P. recurvatus Heller 

P. rydbergii A. Nels. ssp. 

a. (Pennell) Keck 

P. tinctus Pennell 

P. washoensis Greene 
P. RYDBERGII A. Nels. var. VARWNS 
(A. Nels.) Cronq. 

P. attenuatus Dougl. var. 
y^. A. Nels. 
P. SCAPOIDES Keck Inyo P. 

P. SCARIOSUS Pennell 
P. SEORSUS (A. Nels.) Keck 

P. linarioides var. s. A. Nels. 
P. SEPALULUS A. Nels. 

P. azureus Benth. var. 

ambiguus A. Gray 
P. SPECIOSUS Dougl. ssp. SPECIOSUS 

P. deserticola Piper 

P. glaber Pur sh var. occi- 
dentalis A. Gray 

P. g. var. s. Rydb. 

P. kingii var. glauca Kellogg 

P. rex A. Nels. & Macbr. 

P. SPECIOSUS Dougl. ssp. KENNEDYI 

(A. Nels.) Keck 

P. k. A. Nels. 
P. SPECTABILIS Thurb. 
P. STRICTUS Benth. ssp. STRICTUS 

P. STRICTUS Benth. ssp. 

ANGUSTUS Pennell 
P. STRICTUS Benth. ssp. STRICTI- 
FORMIS (Rydb.) Keck 
P. s. Rydb. 
P. SUBGLABER Rydb. 

P. glaber Pursh var. utahensis 

S. Wats. 
P. u. A. Nels., not Eastw. 
P. SUFFRUTESCENS Rydb. 

P. caespitosus ssp. s. Keck 
P. xylus A. Nels. 
P. THOMPSONIAE (A. Gray) Rydb. 

ssp. THOMPSONIAE Thompson 

P. caespitosus ssp. t. Keck 
P. c . var. t. A. Nels. 
P. incanus (A. Gray) Tides. 
P. pumilus Nutt. var. i. A. Gray 
P. p. var. t. A. Gray 
P. THOMreONIAE~(A. Gray) Rydb. 

ssp. JAEGERI Keck 
P. THURBERI Torr. Thurber P. 

P. TIDESTROMII Pennell Tidestrom 

P. UINTAHENSIS Pennell Uinta P. 

P. UTAHENSIS Eastw., not A. Nels. Utah P. 

P. eastwoodiae Heller 
P. VIRGATUS A. Gray 

See (b) for a discussion of an 
"undescribed sub- 
species" from 
southern Utah 
P. WARDII A. Gray Wards P. 

P. glaber Pursh var. w. 
M. E. Jones 
P. WATSONII A. Gray Watson P. 

P. fremontii var. parryi A. Gray 
P. phlogifolius Greene 
P. WhTpPLEANUS a. Gray Whipple P. 

P. arizonicus Heller 



98 



PHULARIA 



UTKICULAKIA 



FIGWORT 



Ldnceleal I-' 



PHULARIA L. (284) 
^. DFRERTORUM (Muiiz) Shaw 
S. californica Cham. S; 

Schlccth. var. 

d. Munz 
S. muliulora Pennell of Inter - 

mountain authors, 

a synonym to S . 

californica Cham. & 

Schlecht. ssp. flori- 

bunda (Greene) Shaw 
^. I.ANCEOLATA Pursh 

S. nodosa of western authors, 

not L. 
S. occidentalis (Rydb.) Bickn. 
S. serrata Rydb. 
S. utahensis Gandoger 

„^ BcntJi. (27b) 
.. LACLX'IATA (A. Gray) Rydb. 
ssp. LACINIATA 
S. pinnatifida S. Wats. var. 
Y. A. Gray 
,. LACINIATA (A. Gray) Rydb. 

ssp. IBAPOHENSIS Pennell 
.. MISSURICA (Raf.) Pennell 
;. PINNATIFIDA S. Wats. var. 

PINNATIFIDA Featherleaf K. 

S. paysoni Pennell & L. O. 
Williams 
. PINNATIFIDA S. Wats. var. 

CANESCENS (Pennell) Cronq. 
S . cyniopteroides Pennell 
S. c. ssp. canescens Pennell 
S . hendersom Pennell 



BlGNONIACl-lAIC. liignoina Pamily 

DI-:SHRI WILLOW 
I). 



CHILOPSLS G. Don. (286) 

C. LINEARIS (Cav.) Sweet var. 
ARCUATA I'osb. 
C. 1. of Intermotintain authors, 
not (Cav.) Sweet 



MARTYNIACEAE. Mariynia l-amily 

DEVILSCLAWS 
New Mexico I). 



KITTENTAl LS 



PROBOSCIDEA Keller 

P. PARVIFLORA (Woot.) Wool. & 
Standi . 

Martynia louisiana of Inter - 
mountain authors 
not Mill. 
M. p. Woot. 



OROBANCIIACEAE. Broomrape lamUy 



OROBANCHE L. (287, 288, 28^) 

O. CALIFORNICA Cham. S; Schlecht. 
var. CORYMBOSA (Rydb.) 
Munz 
Myzorrhiza c. Rydb. 
O. c. of Intermountam authors, 

not Cliam . Si Schlecht. 
O. FASCICUL.'\TA Nutt. var. FASCICULATA 
Tlialesia f. Britton 



BROOMRAP1-; 



Om i M L. 

. ULATTARIA L. 
. riL^PSUS L. 

U.RA L. (285) 

. AMERICANA Schw. 

V. a. var. crassula Rydb. 
. ANAGA LLIS -AQUATICA L. 
■. ARVENSIS L. 
. BECC.\BUNGA L. 
. BILOBA L. 

V. campylopoda Boiss. 
. CATENTATA Pennell (See (5) for a 
discussion of this species 
complex) 
. HEDERAEFOLIA L. 
. PEREGRINA L. var. XALAPENSIS 
(HBK.) St. John & Warren 
V. p. of Intermountain authors, 

not L. 
V. p. ssp. X. PenneU 
. PERSICA Poir" 

V. buxbaumii Ten. 



MULLEIN 
Flannel M. 
SPEEDWELL 



SCUTELLATA L. 
V. s. var. villos 



Schum. 
var. HUMIFUSA 



SERPYLLIFOLL\ L. 

(Dickson) Vahl 
V. funesta Macbr. & Pays. 
V. h. Dickson 

V. s. of Intermotintain authors 
not L. 
WORMSKJOLDII Roem. & Schult. 
V. alpina L. ssp. altemiflora 

(Fern.) Pennell 
V. a. var. a. Fern. 
V. a. var. w. Hook. 



O. FASCICULATA Nutt. var. LUTEA 
(Parry) Achey 
Thalesia 1. Rydb. 
O. GRAYANA G. Beck var. 
FEUDGEI Munz 
O. g. of Intermotmtain authors, 
not G. Beck 
O. LUDOMCIANA Nutt. var. ARENOSA 
(Suksd.) Cronq. 
Aphyllon a. Suksd. 
0. multiflora Nutt. var. a. Munz 
O. LUIDOVICIANA Nutt. var. COOPER! 
(A. Gray) G. Beck 
Aphyllon c_. A. Gray 
O. 1. of Intermountain authors, 

in large part, not Nutt. 
O. LUDOVICLANA Nutt. var. LATILOBA 

Munz 
O. MULTIFLORA Nutt. 

Myzorrhiza m. Rydb. 
O. UNIFLORA L.~var. MINUTA 
(Suksd.) Beck 
Aphyllon m. Suksd. 
Thalesia m. Rydb. 
O. UNIFLORA U var. PURPUREA 
(Heller) Achey 
Aphyllon sedi Suksd. 
O. porphyrantha G. Beck 
O. £. Fern. 

O. u. of Intermountain autlior, not L. 
O. u. var. s. Achey 
Thalesia p. "lleller 
T. s. Rydb. 



LENTIBULARIACEAE. Bladderwort l-amily 

BLADDERWORT 
Lesser B. 
Common B. 



UTRICULARIA L. (290) 

U. INTERMEDLA Hayne 
U. MINOR L. 

U. occidentalis A. Gray 



U. VULGARIS L. 

U. macrorhiza LeConte 

U. V. var. americana A. Gray 



99 



PLANTAGO 



LONICER.J 



PLANT AG INACEAE. Plantain FamUy 



PLANTAGO L. (291, 292) 
P. ELONGATA Pursh 
P. myosuroides 



Rydb. 



P. ERIOPODA Torr. 

P. INSULARIS Eastw. var. 

FASTIGIATA (Morris) Jeps. 
P. f. Morris 

P. i. of Intermountain authors, 
not Eastw. 
P. LANCEOLATA L. 
P. MAJOR L. var. MAJOR 

P. asiatica of American 

authors, not L. 
P. MAJOR L. var. PACHYPHYLLA 
PUger 
P. nitrophUa A. Nels. 
P. MARITIMA L. ssp. JUNCOIDES 
(Lam.) Hult. 
P. ]_. Lam. 
P. m. of American autliors, 

not L. 
P. m. var. j. A. Gray 
P. PATAGONICA Jacq. 

P. gnaphaloides Nutt. 
P. lagopus Pursh, not L. 
P. purshii Roem. & Schult. 
P. TWEEDYI A. Gray 



RUBL\CEAE. 

GALIUM L. (293, 294, 295, 296) 

G. APARINE L. var. APARINE 
G. APARINE L. var. ECHINO- 

SPERMUM (Wallr.) Farw. 
G. vaillantii DC. 
Wats. 



PLANTAIN 



Redwool P. 



Buckhorn P. 



G. PROLIFERUM A. Gray 

G. ROTHROCKI! A. Gray Rothrick B 

G. wrightii A. Gray var. 
r. Ehrend. 
G. SERPENTICUM Dempster 

G. multiflorum var. watsonii, 

and 
G. w. of Pacific Northwest 

references, not to types 
G. w. f. scabridum Ehrend. 
G. STELLATUM Kellogg var. STELLATUM 
G. STELLATUM Kellogg var. EREMICUM 
Hilend and Howell 
G. s. ssp. e. Ehrend. 
G. TRFfIDUM L.^var. PACIFICUM Wieg. 
G. brandegei A. Gray (5) 



columbianum Rydb. 

t. var. subbitlorum Wieg. 

"i. Rydb"; 

tinctorium L. var. diversi- 



BIFOLIUM S 
BOREALE L. 

G. b. var. linearifolium 

G 



Patagonia Indian - 

wheat 



Tweedy P. 



BEDSTRAW; 
CLEAVERS 
Catchweed B. 



Twinleaf B. 
Northern B. 



Sweetscent 



Yellow I 



Rydb. 



Roem. & 



septentrionale 
~ Schult. 

COLORADOENSE W. F. Wight var. 

COLORADOENSE 
COLORADOENSE W. F. Wight var. 
SCABRIUSCULUM (Ehrend.) 
Dempstei 
G. hypotrichium A. Gray ssp. 
s. Ehrend. 
GRAYANUM Ehrend. 
HYPOTRICHIUM A. Gray 
MAGNIFOLIUM (Dempster) Dempster 
G. matthewsii A. Gray var. rn_. 
Dempster 
MEXICANUM HBK. var. ASPERULUM 
(A. Gray) Dempster 
G. asperrimum A. Gray 
G. a. var. asperulum A. Gray 
G. asperulum Rydb. 
MUXtIFLORUM Kellogg Shrubby B. 

G. bloomeri A. Gray 
G. b. var. hirsutum A. Gray 
G. m. var. h. A. Gray 
, MUNZlfHUendl Howell var. 

MUNZII Munz B. 

, MUNZll Hilend & Howell var. 
SUBALPINUM HUend & 
Howell 
G. hypotrichium ssp. s. Ehrend. 



folium W. F. Wight 
G. tinctorium var. submontanum 

W. F. Wight 
G. trifidum of Intermountain 
authors, not L. 
G. TRIFIDUM L. var. TINCTORIUM 
(L.) Torr. & Gray 
G. U L. 
G. TRIFLORUM Michx. 

G. flaviflorum Heller 
G. t. var. asperelliforme Fern. 
G. VERUM L. 

Native of Europe 
G. WATSONII (A. Gray) Heller 

G. hypotrichium of Ehrend. , 

as to most of the Inter- 
mountain collections, 
not A. Gray 
G. h. ssp. utahensis Ehrend. 
G. multiflorum var. w. A. Gray 

HOUSTONIA L. 

H. RUBRA Cav. 

H. saxicola Eastw. 

KELLOGGIA Torr. 

K. GALIOIDES Torr. 



CAPRIFOLIACEAE. Honeysuckle Family 



LINNAEA L. 

L. BOREALIS L. ssp. LONGI- 
FLORA (Torr.) Hult. 
L. americana Forbes. 
L. b. ssp. a_. Hult. 
L. b. var. a. Rehd. 
L. b. var. T. Torr. 
L. ]_. Howell 

LONICERA L. 

L. ARIZONICA Rehd. 
L. CAERULEA L. 

L. cauriana Fern. 

Xylosteon c. Dum-Cours. 
L. CON!UGL\LIS~Kellogg 
L. INVOLUCRATA (Rich.) Banks 

Distegia i_. Cockerell 
L. UTAHENSIS" S. Wats. 

L. ebractulata Rydb. 

Xylosteon e. Rydb. 



TWINFLO\':i 

! 

Longtube T '■ 



HONEYSUC 
Arizona H. 



Purpleflowf 
Bearberry ; 

Utah H. 



X. 



Howell 



PARISHII HUend & Howell 
G . multiflorum var . parvi - 
florum Parish 



Parish B. 



G. p. Jeps. not Gandoger 



100 



AMBUCUS 



noWMXClA 



AMBLCrS L. 

S. CAERL'LKA Rai. 
S. glauca Nun. 
S. k-rax A. .\i.U. 
S. RACEMOSA L. ssp. PUBliNS 
(Michx.) 1 louse var. 
MELANOCARPA 
(A. c;ray) McMmn 
S. 111. A. Gray 

S. r. of Interniountaiii aulliors, 
ill part, not L. 
S. RACEMCSA L. ssp. PUIiKNS 
(Miclix.) House var. 
MICROBOTRVS (Rydb.) 
Kearney S; Peebles 
S. m. Rydb. 

S. r. ol Intermouiitain authors, 
in part, not L. 



ELDI-:RB1 RRV 



MPIIORICARPOS Duhamel. (5, 2<?7) SNOWBERRY 

S. ALBUS (L.) Blake var. LAE\'I- 
GATUS (Fern.) Blake 
S. a. of Intermountain authors, 
not (L.) Blake 
S. ALBUS (L.) Blake var. PAUCI- 
FLORUS (Britton) Blake 
S. p. Britton 

S. racemosus Pers. var. p. 
Rydb. 
S. LOXGIFLORUS A. Gray 

S. fragrans A. Nels. & Kennedy 
S. MOLLIS Nutt. var. ACUTUS A. Gray 
S. a. Dieck. 



Garden Common S. 



Dwarf Common S . 



Longflowcr S. 



OCCIDENTALIS Hook. 

S. o. var. quercifolia 
OREOPHILUS A. Gray var 



Western S. 



A. Nels. 



OREOPHILUS 
rotundiiolius of Intermountaui 



Mountain S. 



(soutliem Utah) authors, 
not A. Gray 
S. r. var. o. M. E. Jones 
OREOmiLUS A. Gray var. UTAHENSIS 
(Rydb.) A. Nels. 
S. rotundifolius var. vaccinioides 



(Rydb.) A. Nels. 
tetonensis A. Nels, 



S. u. Rydb. 

S. V. Rydb. 
PARlSHIl Rydb. 

S. rotundifolius of Intermountain 
(California and Nevada) 
authors, not A. Gray 



\' . capilaia I'.ill. ss|). |i. 

I', i;. Meyer"" 
V. cusickii Gandoger 
V. maculata Ivastw. 
V. p. Rydb. 
\'. utaliensis Gandoger 
\ . ArF/ONICA a. Gray 

\. acutiloba Rydb. var. 

Tnata (Kvdh.) A. Nel> 



Arizona \ 



V. o. Rydb. 
V. CALIFORNIA Heller 

A variety of \'. acutiloba Rydl)., 
the earliest name in 
this taxon being "glalira' 

V. capitala Pall. ss|i. e . 
!•. G. Meyer' 

V. puberula Piper 

V. seminuda Piper 

V. sylvatica Sol. var. glalira |eps. 

V. whiltonae Eastw. 



V. EDULIS Nutt. 

V. furfurescens A. Nels. 

V. trachycarpa Rydb. 
V. OCCIDENTALIS Heller 

V. micrantha E. Nels. 

VALERIANELLA Mill. 

V. LOCUSTA (L.) Betcke 
Valeriana 1. L. 
Valerianelle olitoria (L.) 
Poll, or Dufr. a 
to author 



DIPSACACEAE. Teasel Family 



h.dible V 



Western \' 



CORNS A LAI) 



DIPSACUS L. 

D. SYLVESTRIS Huds. 



TEASEL 
\'enuscup T. 



CUCURBITACEAE. Gourd I'amilv 



BRYONIA L. 

B. ALBA L. 

CUCURBITA L. 

C. FOETIDLSSIMA HBK. 

Pepo f. Britton 

ECHINOCYSTLS Torr. Si Gray 

E. LOBATA (Michx.) Torr. & Gray 



BRYONY 
White B. 



GOURD 
Calabazilla 



moc:kcuc:umbkr 

Wild M. 



CAMPANULACEAE. Harebell or Bellflower laiiulv («1(). id I) 



ADOXACEAE. 



/riXA L. 

A. MOSCHATELLINA L. 



VALERIANACEAE. 

1 ' IRITIS DC. (298) 

P. MACROCERA Torr. & Gray 
Aligera m. Suksd. 
P. rn. var. grayi (Suksd.) Dyal 
Valerianella m. A. Gray 

VJLERIANA L. (299) 

V. ACUTILOBA Rydb. var. 
ACUTILOBA 
V. capitata Pall. ssp. a. 
E.G. Meyer 
V. ACUTILOBA Rydb. var. PUBI- 
CARPA (Rydb.) Cronq. 



MUSKROOT 
M. 



PLECTRITIS 
Longhorn P. 



VALERIAN 
Sharpleaf V 



CAMPANULA L. 

C. PARRYI A. Gray var. PARRYI 
C. PARRYI A. Gray var. IDAIIO- 

ENSIS McVaugh 
C. RAPUNCULOIDES L. 

C. ROTUNDIFOLIA L. 

C. macdougalii Rydb. 
C_. peiiolata A. DC. 

c. unFflora L. 

DOWNINC;iA Torr. (.W2) 

D. BACIGALUPII WeLler 
D. BICORNtlTA A. Gray 

Bolelia b. Greene 
D. ELEGANS fDougl.) Torr. var. 
ELEGANS 
liolelia e. Greene 

D. coryiribosa (A. DC.) A. Nels. 

& Macbr. 



BELI.I-LOWEK 
I'arry B. 



Bluebell 



DOWNING lA 



101 



DOWNINGIA 



DOWNINGU Torr. (con.) 

D. ELEGANS (Dougl.) Torr. var. 
BRACHYPETALA 
(Gandoger) McVaugh 
D. b. Gandoger 
D. INSTgNIS Greene 

Bolelia 1. Greene 
D. LAETA (Greene) Greene 

Bolelia brachyantha Rydb. 

B. 1. Greene 

D. "b. A. Nels. & Macbr. 

IIETEROCODON Nutt. 

H. RARIFLORUM Nutt. 

Specularia r_. McVaugh 

LOBELIA L. LOBELIA 

L. CARDINALIS L. ssp. GRAMINEA 
(Lam.) McVaugh var. 
PHYLLOSTACHYA (Engelm.) 
Mc Vaugh 
L. p. Engelm. 
L. CARDfNALlS L. ssp. GRAMINEA 
(Lam.) McVaugh var. 
PSEUDOSPLENDENS 
McVaugh 
L. mucronata Engelm., not Cav. 

NEMACLADUS Nutt. (303) 

N. GLANDULIFERUS Jeps. var. 

ORIENTALIS McVaugh 
N. GRACILIS Eastw. 

N. ramosissimus var. g. Mmiz 
N. RIGIDUS Curran 
N. RLIBESCENS Greene 

N. adenophorus Parish 

N. ramosissimus of Intermountain 

authors, not Nutt. 
N. rigidus var. r. Munz 

PORTERELLA Torr. 

P. CARNOSULA (Hook. & Arn.) Torr. 
Laurentia c. Benth. 
L. exmiia (A. Nels.) A. Nels. 
P". e. A. Nels. 

TRIODANIS Raf. (304) 

T. PERFOLL\TA (L.) NieuwI. 
Dysmicodon p. Nutt. 
Legouzia p. Britton 
Specularia p. A. DC. 



COMPOSITAE. Sunflower FamUy (1, 4, 5, 6, 9, 10, 11, 12) 

ACAMPTOPAPPUS A. Gray GOLDENHEAD 

A. SHOCKLEYI A. Gray ShockleyG. 

A. SPHAEROCEPHALUS (Harv. & 
Gray) A. Gray var. 

SPHAEROCEPHALUS Rayless G. 

Haplopappus s^. Harv. & Gray 
A. SPHAEROCEPHAXuS (Harv. & Gray) 
var. HIRTELLUS Blake 

ACHILLEA L. (1, 305, 306) YARROW 

A. MILLEFOLIUM L. ssp. 

LANULOSA (Nutt.) Piper 
A. h Nutt. 
A . m . var . 1 . Piper 
A. tomentosa Pursh, not L. 
A. MILLEFOLIUM L. ssp. LANULOSA 
(Nutt.) Rydb. var. ALPICOLA 
(Rydb.) Garrett 
A. a. Rydb. 
A. fuse a Rydb. 



AGOSERIS 



A. 1. ssp. a. Keck 

A. I. var. a. Rydb. 

A. rn_. var. f. G. N. Jones 

A. subalpina Greene 

ADENOCAULON Hook. 

A. BICOLOR Hook. 

A. b. var. Lntegrifolia 



(Nutt.) Torr. & Gray 



A. i. Nutt. 



AGOSERIS Raf. (5) 



TRAIL PLANT 
American T. 



AGOSERIS; 
FALSE DANDl 
LION; MOUN- 
TAIN DANDE- 
LION 



Orange A. 



A. AURANTIACA (Hook.) Greene 

var. AURANTIACA 

A. gracilens (A. Gray) Kuntze 

A. g. var. greenei (A. Gray) 

Greene 
A. gracilenta Greene 
A. gracilenta var. greenei 

Greene 
A. graminlfolia Greene 
A. greenei Rydb. 
Troximon a. Hook. 
T. gracilens A. Gray 
A. AURANTIACA (Hook.) Greene var. 

PURPUREA (A. Gray) Cronq. 
A. arizonica Greene 
A. leptocarpa Osterhout 
A. p. Greene 

Troximon arizonica Greene 
T. aurantiaca Hook. var. p. 
A. Gray 
A. GLAUCA (Pursh) Raf. var. GLAUCA Pale A. 
A. lapathifolia Greene 
A. procera Greene 



Troximon g. Pursh 




. GLAUCA (Pursh) Raf. var. 






AGRESTIS (Osterh.) Q. 


Jones 


A. 


a. Osterh. 




. GLAUCA (Pursh) Raf. var. DASY- 




CEPHALUM (Torr. & G 


ray) 




Jeps. 




A. 


aspera (Rydb.) Rydb. 




A. 


g. ssp. a. Rydb. 




A. 


g. var. a. Cronq. 




A. 


g. var. pumilum (Nutt.) 





Garrett 
A. g. ssp. scorzoneraefolia 

(Schrad.) Piper 
A. p. Rydb. 
A. s. Greene 
A. s. var. a. Blake 
A. villosa Rydb. 
Troximon g. ssp. a. Piper 
T. g. var. p. A. Nels. 
T. V. A. Nels. 
A. GLAUCA (Pursh) Raf. var. LACINIATA 
(D. C. Eaton) Smiley, not 
A. I. (Nutt.) Greene 
A. g. var. parvillora (Nutt.) Rydb. 
A. leontodon Rydb. 
A. p. D. Dietr. 
A. rosea (Nutt.) D. Dietr. 
A. taraxacifolia (Nutt.) D. Dietr. 
Troximon p. Nutt. 
T. r. Nutt. 
T. r. Nutt. 
A. GLAUCA (Pursh) Raf. var. MONTI- 
COLA (Greene) Q. Jones 
A. laciniata (Nutt.) Greene, not 
A. g. var. h (D. C. 
Eaton) Smiley 
A. m. Greene 



102 



-iislRlS 



ARNICA 



' isI:RIS Ral'. (con.) 

A. GRANDIFLORA (Nuu.) Greene 

Troximon g. A. Gray 
A. IIETEROPHYLLA (Nutt.) Greene 

Troximon h. Greene 
A. RETRORSA (Benth.) Greene 

Troximon r. A. Gray 

nIBROSIA L. 

A. .\RTEMISIiFOLL\ L. 

A. diversil'olia (Piper) Ryetli. 
A. elatior L. 
A. longistylis Nutt. 
A. media Rydb. 
A. PSILOSTACHYA DC. 

A. californica Rydb. 

A. coronopifolia Torr. & Gray 

.irHlPAPPUS Torr. & Gray (J(I7) 

A. FREMONTII Torr. & Gray var. 
FREMONTII 
•Amphiachyris t. A. Gray 
A. FREMONTII TorrT & Gray var. 
SPLNOSUS (A. Nels.) 
C. L. Porter 
Amphiachyris s. A. Nels. 
Amphipappus I, ssp. s. Keck 

.'■J'llALIS DC. 

A. MARGARITACEA (L.) Benth. 
S; Hook. 
A. lanata (A. Nels.) Rydb. 
A. m. var. occidentalis 



A. pediccUala Greene 
A. recurva CJreene 



Greene 
A. m. var. subalpina 

(A. Gray) A. Gray 
A. 0. Heller 
A. s. Rydb. 

.M COMA Torr. & Gray 
A. ACAULIS Torr. & Gray 

[hNNAxRIA Gaertn. 

A. ALPINA (L.) Gaertn. var. 

MEDIA (Greene) Jeps. 
A. a. of Intermountain authors, 

not (L.) Gaertn. 
A. austromontana E. Nels. 
A. ~ 



Greene 
A. reflexa E. Nels. 



-■Vitnual A. 



RAGWEED 
Common R. 



Western R. 



CHAFF -BUSH 



A. PARVIFOLIA Nutt. 

A. aprica Greene 

A. holmu Greene 
A. PULCHERRIMA (Hook.) Greene 
A. ROSEA Greene 

A. arida A. Nels. 

A. bracteosa Rydb. 

A. concinna F. Nels. 

A. microphylla Rydb.. not 
Gandoger 

A. parvifolia var . r. Greene 

A. scanosa E. Nels. 
A. ROSULATA Rydb. 
A. STENOPHYLLA A. Gray 

A. alpina var. stenophylla 
A. Gray 
A. UMBRINELLA Rydb. 

A. albescens (E. Nels.) RytU). 

A. conftnis Greene 

A. llavescens Rydb. 



Showy P. 
Rose P. 



A. fusca E. Neh 
A. mucronata E. 



Neh 



ANTHEMIS L. 



PEARL- 
EVERLASTING 



Common P. 



A. COTULA L. 

Maruta c. DC. 
A. TINCTORIA L. 

ARCTIUM L. (308) 

A. MINUS (HiU) Bernh. 
Lappa m. HiU 

ARNICA L. (3(W) 

A. AMPLEXICAULIS Nutt. 
A. amplexifolia Rydb. 
A. elongata Rydb. 
A. CHAMISSONIS Less. ssp. FOLIOSA 
(Nutt.) Maguire 



CAMOMILE; 

DOGFENNEL 
Mayweed C. 

Golden C. 

BURDOCK 
Smaller B. 



ARNICA 



EVERLASTING; 
PUSSYTOES 



A. 


bruceae Rydb. 


A. 


celsa A. Nels. 


A. 


c. of Intermountain authors 




not Less. 


A. 


denudata Greene 


A. 


exigua A. Nels. 


A. 


f. Nutt. 


A. 


ocreata A. Nels. 



A. rhizomata A. Nels. 



A. ANAPHALOIDES Rydb. 
A. ARCUATA Cronq. 
A. ARGENTEA Benth. 

A. luzuloides Torr. & Gray 
var. a. A. Gray 
A. CORYMBOSA E. Nels. 
A. DLMORPHA (Nutt.) Torr. & Gray 

A. d. var. Integra Henders. 

GnaphaJium d. Nutt. 
A. FLAGELLARS 1a. Gray) A. Gray 

A. dimorpha var. f. A. Gray 
A. GEYERI A. Gray 
A. LUZULOIDES Torr. & Gray 

A. 1. var. oblanceolata 
(Rydb.) Peck 

A. microcephala A. Gray 

A. o. Rydb. 
A. NEGLECTA Greene var. 

ATTENUATA (Fern.) Cronq. 

A. margmata Greene 

A. m. var. glandulifera A. Nels. 

A. n. of Intermountain authors, 
not Greene 



Low P. 



Rush P. 



A. stricta A. Nels. 
A. tomentulosa Rydb. 
A. CHAMISSONIS Less. ssp. FOLIOSA 
(Nutt.) Maguire var. 
INCANA (A. Gray) Hull. 
A. cana Greene 
A. c. Less. ssp. i. Maguire 
A. f . var. c . A. Gray 
A. 1. Greene, not Pers. 
A. CORDFfOLL^ Hook. var. 
CORDIFOLIA 
A. abortiva Greene 
A. austinae Rydb. 
A. c. var. macrophylla 

(Nun.) Maguire 
A. m. Nutt. 
A. CORDIFOLLA Hook. var. RIMILA 
(Rydb.) Maguire 
A. evermarmii Greene 
A. parvLflora Greene 
A . p. Rydb. 
A. DIVERSIFOLL«i Greene 
A. latifolia Bong. var. 

viscidula A. Gray 



Heartlenf A. 



103 



ARNICA 



ARNICA L. (con.) 

A. LATIFOLIA Bong. var. 

LATIFOLIA BroadleafA. 

A. eriopoda Gandoger 

A. glahrata Rydb. 

A. jonesii Rydb. 

A. membranacea Rydb. 

A. menziesii Hook. 

A. paucibracteata Rydb. 

A. ventorum Greene 
A. LATIFOLIA Bong. var. GRACILIS 
(Rydb.) Cronq. 

A. arcana A. Nels. 

A. g. Rydb. 

A. multiflora Greene 
A. LONGIFOLIA D. C. Eaton ssp. 

LONGIFOLIA Longleai A. 

A. arcana A. Nels. 

A. caudata Rydb. 

A. polycephala A. Nels. 
A. LONGIFOLIA D. C. Eaton ssp. 

MYRIADENIA (Piper) Maguire 

A. m. Piper 
A. MOLLIS Hook. Hairy A. 

A. amplifoha Rydb. 

A. arachnoidea Rydb. 

A. m. var. silvatica 

~ (Greene) Maguire 

A. ovata Greene 

A. rivularis Greene 

A. s. Greene 

A. subplumosa Greene 



ARTEMISIA 



A. NEVADENSIS A. Gray 
A. PANICULATA A. Nels. 
A. PARRYI A. Gray 

A. eradiata (A. Gray) Heller 
A. RYDBERGII Greene 

A. aurantiaca Greene 

A. caespitosa A. Nels. 

A. tenuis Rydb. 
A. SORORIA Greene 

A. stricta Greene, not A. Nels. 

A. trinervata Rydb. 



Nevada A. 
Rayless A. 



MISIA L. (310, 311, 312, 313) 


SAGEBRUSH; 
WORMWOOD 


A. ABSINTHIUM L. 


Common W. 


A. ARBUSCULA Nutt. var. 




ARBUSCULA 
A. a. ssp. thermopola Beetle 
A. longiloba (Osterh.) Beetle 
A. spiciformis Osterh. var. 


Low S. 


I. Osterh. 




A. tridentata Nutt. ssp. a. 





A. CAMPESTRIS L. ssp. BOREALIS 
(Pall.) Hall & Clements 
var. SCOULERIANA 
(Bess.) Cronq. 
A. c. ssp. pacifica (Nutt.) 
Hall & Clements 
A. c. var. p. Peck 
A. p. Nutt. 
A. ripicola Rydb. 
A. s. Rydb. 
A. CANA Pursh ssp. CANA 
A. columbiensis Nutt. 
A. CANA Pursh ssp. CANA var. 
VISCIDULA Osterh. 
A. c. ssp. V. Beetle 
A. V. Rydb."" 
A. CANA Pursh ssp. BOLANDERI 
(A. Gray) Ward 
A. b. A. Gray 
A. tridentata Nutt. ssp. b. 
Hall & Clements 
A. t. var. b. McMinn 
A. CARRDtHII Wood 

A. bakeri A. Nels. 
A. c. var. wrightii 

(A. Gray) Blake 
A. coloradoensis Osterh. 
A. w. A. Gray 

A. w. var. coloradoensis A. Nels. 
A. DOUGLASIANA Bess. 

A. heterophylla Nutt. 
A. kennedyi A. Nels. 
A. ludoviciana Nutt. var. d. 

dTc. Eaton 
A. vulgaris L. var. d. St. John 
A. V. ssp. h. Hall & Clements 
A. V. var. h. Jeps. 
A. DRACUNCULUS L. 

A. aromatica A. Nels. 

A. dracunculoides Pursh 

A. d. L. ssp. glauca (Pall.) 

Hall & Clements 
A. d. L. var. g. Bess. 
A. g. Pall. 
A. FILIFOLIA Torr. 

A. plattensis Nutt. 



\ 



Silver S. 



Carruth S. 



Tarragon 



A. FRIGIDA WUld. 

Absinthium f. Bess. 



Hall & Clements 
A. t. var. a. McMinn 
A. ARBUSCULA Nutt. var. NOVA 
(A. Nels.) Cronq. 
A. a. ssp. n. Ward 
A. n. A. Nels. 
A. tridentata Nutt. ssp. n. 
" Hall & Clements 

A. t. var. n. McMinn 
A. BIENNIS WiUdT 
A. BIGELOVII A. Gray 

A. petrophila Woot. & Standi. 
A. CAMPESTRIS L. ssp. BOREALIS 
(PaU.) Hall & Clements 
A. b. Pall. 
A. c. ssp. spithamaea (Pursh) 

Hall & Clements 
A. c. var. s. Peck 
A. s. Pursh 



Black S . 



Biennial W. 
Bigelow S . 



A. LUDOVICIANA Nutt. ssp. 
LUDOVICL\NA 
A. argophylla Rydb. 
A. gnaphalodes Nutt. 
A. 1. var. g. Torr. & Gray 
A. rhizomata A. Nels. 
A. silvicola Osterh. 
A. vulgaris L. ssp. g. 

Hall & Clements 
A. V. var. g. Kuntze 
A. V. ssp. 1. Hall & Clements 
A. V. var. 1. Kuntze 
A. LUDO VIC L\NA" Nutt. ssp. LUDO- 
VICIANA var. INCOMPTA 
(Nutt.) Cronq. 
A. atomifera Piper 
A. flodinanii Rydb. 
A. j_. Nutt. 

\. I. var. a. M. E. Jones 
A. 1. ssp. i_. Keck 
A. potens A. Nels. 
A. vulgaris L. ssp. f. Hall & 



Sand S. 
Fringed S. 

Louisiana S. 



A. V. 



Clements 
var. f. Peck 



104 



UTEMISU 



ASrivK 



IISIA L. (con.) 

. LL'DOMCIAXA Nuit. s 

\ICLA\A VJ1-. 

Nult. 
A. caiulicaiis Rvdb. 



,p. LLDO- 
LAFILOBA 



A. gracik-iita A. N'els. 




A. 1 . ssp. c . Keck 




A. 1. (Nun.) Rydb. 




A. paUL-icL'phaki A. XeK. 




A. vulgaris L. ssp. c. Hall 




& Clements 




A. V. var. c . Peck 




LL'DO\ICIANA Nutt. ^sp. ALBULA 




(Woot.) Keck 




A. a. Woot. 




.•\. microcephala Woot., not Hill 




LUDO\ICL\NA Nutt. ssp. MEXICANA 




(WUld.) Keck 




A. 111. WiUd. 




A. underwoodii Rydlj. 




MICHAUXUNA Bess. Michaux 


S 


.\. discolor Dougl . 




A. d. var. glaiiduhfera 




Henders. 




.A. graveolens Rydb. 




A. subglabra A. Nels. 




-A. v-ulgaris L. ssp. d. 




Hall & Clements 




A. V. var. d. Jeps. 




A. V. var. g. (Henders.) Peck 




A. V. ssp. m. St. John 




NORVEGICA Fries var. SAXA- 




TILIS (Bess.) Jeps. 




A. arctica Less. 




A. chamissoniana Bess. 




A. c. var. s. Bess. 




A. n. ssp. s. Hall & Clements 




A. saxicola Rydb. 





A. PAPPOSA Blake & Cronq. 
A.. PARRYl A. Gray 

A. saxicola Rydb. var. p. 
A. Nels. 
A. PEDATIFIDA Nutt. 
A. PYGMAEA A. Gray 
A. RIGIDA (Nutt.) A. Gray 
A. SCOPULORUM A. Gray 
A. SPINESCENS D. C. Eaton 

Picrothamnus desertorum Nutt. 
-\. TRIDENTATA Nutt. ssp. 
TRIDENTATA 
angusta Rydb. 
t. var. angustiiolia A. Gray 



Birdloot S. 



Alpine S. 
Bud S. 



BigS. 



A. 
A. 
A. 



spiciformis is probably a hybrid 
between A. cana and A. 
tridentata, and is placed 
in synonymy here only 
for reference. 
TRIDENTATA Nutt. ssp. ROTHROCKI 
(A. Gray) Hall & Clements 

.A. £. A. Gray 

A. t. var. r. Jeps. 

This taxon is here considered to repre- 
sent only those specimens 
from Eastern California and 
adjacent Nevada. The speci- 
mens from only the north- 
eastern part of the Intermountain 
Region --previously referred to 
A. rothrockii --are found under 
the following subspecies; while 
specimens found in south central 
Utah seem to be an undescribed 
taxon but which are here referred 
to the following taxon 



A. rRIIM'.NrA lA Nutt. ssp. 

V.VSHYANA (Rydb.) Beetle 
A. v. Rydl). 
A. TRIPARTITA Rydb. 

A. tridentata ssp. irifida (Nutt .) 

Hall ti Clemenls 
.\. t. Nuit. , not lurcz. 

;\STER L. (1.=., MA, ilS) 



A. ALPIGENI'S (l.irr. ix Cray) A. 
Gray var. ANDHRSONIl 
(A. Gray) Peck 
A. a. ssp. a. (A. Gray) Onn 
A. a. A. Gray 
Erigeron a. A. Gray 
Oreastrum a. C^reeiie 
A. ALPIGENUS (Torr. S; Gray) A. 
HAYDENIl 



riirectip S. 



A.STER; 
MIC1IA1-: I.MAS 
DAISY 



ALPIGENUS (Torr. 
Gray var. 
(Porter) Cronq. 
A. a. ssp. h. Cronq. 
A. h. Porter 

Oreastrum li. Rydb. or Greene 
A. BRACHYACTlS~Blake 

A. angustus (Lindl.) Torr. & 

Gray, not Nces 
Brachyactis a. Britton 
A. CAMPESTRIS Nutt. var. CAMPESTRIS 
A. CAMPESTRIS Nutt. var. BLOOMERl 
(A. Gray) A. Cray 
A. argillicola Peck 
A. b. A. Gray 
A. c. var. a. Peck 
A. CHfLENSlS Nees ssp. ADSCENDENS 





(Lindl.) Cronq. 




A. 


a. Lindl. 




A. 


a. var. denudatus (Nutt.) 






Torr. & Gray 




A. 


d . Nutt . 




A. 


deserticola Macbr. 




A. 


halophilus Greene 




A. 


leucopsis Greene 




A. 


nelsonii Greene 




A. 


nuttallii Torr. & Gray 




A. 


ramulosus Nutt. 




A. 


subgriseus Rydb. 




EATONIl (A. Gray) Howell 


Eatons A. 


A. 


foliaceus Lindl. var. e. 






A. Grav 




A. 


mearnsii Rydb. 




A. 


oregonus (Nutt.) Torr. & 






Gray of authors, 
this taxon being a 
synonym of A . 
subspicatus Nees 




A. 


proximus Greene 




ENGELMANNll (D. C. Eaton) 






A. Gray 


Engelmann A 


Bucephalus e. Greene 




FOLIACEUS Lindl. var. APRRTJS 


Alpine Leafy 




A. Gray 


brael A. 


A. 


a. Rydb. 




A. 


incertus A. Nels. 




FOLIACEUS Lindl. var. CANBYI 






A. Gray 




A. 


burkeri (A. Gray) Howell 





A. c_. Vasey, not Kuntze 
A. f. var. b. A. Gray 
FOLIACEUS LTndl. var. PARRYl 
(D. C. Eaton) A. Gray 
A. ciliomarginatus Rydb. 
A. f. var. frondeus A. Gray 
A. f. Greene 
A. vaccinus Piper 



105 



ASTER 



BRICKELLU 



Leafy A. 



Siskiyou A. 



ASTER L. (con.) 

A. FRONDOSUS (Nutt.) Torr. & Gray 
A. humistrarus Gandoger 
Brachyactis f. A. Gray 
Tripolium f. Nutt. 
A. GLAUCODES Blake 

A. glaucus (Nutt.) Torr. & 

Gray, not Nees 
Eucephalus g. Nutt. 
A. HESPERIUS A. "Gray var. 
HESPERIUS 
A. coerulescens DC. has been 
used in reference to 
this species; however, 
A. c. is a synonym 
to A. praeatus Poir. 
A. foliaceus var. h. Jeps. 
A. HESPERIUS A. Gray var. LAETE- 
VIRENS (Greene) Cronq. 
A. coerulescens DC. var. 1. 

Cronq. 
A. 1. Greene 
A. osterhoutii Rydb. 
A. INfEGRlFOLIUS Nutt. 

A. amplexifolius Rydb. 
A. INTRICATUS (A. Gray) Blake 

A. carnosa (A. Gray) A. Gray, 
~ not Gilib. 

Bigelovia _i^. A. Gray 
Leucosyris c. (A. Gray) Greene 
A. LAEVIS L. var. GEYERI A. Gray 
A. g. Howell 

A. 1. of western authors, not L. 
A. OCCIDENTALIS (Nutt.) Torr. & 

Gray var. OCCIDENTALIS Western A. 
A. andinus Nutt. 
A. fremontii (Torr. & Gray) 

A. Gray 
Tripolium o. Nutt. 
A. OCCIDENTALIS (Nutt.) Torr. & 
Gray var. INTERMEDIUS 
A. Gray 
A. OCCIDENTALIS (Nutt.) Torr. & 
Gray var. YOSEMITANUS 
(A. Gray) Cronq. 
A. copelandi Greene 



Thickstem A. 



BAHIA Lag. 

B. DISSECTA (A. Gray) Britton 

Amauria d. A. Gray 

Amauriopsis d. Rydb. 

Villanova d. A. Gray 
B. NUDICAULIS~A. Gray 

B. desertorum M. E. Jones 

Plaryschkuria d. Rydb. 

P. integrifolia (A. Gray) Rydb. 
B. OBLONGIFOLIA (A. Gray) A. Gray 

Platyschkuria o. Rydb. 
B. OUROLEPIS Blake" 

BAILEYA Harv. & Gray 

B. MULTIRADIATA Harv. & Gray 

B. m. var. nudicaulis A. Gray 
B. PAUCIRADIATA Harv. & Gray 
B. PERENNIS (A. Nels.) Rydb. 

B. pleniradiata var. p. A. Nels. 
B. PLENIRADIATA Harv. Sl^ray 

B. multiradiata var. p. Gov. 

B. nervosa M. E. Jones 

BALSAMORHIZA Nutt. (316, 317, 318) 
B. HIRSUTA Nutt. 

B. hookeri Nutt. var. h. A. Nels. 
B. HOOKERI Nutt. var. HOOKERI 

B. balsamorhiza (Hook.) Heller 

B. plarylepis Sharp 
B. HOOKERI Nutt. var. HISPIDULA 
(Sharp) Cronq. 

B. h. Sharp 
B. HOOKERI Nutt. var. NEGLECTA 
(Sharp) Cronq. 

B. hirsuta var. n. Sharp 
B. MACROPHYLLA Nutt. 
B. SAGITTATA (Pursh) Nutt. 

B. helianthoides (Nutt.) 

Espeletia h. Nutt. 



BAHL\ 
Ragleaf B. 



Nutt. 



paludicola Piper 



A. y. Greene 
A. PANSUS (Blake) Cronq. 
A. PAUCIFLORUS Nutt. 

A. thermalis M. E. Jones 
A. PERELEGANS A. Nels. & Macbr. 

A. elegans (Nutt.) Torr. & 
Gray, not Willd. 

Eucephalus e. Nutt. 
A. SCOPULORUM A. Gray 

Chry sepsis alpina Nutt. 

Diplopappus a. Nutt. 

lonactis a. Greene 
A. SPINOSUS Benth. 

Leucosyris s. Greene 
A. WASATCHENSIS (M. E. Jones) 
Blake 

A. glaucus (Nutt.) Torr. & 
Gray var. w. 
M. E. Jones 

Eucephalus w. Rydb. 

ATRICHOSERIS A. Gray 

A. PLATYPHYLLA A. Gray 

BACCHARIS L. 

B. EMORYl A. Gray 
B. GLUTINOSA Pers. 

B. SERGILOIDES A. Gray 

B. VIMINEA DC. 

B. WRIGHTII A. Gray 



Nuttall A. 



Crag A. 



Devilweed A. 



TOBACCO -WEED 



BACCHARIS 
Emory B. 
Seepwillow B. 
Squaw B. 
Mulefat B. 



E. s. Nutt. 
B. SERRATA A. Nels. & Macbr. 

BEBBLA Greene 

B. JUNCEA (Benth.) Greene 

B. aspera (Greene) A. Nels. 
B. j. var. a. Greene 

BELLIS L. 

B. PERENNIS L. 

BIDENS L. (311) 

B. BIPINNATA L. 

B. CERNL'A L. 

B. cusickii Greene 
B. glaucescens Greene 
B. lonchophylla Greene 
B. marginata Greene 

B. FRONDOSA L. 

BLEPHARIPAPPUS Hook. 
B. SCABER Hook. 

B. s. var. subcalvus A. Gray 
Ptilonella s. (Hook.) Nutt. 

P. s. var. s, (A. Gray) Greene 

BRICKELLIA Ell. (320) 

B. ATRACTYLOIDES A. Gray 
Coleosanthus a. Kimtze 

C. venulosus A. Nels. 

B. CALIFORNICA (Torr. & Gray) 
A. Gray 
Coleosanthus albicaulis Rydb. 
C. c. Kimtze 
C. tenera (A. Gray) Kuntze 



BAILEYA 
Desert B. 



Leafystem B, 



BALSAMROCr*] 
Hairy B. 

Hooker B. 



Cutleaf B. 
Arrowleaf B. 



BEBBLA 
Rush B. 



DAISY 
English D. 

BEGGAR -TI( 
Spanishneedl 
Nodding B. 



Devils B. 



BRICKELLL 



California B 



106 



RICKELLIA 



RICKE 
B. 



LLIA Ell. (con.) 
DESERTORUM Gov. 

Coleosanihus tl. Gov. 
FRUTESCENS .*i.~Gray 

Colcosanthus f. Kimtzc 
GRANDIFLORA (Itook.) Nun. 

B. umbellata (Greene) A. Nels. 
Goleosanthus g. Kuntze 

G. minor (A. Gray) Daniels 

C. u. Greene 
INGANA A. Gray 

Goleof antlius i. Kuntze 
LON'GI FOLIA S . ~Wat s . 
Goleosanthus 1. Kuntze 



MIGROPHYLLA (Nutt.) A. Gray 
var. MIGROPHYLL.A 
B. grayana Hieron 
Goleosanthus m. Kuntze 
MIGROPHYLLA (Nutt.) A. Gray 
var. SCABRA A. Gray 
B. s. Rob. or A. Nels. 
Goleosanthus s. Greene 
MULTI FLORA KeUogg 

Goleosanthus m. Kuntze 
OBLONGIFOLIA Nutt. var. 
OBLONGIFOLIA 
Goleosanthus o. Kuntze 



B. OBLONGIFOLL\ Nutt. var. 

LINIFOLL»i (D. C. Eaton) 
Rob. 
B. K D. G. Eaton 

B. o. ssp. 1. Cronq. 
Goleosanthus 1. Kuntze 

B. WATSONl Rob. ~ 
Goleosanthus w. Rydb. 

\LYCOSERIS A. Gray 

C. PARRYI A. Gray 
C. WRIGHTII A. Gray 

-VRDUUS L. (308) 
G. NUTANS L. 

liRTHAMUS L. (308) 
G. TINCTORIUS L. 

ivNTALREA L. (308) 
C. GALGITRAPA L. 
G. GYANUS L. 
G. DIFFUSA Lam. 
G. REPENS L. 

G. picris Pall. 
G. SOLSTITLALIS L. 
G. VIRGATA Lam. var. SQUARROSA 
(WUld.) Boiss. 

C. s. WUld. 

(lAENAGTIS DG. (321) 

G. ALPIGENA C. W. Sharsm. 
G. ALPINA (A. Gray) M. E. Jones 
G. a. var. leucopsis (Greene) 



Desert B. 



Rigid B. 



Tasselflower B. 



White B. 



Longleaf B. 



LitUeleal B. 



Inyo B. 



Mohave B. 



Watson B. 



BRISTLETHISTLE 
Musk B. 



Saf flower 



GENTAUREA 



Gornflower 



Russian G. 



C. GUSICKII A. Gray 
C. DOUGLASII (Hook.) Hook. &: Arn. 
var. AGHILLHAEI-OLIA 
(Hook. & Arn.) A. Nels. 
C. a. Hook. S; Am. 
C. angustifolia Greene 
C. brachiata CJreene 
C. cheilantlioides Greene 
G. d. of Iniermountain, Galifornia, 
and Arizona authors, 
not (Hook.) Hook. Sc 
Arn. , a species re- 
stricted to Central 
Washington and ad- 
jacent northern Oregon 
C. DOUGLASII (Hook.) Hook. & Arn. 

var. MONTANA M. F. Jones 
G. d. var. ramosior Gronq. 
C. humilis Rydb. 
G. DOUGLASII (Hook.) Hook. Si Arn. 
var. RUBRIGAULLS (Rydb.) 
Ferris 
C. r. Rydb. 
C. EVERMANNII Greene 

C. mainsiana A. Nels. Si Macbr. 
C. nevadensis (Kellogg) A. Gray 
var. m. Stockwell 
C. FREMONTII A. Gray 
C. MAGRANTHA D. C. Eaton 
C. NEVADENSIS (Kellogg) A. Gray 
C. pumila Greene 
Blake, in Tidestrom, incorrectly 
applied G. alpLna to 
this species. G. n. 
is highly restricted to 
the east slopes of the 
Gascades and Sierra 
Nevada s 
C. STEVIOIDES Hook. Si Arn. var. 
STEVIOIDES 
G. floribunda Greene 
G. latifolia Stockwell 



Yellow G . 



CHAENACTIS 



C. STEVIOIDES Hook. 8i Am. var. 
BRAGHYPAPPA (A. Gray) 
Hall 
C. b. A. Gray 
G. XANTL^NA A. Gray 

C. X. var. integrifolia A. Gray 

GHAETADELPHA A. Gray 

G. WHEELERI A. Gray 

CHAMAECHAENAGTIS Rydb. 

G. SCAPOSA (Eastw.) Rydb. var. 
SGAPOSA 
Actinella carnosa A. Nels. 
Ghaenactis s. Eastw. 





Stockwell 




G. 


a. var. rubella (Greene) 






Stockwell 




G. 


douglasii (Hook.) Hook. 


& 




Am. var. a. A. 


Gray 


G. 


1. Greene 




C. 


r. Greene 




GARPHOCLINL\ A. Gray var. 






GARPHOCLINIA 




G. 


paleolifera A. Nels. 





C. SCAPOSA (Eastw.) Rydb. var. 

PARVA Preece S; Turner 

CHRYSANTHEMUM L. 

G. BALSAMITA L. 

Balsamita b. Rydb. 

B. major Desf. 

C. ni_. Asch. 

C. LEUCANTHEMUM L. 

G. 1. var. pinnatifidum 



CARPHOGLINLA A. Gray var. AT- 
TENUATA (A. Gray) 
M. E. Jones 
C. a. A. Gray 



Lee . Si Lam . 
Leucanthemum 1. Rydb. 
L. vulgarc Lam. 

CHRYSOPSIS Nutt. 

C. JONESII Blake 

C. caespitosa M. E. Jones, 
not Nutt. 



CHRYSANTHE- 
MUM 



Ox -eye -daisy 



GOLDEN ASTER 



107 



CHRYSOPSIS 



CHRYSOTHi 



CHRYSOPSIS Nutt. (con.) 

C. VILLOSA (Pursh) Nutt. var. 
VILLOSA 
C. bakeri Greene 
C. depressa Rydb. 
C. VILLOSA (Pursh) Nutt. var. 
FOLIOS A (Nutt.) 
D. C. Eaton 
This variety has been sparsely 
introduced into 
northern Utah from 
the Great Plains; the 
native material that 
has been called 
"foliosa" is referable 
to the next variety 
C. i_. Nutt. 

C. hirsutissima Greene 
C. mollis Nutt. 
C. VILLOSA (Pursh) Nutt. var. 

HISPIDA (Hook.) A. Gray 
C. axida A. Nels. 
C. fulcrata Greene 
C. resinolens A. Nels. 

ciliata A. Nels. 



Hairy G. 



C. 
C. 



r. var. 
v. var. 



foliosa of Intermountain 



authors, not (Nutt.) D. C. 
Eaton, except as noted 
above 
, viscida A. Gray 



C. V. (A. Gray) Greene 

V. V. (A. Gray) Greene ssp. ( 

Blake 
V. V. (A. Gray) Greene ssp. 

cinerascens Blake 



CHRYSOTHAMNUS Nutt. (5, 9, 322) 

C. ALBIDUS (M. E. Jones) Greene 

Bigelovia a. M. E. Jones 
C. DEPRESSUS Nutt. 

Bigelovia d. A. Gray 
Linosyris d. Torr. 
C. GREENEI (A.~Gray) Greene 
var. GREENEI 
Bigelovia g. A. Gray 
C. pumilus Nutt. var. 

acuminatus A. Nels. 
C. scoparius Rydb. 
C. GREENEI (A. Gray) Greene var. 

FILIFOLIUS (Rydb.) Blake 
C. U Rydb. 

C. g. ssp. f. Hall & Clements 
C. NAUSEOSUS (Pall.) Britton var. 
NAUSEOSUS 
C. collinus Greene 
C. frigidus Greene 
C. pallidus A. Nels. 
C. plattensis (Greene) Greene 
C. NaDsEOSUS (Pall.) Britton var. 

ALBICAULIS (Nutt.) Rydb. 
a. Rydb. 
califomicus Greene 



RABBITBRUSH 
Alkali R. 



Dwarf R . 



Greenes R. 



Ruiiber R. 



C. orthophyllus Greene 
C. pulcherrimus A. Nels. 
C. 
C. 



salicifolius Rydb. 
speciosus Nutt. 



Linosyris a. Torr. & Gray 
NAUSEOSUS (Pall.) Britton var. 
ARTUS (A. Nels) Cronq. 
C. angustus Greene 
C. confinis Greene 



consimilis Greene 

n. ssp. consimilis HaU & 



Clements 
var. consimilis 
var 



Hall 

oreophUus (A. Nels.) 



n. ssp 



Hall 
pinifolius 



(Greene) 



c. 


n. 


c. 


n. 


c. 


n. 


c. 


0. 


c. 


0. 


c. 


P- 



formosus Greene 

n. ssp. a. Hall & Clements 

n. var. c. Hall 

n. ssp. occidentalis (Greene) 



C. n. 
C. n. 



C. o. 



Hall & Clements 
var . o . Hall 
ssp. speciosus (Nutt.) 



var 
ssp 



Hall & Clements 
s. Hall 
salicifolius (Rydb.) 



Hall & Clements 
Greene 



Hall & Clements 
var. p. Hall 
ssp. viridulus (Hall) 
Hall & Clements 
var. V. Hall 
A. Nels. 

var. artus A. Nels. 
Greene 
C. NAUSEOSUS (Pall.) Britton var. 

BIGELOVII (A. Gray) HaU 
Bigelovia b. A. Gray 

B. glareosa M. E. Jones 

C. b. (A. Gray) Greene 
C. g. Rydb. 

C. moquianus Greene 
C^. m^. ssp. b. Hall & Clements 
C^. n. ssp. g. HaU & Clements 
C. n. var. g. Hall 
Lmosyris b. A. Gray 
C. NAUSEOSUS ("Pall.) Britton var. 

GLABRATUS (A. Gray) Cronq. 
Bigelovia graveolens A. Gray 

B. g. var. glabratus A. Gray 

C . graveolens Greene 

C. g. Greene var. g. A. Nels. 
C^. n. ssp. graveolens HaU & 

Clements 
C. n. var. graveolens Hall 
C. virens Greene 
C. NAUSEOSUS (PaU.) Britton var. 

HOLOLEUCUS (A. Gray) Hall 
Bigelovia graveolens A. Gray var. 

h. A. Gray 
C. gnaphalodes Greene 
C . n. ssp. g. (Greene) Hall & 

Clements 
C. n. var. g. (Greene) Hall 
C. n. ssp. h. Hall & Clements 
C. speciosus Nutt. var. g. 
Greene 
C. NAUSEOSUS (Pall.) Britton var. 
JUNCEUS (Greene) Hall 
C. ]. Greene 

C. n. ssp. j. Hall & Clements 
C. NAUSEOSUS (Pall.) Britton var. 

LEIOSPERMUS (A. Gray) Hall 
Bigelovia 1. A. Gray 

B. 1. var. abbreviata M. E. Jones 

C . 1. Greene 

C . n . var . a . Blake 
C. n. ssp. j_. HaU & Clements 
C. NAUSEOSUS (PaU.) Britton var. 

PETROPHILUS Cronq. 
C. NAUSEOSUS (Pan.) Britton var. 

TURBINATA (M. E. Jones) 
Blake 

t. M. E. Jones 

~ Hall & Clements 



C . n. 
C. t. 



ssp. t. 
Rydb.- 



108 



YSOTHAMNUS 



CIRSIUM 



YSOTHAMNUS Nun. (con.) 
C. NAUSEOSUS (Pall.) Brirton ssp. 
\'ISCOSUS Keck, a 
variety or possibly a 
synonym ol C. n. var. 
hololeucus 
C. I'ANICULATUS (A. Gray) Hall Desert R. 

Bigelovia p. A. Gray 
Ericameria p. Rytib. 
C. PARRYl (A. Gray) Greene 

var. PARRYl Parry R. 

Bigelovia p. A. Gray 
C. wyomingensis .\. Nels. 
Linosyris p. A. Gray 
C. PARRYl (A. Gray) Greene var. 
.ASPER (Greene) Munz 
C. a. Greene 

C. p. ssp. a. Hall & Clements 
C. PARRYl (A. Gray) Greene var. 
ATTENUATUS (M. E. 
Jones) Kittell 
C. al'finis A. Nels. 
C. a. A. Nels. var. a. 

(M. E. Jones) A. Nels. 
C. a. Rydb. 

C. p. ssp. a. (M. E. Jones) Hall 
& Clements 
PARRYl (A. Gray) Greene ssp. 

HOWARDl (Parry) Hall & 
Clements 
The necessary varietial combination 
has not yet been made, 
however, the other taxa 
are not changed to con- 
form with this name 
Bigelovia h. Parry 
C. h. Greene 
Linosyris h. Parry 
PARRYl (A. Gray) Greene var. 

MONOCEPH.ALUS (A. Nels. & 
Kennedy) Jeps. 
C. m. A. Nels. & Kermedy 
C. nevadensis (A. Gray) Greene 

var. m. Smiley 
C. p. ssp. m. Hall & Clements 
PARRYl (A. Griy) Greene var. 

NEVADENSIS (A. Gray) Jeps. 
Bigelovia n. A. Gray 

B. howardi var. n. A. Gray 

C. n. Greene 

C. p. ssp. n. Hall & Clements 
Linosyris h. var. n. A. Gray 

PARRYl (A. Gray) Greene var. 

VULCANICUS (Greene) Jeps. 

C. p. ssp. v. Hall & Clements 

C. V. Greene 
PULClfELLUS (A. Gray) Greene Southwest R. 

Bigelovia p. A. Gray 

Linosyris p. A. Gray 
TERETIFOLIUS (Dur. & Hilg.) 

Hall Roundleal K. 

Bigelovia t. A. Gray 

Ericameria t. Jeps. 

Linosyris x_. Dur. & Hilg. 
VASEYI (A. Gray) Greene 

Bigelovia v. A. Gray 



C. g. A. Nels 






C. leucocladu^ 


Greene 




C. serrulatus 


(lorr.) 


Rvdl). 


C. stenolcpis 


Rvdb. 




C. t. Greene 






C. v. var. s. 


dorr.) 


Green 


C. V. var. s. 
C. V . var . 1 . 


(Rydb.) 
Greene 


lilake 


Linosyris s. 


orr. 





C, 



L. V. Torr. >; (;ray 
VLSCIlflFLORUS (Hook.) Nuit . var. 



ELEGANS (Greene) Blake 
C . e . Greene 

C. V. ssp. e. Hall ^ c:ieinents 
C. VISCllIlFLORUS (Hook.) Nun. var. 

HUMILIS (Greene) Jeps. 
C. ii. Greene 

C. V. ssp. h. Hall X; Clements 
C. VISCIDIFLORUS (Hook.) Nutt. var. 

LANCEOLATUS (Nutt.) 

Greene 
Bigelovia 1. A. Gray 
C . K Nutl. 

C. V. ssp. 1. Hall & Clements 
C. VISCIDIFLORUS (Hook.) Nutt. var. 

LATIFOLIUS (D. C. Eaton) 

Greene 
C. K Rydb. 

C. V. ssp. K Hall & Clements 
C. VISCIDIFLORUS (Hook.) Nutt. var. 

LINIFOLIUS (Greene) Kittell 
Bigelovia 1. A. Nels. 
C. l_. Greene 

C. V. ssp. I. Hall & Clements 
C. VISCIDiFLORLis (Hook.) Nutt. var. 

PUBERULUS (D. C. Eaton) 

Jeps . 
C. marianus Rydl5. 



C. p. Greene 

C. v. ssp. p. Hall & Clements 
C. VISCIDIFLORUS (Hook.) Nutt. var. 
PUMILUS (Nutt.) Jeps. 
C. p. Nutt. 

C. V. ssp. p. Hall & Clements 
C. VISCIDIFLORUS (Hook.) Nutt. var. 
STENOPHYLLUS (A. Gray) 
Hall 
C. axillaris Keck 
C . s . Greene 
C. V. ssp. s. Hall S; Clements 

CICHORIUM L. 

C. INTYBUS L. 



Yellowbrush 



Low Douglas R. 



CHICORY 
Common C. 



THLS'lLI- 



C. 



C. bakeri Greene 



VISCIDIFLORUS (Hook.) Nutt. 
var. VISCIDIFLORUS 
Bigelovia douglasii A. Gray 
B. d. var. tortifolia A. Gray 
B. glauca (A. Nels.) Schumann 

B. V. DC. 

C. d. Clements & Clements 



Douglas R. 



CIRSIUM Adans. (1, 5, 308, .i2,i, 324) 
C. ANDERSONII (A. Gray) Petrak 
C. ARIZONICUM (A. Gray) Petrak 
C. ARVENSE (L.) Scop. var. ARVKNSI-; Canada T. 

C. a. var. mite Wimm. & Grab. 
C. ARVEr^E (L.) Scop. var. HORRIDUM 

Wimm. & Grab. 
C. BIPINNATUM (Eastw.) Rydb. 

C. pulchellum (CJreene) Wool. 
(i Standi . var. b. 
Petrak 
C. BRHVIFOLIUM Nun. 

C. pal ou sense Piper 
C. CALCAREUM (M. H. Jones) Wool. 
& Standi. 
Cnicus c. M. K. Jones 
C. CANOVIRENS (Rydb.) Petrak 
Carduus c. Rydb. 



109 



CIRSIUM 



CREPIS 



CIRSIUM Adans. (con.) 

C. CENTAUREAE (Rydb.) K. Schum . 
Carduus americanus (A. Gray) 

Greene, not Rydb. 
C. c. Rydb. 
Cirsium a. Daniels, not 

K. Schum . 
C. remotifolium (Hook.) DC. 
ssp. c . Petrak 
C. CLAVATUM (M. E.'jones) Petrak 

Cnicus c. M. E. Jones 
C. DAVIS II Cronq. 

C. DOUGLASII DC. var. CANESCENS 
(Petrak) J. T. Howell 
C. breweri (A, Gray) Jeps. 
C. b. var. c . Petrak 
C. EATONI (A. Gray) Robins. 

Cnicus e. A. Gray 
C. FLODMANTI (Rydb.) Arthur 
Carduus f. Rydb. 
Cirsium canescens of western 
authors, not Nutt. 
C. FOLIOSUM (Hook.) DC. 

Carduus acaulescens Rydb. 
C. americanus (A. Gray) 

Rydb., not Greene 
C. coloradensis Rydb. 
C. drummondii (Torr. & Gray) 

Rydb- 
C. foliosus Hook, 
laccerus Rydb. 



Elk T. 



longissimus Heller 
oblanceolatum Rydb. 
olivescens Rydb. 
scariosus (Nutt.) Heller 



Cirsium a. (Rydb.) K. Schum. 
C. a. (A .""Gray) K. Schum., 

not Daniels 
C. ^. Cockerell 
C. c. ssp. a. (A. Gray) 

Petrak 
C. c. ssp.j^. (Heller) Petrak 
C . d. TorrT & Gray 
C. d. var. a. (A. Gray) Macbr. 
C. r. (RydbT) Petrak 
C. oblanceolatum K. Schum. 
C. o. (Rydb.) Petrak 
C. s. Nutt. 
C. HALLI (A. Gray) M. E. Jones, 
according to J. T. Howell 
in (1) this species does 
not occur in our area; 
however, it is not known 
at this time what Blake 
(in Tidestrom) had in 
mind when he noted this 
species for the Inter - 
mountain Region 
C. INAMOENSUS Greene 
C. MOHAVENSE (Greene) Petrak 

Carduus m. Greene 
C. NEOMEXICANUM A. Gray 

C. arcuum A. Nels. 
C. NltallLUM (M. E. Jones) Petrak 

Cnicus n. M.E. Jones 
C. OCHROCENTRUM A. Gray 
C. PARRYKA. Gray) Petrak 

Carduus p. A. Gray 
C. PROTEANUM J. T. Howell (1) 

Carduus venustus Greene, not 
Cirsium v. Porta 
C. PULCHELLUM (Greene)~Woot. & Standi. 
Carduus p. Greene 



C. ROTHROCKII (A. Gray) Petrak 

Cnicus diffusus (Eastw.) Eastw. 

C. r. A. Gray 

Cirsium d. Rydb. 
C. RYDBERGIl Petrak 

C. lactycinum Rydb. 
C. SCOPULORUM (Greene) Cockerell 

Carduus s. Green 
C. SUBNIVEUM~Rydb. 
C. TRACYI (Rydb.) Petrak 

Carduus acuatus Osterh. 

C. floccosus Rydb. 

Cirsium a. Rydb. 

C. f_. Rydb. 
C. UNDULATUM (Nutt.) Spreng. 

Carduus u. Nutt. 

Cirsium engelmannii Rydb. 

C. megacephalum (A. Gray) 
Cockerell 
C. UTAHENSE Petrak 

C. humboldtense Rydb. 

C. nevadense (Greene) 

Petrak, not Willk. 

C . waUowense Peck 
C. VULGARE (Savi) Tenore as to 
author, not Airy -Shaw 

Carduus lanceolatus L. 

Cirsium 1. Scop., not Hill 

CNICUS L. (308) 

C. BENEDICTUS L. 

CONYZA Less. (325) 

C. CANADENSIS (L.) Cronq. 
Erigeron c. L. 
E. c. var. glabratus A. Gray 
C. c. var. g. Cronq. 
Leptilon c. Britton 

COREOPSIS L. 

C. TINCTORIA Nutt. 

Calliopsis t . DC . 



Wavyles,'! 



BLESSE,! 
THIST '^ 



TICKSI : 
Plains ' 



HAWK' 



CREPIS L. (326, 327) 

Babcock & Stebbins have recog- 
nized numbrous 
apomictic populations, 
but because these are 
not considered as 
taxonomical units they 
are not treated here 
C. ACUMINATA Nutt. ssp. 

ACUMINATA Tapertr1)|| 

C. angustata Rydb. 
C. sessilifolia ("seselifolia") 
Rydb. 
C. ACUMINATA Nutt. ssp. PLURl- 

FLORA Babcock & Stebbins 
C. ATRABARBA Heller ssp. ATRABARBA 
C. exilis Osterh. 
C. gracilis (D. C. Eaton) Rydb.. 
not Hook. f. & Thomps. 
C. ATRABARBA Heller ssp. ORIGINALIS 
(Babcock & Stebbins) Bab- 
cock & Stebbins 
C. exilis Osterh. ssp. o. 

Babcock & Stebbins 
C. BAKERI Greene ssp. BAKERl 



BAKERl Green ssp. CUCICKII 

(Eastw.) Babcock & Stebbins 
C. c. Eastw. 



110 



iPIS 



I'RIGKKON 



IPIS 
C. 



L. (con.) 
IJARIJIC.ERA Leib. 

"The name C. barbigera is applied 
for convenience to a 
group of polyploid-apo- 
mictic forms, probably 
derived by hybridi- 
zation among C. modo- 
censis, C. acuminata, 
and C. atrabarta." 
Cronquist (5: \'ol . 5, 
151, 1955) 
lNTERMEDL-\ A. Gray Gray H. 

C. acuminata var. i. Jeps. 

"The name C. intermedia is 
applied for con- 
venience to a group 
of polyploid-apomicts 
iinvolving C. occi- 
dentalis, C. acuminata 
and/or C. pleurocarpa, 
and sometimes C. modo- 
censis or C. atrabarba 



C. 



as well." Cronquist loc. 
cit . pg. 152 
MODOCENSIS Greene ssp. MODOCENSIS 

C. scopulorum Gov. 
MODOCENSIS Greene ssp. SUBACAULIS 
(Kellogg) Babcock & Stebbins 
C. occidentalis Nutt. var. nevadensis 

Kellogg, in part 
C. o. var. s. Kellogg 
C. s. Gov." 
MONTICOLA Gov. 
NANA Richards. 

Youngia n. Rydb. 
OCCIDENTALIS Nutt. ssp. 

OCCIDENTALIS 
OCCIDENTALIS Nutt. ssp. 

CONJUNCTA Babcock & 
Stebbins 
OCCIDENTALIS Nutt. ssp. 
COSTATA (A. Gray) 
Babcock & Stebbins 
G. grandifolia Greene 
C. o. var. c . A. Gray 
OCCIDENTALIS" Nutt. ssp. PUMILA 
(Rydb.) Babcock & Stebbins 
C. p. Rydb. 
RUNCINATA Games) Torr. & Gray 
ssp. RUNCINATA 
alpicola (Rydb.) A. Nels. 
biennis Hook., not L. 



Siskiyou H. 
Tiny H. 



Western H. 



Dandelion H. 



denticulata Rydb. 
glaucella Rydb. 
perplexans Rydb. 
riparia A. Nels. 



C. RUNCINATA (James) lorr. (i 

Gray ssp. IMBRICA lA 
BalKock S; Stebbins 

DICORIA Torr. & Gray 

D. BRANDEGEl A. Gray 

D. CANESCENS lorr. & Gray ssp. 
CANESCENS 
D. oblongifulia Rydb. 
D. CANESCENS Torr. St Gray ssp. 
CLARKAE (Kennedy) 
Keck 
D. c. Kennedy 
D. PANICDlATA Eastw. 
D. WETHERILLII Eastw. 

DIMERESIA A. Gray 

D. HOWELLII A. Gray 

Ereminula h. Greene 

DYSSODIA Cav. 

D. AGEROSA DC. 
D. COOPERl A. Gray 

Clomenocoma laciniata Rydli. 
Lcbetina c. A. Nels. 
D. PENTACHAETA (DC.) Robins. 
D. POROPHYLLOIDES A. Gray 

D. THURBERl (A. Gray) A. Nels. 

D. cupulata A. Nels. 
Tliymophylla t. Woot. & Standi. 

E ATONE LLA A. Gray 

E. NIVEA (D. C. Eaton) 

Actinolepis n. A. Gray 
Burrielia n. D. C. Eaton 

ENCELIA Adans. (328) 

E. FARINOSA A. Gray 
E. FRUTESCENS (A. Gray) A. Gray 
var. FRUTESCENS 
Simsia f. A. Gray 
E. FRUTESCENS (A. Gray) A. Gray 

var. ACTONl (Elmer) Blake 

E. a. Elmer 

E. virginensis A. Nels. ssp. 
a. Keck 
E. FRUTESGENsIa. Gray) A. Gray 

var. RESINOSA M. E. Jones 
E. FRUTESCENS (A. Gray) A. Gray 
var. VIRGINENSIS (A. 
Nels.) Blake 
E. V. A. Nels. 

ENCELIOPSIS (A. Gray) A. Nels. (328) 
E. ARGOPHYLLA (D. C. Eaton) 
A. Nels. 
Encelia a. A. Gray 



DOG WEED 
Prickleaf D. 



EATONELLA 
Sierra E. 



ENCELIA 

Wliite Brittlebush 



Bush E. 



ENCELIOPSIS 
Silverleaf E. 



■ C. 



r_. var. parva A. Nels. 
_ T_. Torr. & Gray var. a 
C. tomentulosa Rydb. 



Rydb. 



RUNCINATA Qames) Torr. & Gray 
ssp. GLAUCA (Nutt.) Bab- 
cock & Stebbins 

C. g. Nutt. 
RUNCINATA Oames) Torr. & Gray 
ssp. HALLII Babcock & 
Stebbins 
RUNCINATA Games) Torr. & Gray 
ssp. HISPIDULOSA (Howell) 
Babcock & Stebbins 

C. aculeolata Greene 

C. obtusisslma Greene 

C. pallens Greene 

C. petiolata Rydb. 

C. platyphylla Greene 



E. NUDICAULIS (A. Gray) A. Nels. 


Barestem i;. 


Encelia n. A. Gray 




Enceliopsis tuta A. Nels. 




E. NUTANS (Eastw.) A. Nels. 




Encelia n. Eastw. 




Verbesina scaposa M. E. Jones 




ERIGERON L. (324) 


DAISY; FLEA 




BANE 


E. ABAJOENSIS Cronq. 




E. ACRIS L. var. ASTEROIDKS 




(Andrz.) DC. 




E. acris of American authors. 




in part, not L. 




E. a. Andrz. 




E. lapilutens A. Nels. 





ERIGERON 



ERIGER 



ERIGERON L. (con.) 

E. ACRIS L. var. DEBILIS A. Gray 
E. d. Rydb. 
E. jucundus A. Nels. 
E. nivalis Nuct. 
E. APHANACTIS (A. Gray) Greene 
var. APHANACTIS 
E. concmnus Torr. & Gray 
var. a. A. Gray 
E. APHANACTIS (A. Gray) Greene var. 
CONGESTUS (Greene) Cronq. 
E. c. Greene 
E. ARENARIOIDES (D. C. Eaton) Rydb. 
Aster a. D. C. Eaton 
E. stenophyllus D. C. Eaton, not 
Hook. & Arn. 
E. ARGENT ATUS A. Gray 

Wyomingia a. A. Nels. 
E. ASPERUGINEUS (D. C. Eaton) A. Gray 
Aster a. D. C. Eaton 
E. elkoensis A. Nels. & Macbr. 
E. BELLIDL\STRUM Nutt. 
E. arenarius Greene 
E. divergens Torr. & Gray var. 

a. A. Nels. 
E. eastwoodiae Woot. & Standi. 



COMPOS ITUS Pursh var. 

GLABRATUS Macoun 



E. BLOOMERI A. Gray 

E. fUifolius Nutt. var. b. 
A. Nels. 
E. BREWERI A. Gray var. BREWERI 
E. BREWERI A. Gray var. PORPHY- 
RETICUS (M. E. Jones) 
Cronq. 
E. foliosus Nutt. var. p. 

Compton 
E. petrocallis Greene 
E. p. M. E. Jones 
E. CAESPTTOSUS Nutt. 

E. c. var. laccoliticus 
M, E. Jones 
E. canescens (Hook.) Torr. & 
Gray, not Hook. & 
Arn. 
E. subcanescens Rydb. 
E. CANUS A, Gray 

Wyomingia c. A. Nels. 
E. CHRYSOPSIDIS~A. Gray ssp. 

CHRYSOPSIDIS 
E. CHRYSOPSIDIS A. Gray ssp. 

AUSTINAE (Greene) Cronq. 
E. a. Greene 
E. CLOKEYI Cronq. 
E. COMPACTUS Blake var. COMPACTUS 

E. pulvinatus Rydb., not Webb. 
E. COMPACTUS Blake var. CONSIMILIS 
(Cronq.) Blake 
E. c. Cronq. 
E. COMPOSITUS Pursh var. COMPOSl- 
TUS 
E. c. var. submontanus Peck 
E. COMPOSITUS Pursh var. DIS - 
COIDEUS A. Gray 
E. c. var. trifidus (Hook.) 

A. Gray 
E . gormani Greene 
E. multifidus Rydb. var. d. 



Bloomer F . 



Tufted F . 



Hoary F. 



Fernleaf F. 



Rydb. 
pedatus Nutt . 



Hook . 

var. deficiens Macbr. & 



Pays. 
t_. var. d. (A. Gray) A. Nels. 
t. var. prasinus Macbr. & Pays. 



E. 


c. 


var. 


breviradiatus A. Nels. 


E. 


c. 


var. 


incertus (A. Nels.) 








A. Nels. 


E. 


c. 


var. 


multifidus (Rydb.) 
Macbr. & Pays. 


E. 


c. 


var. 


petraeus Macbr. & Pays 



E. m. Rydb. 
E. m. var. i. A. Nels. 
CORYMBOSUS Nutt. 
E. nelsonii Greene 



COULTERI Porter 

E. frondeus Greene 

E. leptophyllus Greene 

E. leucanthemoides Greene 

E. lucidus Greene 
CRONQUISTII Maguire 
DISPARIPILUS Cronq. 
DIVERGENS Torr. & Gray var. 
DIVERGENS 

E. accedens Greene 

E. divaricatus Nutt., not Michx. 

E. furcatus Greene 

E. gracillimus Greene 

E. incomptus A. Gray 

E. lavandulaceus Greene 
DIVERGENS Torr. & Gray var. 
CINEREUS (A. Gray) 
A. Gray 



Purpled 



Coulter 



Spreadil 





E. c. A. Gray 

E. d. var. nudiflorus (Buckl. 




A. Nels. 




E. n. Buckl. 


E. 


EATONII A. Gray var. EATONII 




E. microlonchus Greene 


E. 


EATONII A. Gray var. PLANTA- 




GINEUS (Greene) Cronq. 




E. e. ssp. p. Cronq. 
E. p. Greene 




E. sormei Greene 



Eaton 1 1 



E. 


ELATIOR (A. Gray) Greene 
E. grandiflorus Hook. var. 
e. A. Gray 


Tall F. 


E. 


ELEGANTULUS Greene 
E. linearis (Hook.) Piper 

var. e. J. T. Howell 




E. 


ENGELMANNII A. Nels. 
E. simulans Greene 


Engeirr i 


E. 


FILIFOLIUS (Hook.) Nutt. 


Thread ' 


E. 


FLAGELLARS A. Gray var. 






FLAGELLARIS 


Trail inn 




E. macdougalii Heller 






E. peasei Rydb. 






E. stolonifer Greene 




E. 


FLAGELLARIS A. Gray var. 
TRILOBATUS Magtiire 




E. 


FORMOSISSIMUS Greene var. 
FORMOSISSIMUS 
E. fruticetorum Rydb. 
E. hirtuosus Greene 




E. 


FORMOSISSIMUS Greene var. 

VISCIDUS (Rydb.) Cronq. 
E. eximius Greene 
E. rubicundus Greene 
E. scaberulus Greene 
E. smithii Rydb. 
E. subasper Greene 




E. 


GARRETTII A. Nels. 

E. controversus Greene 




E. 


GLABELLUS Nutt. 

E. oblanceolarus Rydb. 


Smooth ■; 



See Cronquist for complete synonymy 



112 



RON 



l-KIOI'IIYI.I.HM 



RO\ L. (con.) 

INORNATUS (A. Gray) A. Gray 
JOXESU Cronq. 

LATUS (A. Nc'ls. 4; Macbr.) Cronq. 
E. poliospernius A. Gray 
var . J_. A. Xels. 
& Macbr. 
LEIO.MERL'S A. Gray 

E. linearis (Hook.) Piper 
E. luteus A. Nels. 



minusculus Greene 
peucephyllus A. Gray 
spaUiulUohus Rydb. 



LOXCHOPHYLLL'S Hook. 
E. minor (Hook.) Rydb. 
E. racemosus Nutt. 



Spearleaf !■" 



MAGUIREI Cronq. 
MANCUS Rydb. 
E. pinnaliseclus 



_ (A. Gray) 
A. .Nels. var. 
insolens Macbr. 





& Pav 














MELANOCEPHALUS 


(A. 


Nels. 


) 








A. Nels. 














E. 


unLflorus L. var. 


m 


A 


. Nels 






NA.N-LIS Nutt. 










Dwarf F 


E. 


inamoenus .\. 


Nels. 
Jones) 


A. 


Nels. 






NAU5 


jEOSUS (M. E. 





E. caespitosus var. n. 
E. Jones 



M. 



NEVADINCOLA Blake 

E. nevadensis .^. CJray, 
not Webb 

OVINTJS Cronq. 

E. caespitosus var. anactis 



Blaice 
PERGRLNUS (Pursh) Greene ssp. 

CALLI/\NTHEMUS (Greene) 
Cronq. 
c. Greene 
membranaceus Greene 



E. 

E. 
E. 
E. 



regalis Greene 
salsuginosus of authors, not 
(Rich.) A. Gray, a 
synonym to .Aster 
sibiricus L. 
PEREGRLNUS (Pursh) Greene ssp. 

CALLIANTHEMUS (Greene) 
Cronq. var. A.NGUSTl- 
FOLIUS (A. Gray) Cronq. 
E. a. Rydb. 

E. hesperocaJlis Greene 
E. loratus Greene 
I'lREGRINUS (Pursh) Greene ssp. 

CALLIANTHEMUS (Greene) 
Cronq. var. HIRSUTUS Cronq. 
! I-.REGRIiNUS (Pursh) Greene ssp. 

CALLDVNTHEMUS (Greene) 
Cronq. var. SCAPOSUS 
(Torr. & Gray) Cronq. 
E. glacial is (Nutt.) A. Nels. 
PEflOLARB Greene 
E. algidus Jeps. 
PHILADELPHICUS L. Pliiladelphia 

POLIOSPERMUS A. Gray 
PULCHERRIMUS Heller var. 
PULCHERRIMUS 
E. gray! Heller 
E. stenophyllus A. Gray, not 

Hook. & Arn. 
Wyomingia p. A. Nels. 
Pl'LCHERRIMUS Heller var. 

WYOMlNGbV (Rydb.) Cronq. 
E. w. Rydb. 
Wyomingia cinerea A. Nels. 



E. PUMILUS Nutt. ssp. PUMILUS 

H. hirsutus Pursli, not Lour. 
E. PUMILUS Nutt. ssp. CONCIN- 
NOIDES Crom|. 
E. ^oncinnus A. Gray 
E. setulosus Greent' 
E. PUMILUS Nutt. ssp. CONCIN- 
NOIDES Cronq. var. 
CONDENSATUS (D. c:. 
Eaton) CroiH|. 
\i. c. (M'eene 
E. W'yomingensis A. Nels. 
E. PUMILUS Nutt. ssp. INTER - 
MEDIUS Cronq. 
E. hispidissimus Piper 
E. PUMILUS Nutt. ssp. INTER- 
MEDIUS Cronq. var. 
GRACILIOR Cronq. 
E. PYGMAEUS (A. Gray) Greene 
E. nevadensis A. Gray var. 
p. A. Gray 
E. RELIGIOSUS Cl'onq. 
E. SIMPLEX Greene 

E. leucotrichus Rydb. 
E. tiniflorus of Intcrniountain 
authors, not L. 
E. SIONIS Cronq. 
E. SPECIOSUS (Lindl.) DC. var. 
SPECIOSUS 
E. salictnus Rydb. 
E. SPEtlOSUS (Lindl.) DC. var. 
MACRANTHUS(Nutt.) 
Cronq. 
E. leiophyllus Greene 
E. m. Nutt. 
E. STRIGOSUS Muhl. var. STRIGOSUS 
E. ambiguus Nutt. 
E. ramosa Britton, Sterns, St 
Fogg. , not Raf . 
E. STRIGOSUS Muhi. var. SEPTEN- 

TRIONALIS (Fern, i Wicg.) 
Fern. 
E. SUBTRINERVIS Rydl). 

E. bakeri Woot. iiStantU. 
E. tncanescens Rydb. 
E. SUFeRBUS Greene 

E. apiculatus Greene 
E. eldensis Greene 
E. TENER (A. Gray) A. Gray 

E. copelandii Eastw. 
E. UINTAHENSIS Cronq. 
E. UNCIALIS Blake var. CONJUGANS 
Blake 
E. u. of Intermoimtain autliors, 

not Blake 
E. u. ssp. c. Cronq. 
E. URSINIJS D. C7 Eaton 
E. UTAHENSIS A. Gray var. 

UTAHENSLS 
E. UTAHENSIS A. Gray var. SPAKSI- 
FOLWS (l-:astw.) Cronq. 
E. s. Eastw. 
Wyomingia vivax A. Nels. 
E. UTAHENSIS A. Gray var. TETRA- 
PLEURIS (A. Gray) Cronq. 
E. U Heller 
E. VAGUS Pays. 
E. WATSONI (A. c;ray) c:ronq. 
Aster w. A. Gray 
Asterigeron w. Rydb. 

ERIOPHYLLUM Lag. (3,30) 

E. AMBIGUUM (A. Gray) A. Gray 
Bahia a_. A. Gray 
Lasthenia a. A. Gray 



Oregon 1- . 



Threenerve I' 



Bear River F 



ERIOPHYLLUM 



ERIOPHYLLUM 



GRINDEJ 



ERIOPHYLLUM Lag. (con.) 

E. LANATUM (Pursh) Forbes var. 
LANATUM 
Bahia l_. DC . 
E. caespitosum Dougl. 
Constance states that this taxon 
is not found in our 
range; however, it 
is represented in 
our area by the fol- 
lowing taxa 
E. LANATUM (Pursh) Forbes var. 
ACHILLAEOIDES (DC.) 
Jeps. 
Bahia a. DC. 
E. a. Greene 
E. LANATUM (Pursh) Forbes var. 

CORCEUM (Greene) Jeps. 
E. chrysanthum Rydb. 
E. c. Greene 
E. LANATUM (Pursh) Forbes var. 

INTEGRIFOLIUM (Hook.) 
Smiley 
Bahia cuneata Kellogg 
E. c_. Rydb. 
E. i. Greene 
E. leucophyllum (D. C. Eaton) 

Rydb., not DC. 
E. nevadense Gandoger 
E. trie hoc arpum Rydb. 
E. watsoni A. Gray 
E. LANATUM (Pursh) Forbes var. 

MONOENSE (Rydb.) Jeps. 
E. lutescens Rydb. 
E . m . Ry db . 
E. LANOSUM (A. Gray) A. Gray 
Actinolepis 1. A. Gray 
Antheropeas 1. Rydb. 
E. PRINGLEI A. Gray 

Actinolepis p. Greene 
E. WALLACEI (ATCray) A. Gray 
Actmolepis w. A. Gray 
Antheropeas w. Rydb. 
Bahia w. A. Gray 
E. w. var. calvescens Blake 



WooUy E . 



F. DUMOSA A. Gray 

F. albicaulis Torr. 
F. d. var. a. A. Gray 
Gaertneria d. Kuntze 

F. ERIOCENTRATl. Gray 
Gaertneria e. Kuntze 

F. LINEARIS Rydb. 

Gaertneria 1. Rydb. 

GAILLARDIA Foug. (331) 



G. ARISTATA Pursh 

G. hallii Rydb. 
G. ARIZONICA A. Gray var. 
ARIZONICA 
G. a. var. pringlei (Rydb.) 
Blake 
crinita Rydb. 



White B. 



Woolly B. , 



I 

gaillarJ 

BLANKE " 

FLO we: 



G. 
G. 
G. 



pedunculata A. Nels. 
p. Rydb. 
G. FLAVA Rydb. 

A form of G. pinnatifida 
G. MEARNSII Rydb. 

G. crassifolia A. Nels. 

G. straminea A. Nels. 
G. MULTICEPS Greene 
G. PARRYI Greene 

G. acaulis A. Gray, not Pursh 
G. PINNATIFIDA Torr. 

G. crassa Rydb. 

G. globosa A. Nels. 

G. gracilis A. Nels. 
G. SPATHULATA A. Gray 

GALINSOGA Ruiz & Pav. 

G. PARVIFLORA Cav. 

GERAEA Torr. & Gray 

G. CANESCENS Torr. & Gray 

GLYPTOPLEURA D. C. Eaton 

G. MARGINATA D. C. Eaton 
G. SETULOSA A. Gray 

G. marginata var. s. Jeps. 



QUICKWE 
Littleflow 

DESERTG 



EUPATORIUM L. 

E. HERBACEUM (A. Gray) Greene 

E. arizonicum (A. Gray) Greene 
E. MACULATUM L. var. BRUNERI 
(A. Gray) Breitung 
E. atromontanum A. Nels. 
f. b. A. Gray 
E. m. of western authors, not L. 

E. OCCIDYntALE Hook. 

E. 0. var. decomplex A. Nels. 

FILAGO L. 

F. CALIFORNICA Nutt. 

FLAVERIA Juss. 

F. CAMPESTRIS J. R. Johnst. 

F . angustifolia of Intermountain 

authors, not Pers. 

FRANSERIA Cav. 

F. ACANTHICARPA (Hook.) Gov. 
F. hookcriana Nutt. 
F . montana Nutt . 

F. palmeri Rydb. 
Gaertneria a. Brirton 

G. h. Kuntze 
F. DISCOLOR Nutt. 

F. tomentosa 



EUPATORIUM 



GNAPHALIUM L. 



CHILENSE Spreng. 

G. proximum Greene 

G. sulphurescens Rydb. 
GRAY! A. Nels. & Macbr. 

G. strictum A. Gray, not Moench. 
MACOUNII Greene 
PALUSTRE Nutt. 

G. gossypinuni Nutt. 



CUDWEEI 

EVERU 

Cottonban 



G. ULIGINOSUM L. 



FLUFFWEED 
California F. 



BURSAGE 



Skeleton Leaf B. 



Gaertneria 



_ (Nutt.) A. 
not A. Gray 
t. Heller 



Nels., 



DE 


LL\ WUld. (332) 


GUMWEEi 
GUMPU 
RESINW: 


G 


APHANACTIS Rydb. 

G . f astigiata of Intermountain 
authors, in part, 
not Greene 




G 


CAMPORUM Greene 


Field G. 


G 


FASTIGIATA Greene, as defined 
in Steyermark, not in 
Tidestrom 




G. 


LACINIATA Rydb. 

G. subincisa of Intermountain 





authors, not Greene 
G. NANA Nutt. var. NANA 



LowG. 



114 



DELL-\ 



IIAPLOPAPPUS 



DELIA Willd. (con.) 
G. NANA Nun. var. INTEGERRIMA 
(Rydb.) Steyerin. 
G . brownii Hellei" 
G. u Rydb. 

G. n. var. altissima Steyerm. 
G. n. var. paysonorum (St. Jolin) 

Steyerm . 
G. p. St. John 
G. SQU.ARROSA (Pursh) Duiial var. 
SQUARROSA 
SQUARROS.A (Pursh) Dunal var. 
QUASIPERRENNIS Lunell 
G. perennis A. Nels. 
SQUARROSA (Pursh) Dunal var. 
SERRULATA (Rydb.) 
Steyerm. 
G. s. Rydb. 



Curlycup G. 



MATCHBRUSH; 
SNAKEWEED 
Threadleaf S. 



IpKKliZIA Lag. (J33) 

MICROCEPH.'\LA (DC.) A. Gray 
G . lucida (Greene) Greene 
G. sarothrae (Pursh) Britton 
S; Rusby var . m . 
L. Benson 
Xanthocephalum 1. Greene 
X. m. Shinners 
SAROfHRAE (Pursh) Britton 

& Rusby Broom S . 

G. diversifolia Greene 
G. divaricata (Nutt.) Torr. & Gray 
G. euthamiae (Nutt.) Torr. & Gray 
G . ionensis Lunell 



Xanthocephalum s. Shinners 

JPAPPUS Cass. (334) 

(Often speUed "Aplopappus;" 

however, by inter- 
national agreement, 
the correct spelling 
is as indicated) 
\CAUL1S (Nutt.) A. Gray 
var. ACAULIS 
H. nevadensis Kellogg 

E. Jones 



GOLDENWEED 



1. 



Stemless G. 



Hoorebekia 


a. M. 


Stenotus a. Nutt. 
S. rudis A. Nels. 
S. scaber A. Nels 



ACAULIS (Nutt.) A. Gray var. 

GLABRATUS D. C. Eaton 

H_. a. ssp. g. Hall 

H. falcatus jRydb.) Blake 

H. nelsoni Blake 

Hoorebekia a. var. caespitosa 

~ ' "(Nutt.) M. E. Jones 

Stenotus a_. Nun. var. kennedyi 
Jeps. 

S. caespitosa Nun. 

S . i_. Rydb. 

S. latifolius A. Nels. 
APARGIOIDES A. Gray 

Pyrrocoma a. Greene 

P. demissa Greene 



ARMERIOIDES (Nutt.) A. Gray 

Stenotus a . Nun . 
BLOOMERl A. Gray 

Chrysothamnus b. Greene 

Ericameria b. Macbr. 

H. b. ssp. angustatus 

(A. Gray) Hall 

H. b. var. a. A. Gray 
BRICKELLIOIDES Blake 



Rabbitbrush G. 



Brickell G. 



CARTIIAMOIDES (Hook.) A. Gray 
var. CUSICKII A. (Iray 

H. c. ssp. c_. Hall 

Hoorebekia c. Piper var. c. Piper 

Pyrrocoma c . Greene 
CERVINUS S. Wats. 

Ericameria c. Rydb. 

H. nanus (Xun.) D. C. Ealon 
var. c . A. Gray 
CLEMENTIS (Rydb.J Blake 

Pyrrocoma c. Rydb. 

P. subcaesia Greene 
CONTRACTUS Hall 

Pyrrocoma acuminata Rydb., 
not H. c^. DC. 
COOPERI (A. Gray) Hall Cooper G 

Acamptopappus microcephalus 





M. E. Jones 






Bigelovia c . A. Gray 






Ericameria c. Hall 






H. monactis A. Gray 




H. 


CROCEUS A. Gray 

Pyrrocoma c. Greene 




H. 


CUNEATUS A. Gray 

H. c. ssp. spathulatus 

(A. Gray) Blake 


Wcdgeleal ( 


H. 


DRUMMONDI (Torr. & Blake) lilake 




H. 


GOODDINGII (A. Nels.) Munz & 
Johnst . 
H. spinulosus (Pursh) DC. ssp. 

g. Blake or Hall 
Sideranthus g. A. Nels. 




H. 


GRACILIS (Nutt.) A. Gray 
Eriocarpum g. Greene 
Sideranthus g. A. Nels. 




H. 


GREENEl A. Gray 

H. g. ssp. mollis (A. Gray) Hall 
H. g. var. m. A. Gray 
Hoorebekia g. ssp. m. Piper 
Macronema g. Greene 
M. g. var. m. Jeps. 


Greenes G. 



M. m. Greene 
H1RTUS~A. Gray var. HIRTUS 

Hoorebekia h. Piper 

Pyrrocoma h. Greene 
HIRTUS A. Gray var. LANULOSUS 
(Greene) Peck 

H. h. ssp. U Hall 

Pyrrocoma 1. (Henders.) Heller 

P. pratensis Greene 
INSECTICRURIS Henders. Wholcleaf G. 

H. integrtfolius A. Gray ssp. 
~ j_. HaJl 

Pyrrocoma i. Greene 

P. lapathifolia Greene 
LANCEOLATUS (Hook.) Torr. & 

Gray var. LANCEOLATUS LancelcalG. 

H. I. ssp. subviscosus (Greene) 
Hall 

H. 1. ssp. vaseyi (Parry) Hall 

H. 1. var. v. Parry 

H . "s. Blake" 

Homopappus multiflorus Nutt. 

Hoorebekia I. M. E. Jones 

Pyrrocoma kennedyi A. Nels. 

P. 1. Greene 

P. s. Greene 

P. V. Greene 
LANCEOLATUS (Hook.) Torr. & 

Gray var. TENUICAULIS A. Gray 

H. 1. ssp. solidaginac (Greene) Hall 

iT. 1. ssp. U Hall 

Pyrrocoma cheiranthifolia Cireene 

P. s. Greene 

P. t. Greene 



115 



HAPLOPAPPUS 



HELIAN' 



HAPLOPAPPUS Cass, (con.) 

H. UNEARIFOLIUS DC. 

H. interior Cov. 

H. L ssp.h Hall 

H. 1. var. i. M. E. Jones 

Stenotopsis i. Rydb. 

S. l_. Rydb.~ 

S. 1. var. i. Macbr. 

Stenotus i. Greene 

S. U ToFr. & Gray 

S. T. ssp. i_. Hall 
H. LYALLI A. oTay 

Hoorebekia 1 . Piper 

Pyrrocoma 1. Rydb. 

Tonestus 1. A. Nels. 
H. MACRONEMA A. Gray 

Bigelovia m. M. E. Jones 

H. m. ssp. linearis 
~ (Rydb.) Hall 

Macronema 1. Rydb. 

M. obtusum Rydb. 
H. NAKUS (Nutt.) D. C. Eaton 

Ericameria n. Nutt. 
H. PARRYI A. Gray 

H. p. var. minor A. Gray 

Oreochrysum p. Rydb. 

Solidago p. Greene 

S. p. var. m. Greene 
H. RACEMOSUS (¥utt.) Torr. ssp. 

GLOMERATUS (Nutt.) Hall 

H. eriopodus (Greene) Blake 

H. paniculatus (Nutt.) A. Gray 

H. p. var. stenocephalus A. Gray 

H. r. of Intermountain authors, 
not (Nutt.) Torr. 

H. r. Nutt. 

H. r. ssp. duriusculus (Greene) 
H5i 

H. £. var. d. Peck 

H. r_. ssp. prionophyllus 
(Greene) Hall 

H. £. var. glomerellus A. Gray 

Homopappus argutus Nutt. 

H. glomeratus Nutt. 



Narrowleaf G. 



White stem G. 



Dwarf G . 



H. p. Nutt. 

H. r. Nutt. 

Hoorebekia r . Piper 

Pyrrocoma a. Torr. & Gray 

P. d. A. Neis. 

P. d. Greene 

P. e. Greene 

P. glomerata Torr. & Gray 

P. microdonta Greene 

P. p. Greene 
H. RACEMOSUS (Nutt.) Torr. ssp. 

SESSILIFLORUS (Greene) Hall 

Pyrrocoma s. Greene 
H. RADIATUS (NuTt.) Cronq. 

Pyrrocoma r. Nutt. 
H. RYDBERGII Blake 
H. SCOPULORUM (M. E. Jones) Blake 

Hesperodoria s. Greene 

Isocoma s. Rydb. 
H. SPINULOSUS~"(Pursh) DC. var. 

TURBINELLUS (Rydb.) Blake 

Eriocarpum australe Greene 

H. s_. of Intermountain authors, not 
^rsh) DC. 

H. s. ssp. a. Hall 

Sideranthus a. Rydb. 

S. puberulus Rydb. 

S. £. Rydb. 
H. STENOPHYLLUS A. Gray 

Hoorebekia s. Piper 

Stenotus s . Greene 



H. SUFFRUTICOSUS (Nutt.) A. Gray Singlehes 

Macronema grindelifolium Rydb. 

M. imbricatum A. Nels. 

M. s. Nutt. 
H. UNIFLORUS (Hook.) Torr. & Gray 

var. UNIFLORUS Plantain i 

H. inuloides (Nutt.) Torr. & Gray 

Homopappus i. Nutt. 

Homopappus u. Nutt. 

Hoorebekia u. M. E. Jones 

Pyrrocoma crepidinea Greene 

P. hololeuca Greene 

P. i. Greene 

P. sericea Greene 

P. u. Greene 
H. UNTfLORUS (Hook.) Torr. & Gray 

var. HOWELLII (A. Gray) Peck 

H. h. A. Gray 

H. u. ssp. h. Hall 
H. WATSONI A. Gray 

Macronema w. Greene 

HECASTOCLEIS A. Gray 

H. SHOCKLEYI A. Gray 

HELENIUM L. SNEEZE\ 

H. AUTUMNALE L. var. 

MONTANUM (Nutt.) Fern. 
H. a. of western authors, not L. 
H. m. Nutt. 
H. BIGELOVII A. Gray Bigelow S 

H. rivulare (Greene) Rydb. 



Heleniastrum b. Kuntze 



H. HOOPESII A. Gray 
Dugaldia h. Rydb. 
Heleniastrum h. Kuntze 



Orange S. 



HELIANTHELLA Torr. & Gray (335) HELLANT 

H. CALIFORNICA A. Gray var. 

NEVADENSIS (Greene) Jeps. 

H. n. Greene 
H. MICROCEPHALA (A. Gray) A. Gray 

Encelia m. A. Gray 

H. scabra Pays. 
H. QUfNQUENERVIS (Hook.) A. Gray Fivenerve 

H. q. var. arizonica A. Gray 

Helianthus q. Hook. 
H. UNIFLORA (Nutt.) Torr. & Gray Oneflower 

H. lanceolata (Nutt.) Torr. 
& Gray 

H. multicaulis D. C. Eaton 

Helianthus u. Nutt. 

HELIANTHUS L. SUNFLOW 

H. ANNUUS L. 

H. a. var. aridus (Rydb.) 

Cockerell 
H. a. ssp. lenticularis (Dougl.) 

Cockerell 
H. a. ssp. jaegeri (Heiser) 
Heiser, possibly a 
distinct variety, but 
from material 
present, it does not 
seem to be 
H. a. Rydb. 
H. L Dougl. 
H. ANOMALUS Blake 
H. CUSICKII A. Gray 
H. NUTTALLII Torr. & Gray 

H. californicus DC. var. 

utaliensis (D. C. Eaton) 
A. Gray 
H. u. A. Nels. 



U6 



iLlAXTHL'S 



IIYMHNOXVS 



iLIANTIIUS L. (con.) 

H. I'HUOLAKIS Nult. ssp. 

PEriOLARIS 
H. PHTIOLARIS Xuu . --sp. 

FALU)X llciser 



ERAC 
II 
H 



IL'M L. 
ALBII-LOKL'M Hook. 
CYN0(;L0SS0IDES Arv. -Touv. 
II. albcrtmum of liittTnumntuiii 
not i-'arr 



Pra 



IIAWKW 
White II 
I loumlsti 



mgut 



author.'^ 
cusickii Ganciogcr 
griseum Ryclb. 
rydbcrgii Zalui 



II. FIUIOLU'S llo.)k. v.ir. PAUC'I- 
I'LOKl'S (I. M. lohiisi.) 
Iiiiiur 
H. p. I. M. j.ihn-,!. 
II. FILIIOLIUS Hook. var. I0MF;N' lOSl'.S 
(Rvdb.) runu-r 
II. invfus Ryiib. 
iT. \_. Rydb. 

HYMK.\()XYS Cass, (r, ,i.i7. i.iS) 

H. ACAUI.IS (Pii7sh) 1'arki.r var, 

ac:aiili.s 

.Aclmea a. Sprc-nj;. 



IIYMFXO.XYS 
Suiiikss II. 



deprc 



irr. ii CJr.iy) 



H. scoulen Hook. var. g. .\. Ncl: 
II. FENDLERI Schullz-Bip. 

H. U var. discolor A. Gray 
H. GRACFLE Hook. var. GRACILE 
H. GRACILE Hook. var. DETO.NSUM 

(.A. Gray) A. Gray 
H. HORRIDUM Fries 

H. bre\seri .A. Gray 
H. SCOULERl Hook. var. SCOULERI 

H. cinereum Howell, not Tausch 

II. cinenteum A. Nels. & Macbr. 
H. SCOULERl Hook. var. NTJDl- 

CAL'LE (A. Gray) Crcjnq. 

H. cynoglossoidcs var. n. A. Gray 

iT. n. Heller 

MEISTERIA VValp. 
H. PLURISETA A. 



Slender II. 



Woollyweed 



Kuntze 
A. osterhoulii A. Nels. 
ActincUa a . Nult . 
A. d. Tori-, ti Gray 
Tetraneuris a. Greene 




H. 



Gray 



Bush Arrowleal" 



[.SEA Torr. ti Gray 
H. ALGIDA A. Gray 

H. caespitosa A. Nels. S: Kennedy 
H. carnosa Rydb. 
H. nevadensis Gandoger 
:. HETEROCHROMA A. Gray 
. VESTITA A. Gray 

H. parryi .A. Gray 

OCLEA Torr. BURROBRUSH 

. SALSOLA Torr. & Gray White B. 



Rydb. 

A. Nels. 

ACAULIS (Pursh) Parker var. 
ARIZONICA (Greene) 
Parker 
Actinea a. Spreng. var. a. 

Blake 
Tetraneuris a. Greene 
ACAULIS (Pursh) Parker var. 
CAESPITOSA (A. Nels 
Parker 
Actinea a. Spreng. var. lanata 

~ (Nutt.) MacbrT 
A. a. var. lanigcra (Uaniels) 

Blake 
A. integrilolia Torr. 
Actinella epunctata A. 



Arizona Stem - 
less H. 



.) 



Nelr- 



A. U Nutt. 
Tetraneuris 



T. brevifolia 
f. 



. Greene 

A. Nels. 
Greene 



OPAPPUS L'Her. (336) 
. FILIFOLIUS Hook. var. 
FILIFOLIUS 
H. columbianus Rydb. 
, FILIFOLIUS Hook. var. 

CINEREUS (Rydb.) 
I. M. Johnst. 
H. c_. Rydb. 
H. ochroleucus Greene 



HYMENOPAPPUS 



Fineleal H. 



1. Daniels 
H. COOPERI (A. Gray) Cockerell 
var. COOPERI 
Actinea biennis (A. Gray) 

Kuntze 
A. c. Kuntze 
Actmella b. A. Gray 
Gray 



A. ^. A. 
H. b. Hall 
Picradenia b. 



c;reene 



FILIFOLIUS Hook. var. 






ERIOPODUS (A. 


.\el s . ) 




Turner 




II. 


e. A. Nels. 




FILIFOLIUS Hook. var. 


LUG ENS 




(Greene) Jeps. 




H. 


gloriosus Heller 




H. 


1. Greene 




H. 


macroglottis Rydb 




H. 


scaposus Rydb. 





II 



FILIFOLIUS Hook. var. LUTEUS 
(Nutt.) Turner 
H. L Nutt. 
FILIFOLIUS Hook. var. MEGA- 

CEPHALUS Turner 
FILIFOLIUS Hook. var. NANUS 
(Rydb.) Turner 
H. n. Rydb. 
FILIFOLIUS Hook. var. NUDIPES 
(Maguire) Turner 
H. n. Maguire 
H. n. var. alpestris Maguire 



P. c. Greene 
COOPERI (A. Gray) Cockerell var. 
CANESCENS (D. C. Faton) 
Parker 
H. c. Cockerell 
Picradenia c. Greene 
II. GRANDIFLORA (Torr. & Gray) 
Parker 
Actinea g. Kuntze 
Actinella g. Torr. Sc Gray 
Rydbcrgia g. Greene 
II. IIELENIOIDES^(Rydb.) Cockerell 
Actinea h. Blake 
Dugaldea h. A. Nels. 
Picradenia h. Rydb. 
II. IVESIANA (Greene) Parker 

Actinea leptoclada (A. Gray) 

Kujitze var. i. Macbr. 
11. acaulis var. i. Parker 
Tetraneuris intermedia Greene 
T. i. Greene 
T. mancosensis A. Nels. 



Graylocks II. 



T. pilosa Greene 



117 



HYMENOXYS 



LYGODESM, 



HYMENOXYS Cass, (con.) 

H. LEMMONI (Greene) Cockerell 
Actinea 1. Blake 
H. greenei Rydb. 
H. RICH ARDSONII (Hook.) Cockerell 
var. RICHARDSONII 
Actinea r . Kuntze 
Actmella r. Nutt. 



Pingue H. 



Hymenopappus ligulaeflorus 

ATWels. 
Hymenoxys macrantha 

(Cockerell) Rydb . 
H. micrantha (A. Nels.) Rydb. 

H. ^ 

A. 



pumila (Greene) Rydb. 
Picradenia 1. 



Nels. 



P. r. Hook. 
RICHARDSONII (Hook.) Cockerell 
var. FLORIBUNDA 
(A. Gray) Parker 
Actinella r. Hook. var. f. A. Gray 



f. Cockerell 
olivacea Cockerell 



H. 

H. 

Picradenia f. Greene 

P. intermedia Heller 
H. SCAPOSA (DC.) Parker var. 

LINEARIS (Nutt.) Parker 

Actinea s. Kuntze var. 1. Robins. 

Actinella s. Nutt. var. 1. Nutt. 

Tetraneuris fastigiata Greene 

T. stenophylla Rydb. 
H. SUBiNTEGRA Cockerell 
H. TORREYANA (Nutt.) Parker 

Actinea t. Macbr. 

Actinella t. Nutt. 

Cronquist has proposed that Actinea 
leptoclada A. Gray of 
southern Utah deserves 
specific recognition under 
Hymenoxys being a 
synonym of H. argentea 
of east -central Arizona 
and adjacent New Mexico. 
Because the necessary 
combination has not been 
made, and H. argentea 
definitely does not occur 
in our area, this note is 
added for future reference. 



INULA L. 

I. HELENIUM 



IVA L. 



I. AXILLARIS Pursh 

I. a. var. pubescens A. Gray 

I. a. var. robustior Hook. 

U foliolosa Nutt. 
I. NEVADENSIS M. E. Jones 

Chorisiva n. Rydb. 
I. XANTHIFOLIA"Nutt. 

Cyclachaena x. Fresen. 

Euphrosyne x. A. Gray 

I. paniculata Nutt. 

LACTUCA L. 

L. CANADENSIS L. 

L. c. var. integrifolia 

(Bigelow) A. Gray 
L. i. Bigelow 
L. polyphylla Rydb. 
L. PULCHELLA (Pursh) DC. 
L. p. var. heterophylla 

(Nutt.) Farw. 
L. tatarica (L.) C. A. Meyer 
ssp. p. Stebbins 



INULA 
Elecampane I. 

SUMPWEED 
Poverty S . 



RagS. 



LETTUCE 
Canada L. 



Chicory L. 



L. SERRIOLA L. 

L. integrata (Gren. & 

Godr.) A. Nels. 
L. s. var. 2- Gren. & Godr. 
L. s. var. integrifolia Bogenh. 

LAGOPHYLLA Nutt. 

L. RAMOSISSIMA Nutt. 
L. minima Kellogg 

LAPHAMIA A. Gray (339, 340) 
L. CONGESTA M. E. ]ones 

L. toumeyi Robins. & Greenm. 

Monothrix m. Rydb. 

M. £. RydbT 

Perityle c. Shirmers 
L. FASTIGIATA Brandeg. 

Monothrix f. Rydb. 

Perityle f. Shinners 
L. GRACILIS M. E. Jones 
L. INTRICATA Brandeg. 

L. megacephala S. Wats. ssp. 
i_. Keck 

Monothrix i. Rydb. 

Perityle i. Shinners 
L. MEGACEPHALA S. Wats. 

Monothrix m. Rydb. 

Perityle m. Macbr. 
L. PALMERI ATCray var. PALMERI 

L. p. var. tenella M. E. Jones 

L. t. M. E. Jones 

Monothrix p. Rydb. 
L. STANSBURII a". Gray 

Monothrix s. Rydb. 

M. stansburyana Torr. 

LAYIA Hook. & Am. (<)) 

L. GLANDULOSA (Hook.) Hook. & 
Arn. 
Blepharipappus g. Hook. 
B. oreganus Greene 
L. douglasii Hook. & Arn. 

LEPIDOSPARTUM a. Gray 

L. LATISQUAMUM S. Wats. 
L. striatum Gov. 

LEUCELENE Greene (341) 

L. ERICOIDES (Torr.) Greene 

Aster arenosus (Heller) Blake 

A. bellu s Blake 

A. ericaefolius Roth 

A. hirtifolius Blake 

A. leucelene Blake 

L. a. Heller 

L. hirtellus (A. Gray) Rydb. 

L. serotina (Greene) Rydb. 



Prickly L. 



TIDYTIPS 
Whitedaisyl 



SCALYBROOl 
Woolly S . 



LYGODESMIA D. Don 



L. EXIGUA A. Gray 

Prenanthella e. Rydb. 



SKELETON - 
PLANT; ; 
SKELETON- Ij 
WEED ' 



Stephanomeria minima M. E. Jones 
L. GRANDIFLORA (Nutt.) Torr. & Gray 

L. g. var. stricta Maguire 
L. JUNCEA (Pursh) D. Don Rush S. 

L. SPINOSA Nutt. Thorn S. 

Heiacanthus s. Rydb. 



AERANTHERA 



MACllAERAN • 

THERA 
Bigelow M. 



-.ERANTIIERA X'ees (342) 

\I. BK:EL0\II (A. Gray) Greene- 
Aster b. A. Gray 
A. pattersoni A. Gray 
\I. CANESCENS (Pursh) A. Gray Hoary M. 

Aster c . Pursh 
Dieteria c_. Nutt. 
M. COMMIXTA~Greene 
M. GLABRIUSCULA (Nutt.) Cronq. 
& Keck var. CONFERTI- 
FOLU Cronq. 
\I. GLABRIUSCULA (Nutt.) Cronq. 
& Keck var. VILLOSA 
(Nutt.) Cronq. & Keck 
■'\ster xylorhiza Torr. & Gray 
Xylorhiza g. N'uct. var. v. 

~A. Nels. 
X. V. Nutt. 
M. GRLNDELIOIDES (Nutt.) Shmners 
var. GRLNDELIOIDES 
Eriocarpum g. Nutt. 
Haplopappus nuttallii Torr. & Gray 
Sideranthus g. Britton 
M. GRLNDELIOIDES (Nutt.) Shmners 
var. DEPRESSA (Maguire) 
Cronq. & Keck 
Haplopappus nuttallii Torr. & Gray 
var. d. Maguire 
M. KINGII (D. C. Eaton) Cronq. & Keck 

.\ster k. D. C. Eaton 
\1. LAETEVfRENS Greene 

Aster leiodes Blake 
M. LEUCANTHEMIFOLL^ (Greene) Greene 

Aster I. Greene 
\1. LINEARIS Greene 

Aster cichoriaceus (Greene) Blake 
aTTT Cory 
M. c. Greene 
M. MUCRONATA Greene 

Aster adenolepis Blake 
M. PARVTFLORA A. Gray 

Aster p. A. Gray, not Nees 
A. parvulus Blake 
M. SHASTENSIS A. Gray var. GLOSSO- 

PHYLLA (Piper) Cronq. ii Keck 
A. g. Piper 
A. s. var. g. Cronq. 
M. SHASTENSIS A". Gray var. MONTANA 
(Greene) Cronq. & Keck 
M . m . Greene 
M. TANACETIFOLIA (HBK.) Nees 

Aster u HBK. 
M. TEPHRODES (A. Gray) Greene 
Aster canescens Pursh var. t. 

A. Gray 
A. u Blake 
M. TORTIFOLIA (Torr. & Gray) Cronq. 
& Keck var. TORTIFOLIA 
Aster abatus Blake 
A. mohavensis Gov. 
A. £. A. Gray, not Michx. 
Haplopappus £. Torr. & Gray 
Xylorhiza t. Greene 
M. TORTIFOLL^~(Torr. & Gray) Cronq. 

& Keck var. IMBERBIS Cronq. 
M. VENUSTA (M. E. Jones) Cronq. & 
Keck 
Aster V. M. E. Jones 



M. GLOMERAIA Hook. 

M. raliiosa Piper 
M. GRTvCILLS (Smith) Keck 

Lagophylla hilliiiani A. Nels. 

M^. dissitillora (Nutt.) I'orr. 
Si Gray 

M. raceniosa (Null.) Torr. & 
Gray 

M. sativa Mol . ssp. d. Keck 

M. s. var. d. A. Gray 

Madorella d. Nutt. 

M . r . Nutt . 

MALACOTHRIX DC. (M.',) 

M. COULTERI A. Gray 

Malacolepis c. Heller 
M. GLABRATA (D.~C. Eaton ex A. 
Gray) A. Gray 
M. californica DC. var. g. 
D. C. Eaton ex 
A. Gray 
M. SONCHOIDES (Nutt.) lorr. Sc Gray 

Leptoseris s. Nutt. 
M. TORREYI A. Gray 

M. runcinata A. Nels. 
M. sonchoides var. t. 



tUusler I 



DESERI 
DANDELION 



L. O. Williams 

MATRICARIA L. 

M. MATRICARIOIDES (Less.) 
Porter 
Artemisia m. Less. 
M. disco idea DC. 



M. occidentalis Greene 
M. suaveolens (Pursh) Buch. 
not L. 

MICROSERLS D. Don (:W4) 

M. LINDLEYI (DC.) A. Gray (5) 
Calais 1. DC. 



C. 


Iinearilolia DC. 


M. 


linearilolia (Nutt.) SchiUtz- 




Bip. (See (5): Vol. 5; 




269, 1955, for ref- 




erences on the author 




ship of this name) 


M. 


macrochaeta (A. Gray) 




Schultz-Bip. 


. NLITANS (Geyer) Schultz-Bip. 


Ca 


lais gracililoba Kellogg 


C. 


major (A. Gray) A. Gray 


C. 


n. A. Gray 


M. 


m. Schultz-Bip. 


M. 


n. var. m. A. Nels. 


Ptilocalais g. Greene 


P. 


m. Greene 


P. 


n. Greene 


Ptilophora m. A. Gray 


P. 


m. var. lacLniata A. Gray 


P. 


n. A. Gray 


Scorzonella n. Hook. 



M)IA Mol. (9) 

M. EXIGUA (Smith) A. Gray 

Harpaecarpus e. A. Gray 
H. madarioides Nutt. 



TARWEED 



M. filipes A. Gray 



S. n. var. I. Jeps. 

MONOPTILON Torr. Ik Gray 

M. BELLIDIFORME Torr. & Gray 
M. BELLIOIDES (A. Gray) Hall 
Eremiastrum b. A. Gray 
E. b. var. orcuttii (S. Wats.) 

Cov^ 
E. 0. S. Wats. 

NOTHOCALAIS Greene (9) 

N. ALPESTRLS (A. Gray) Chamb. 
Agoseris a. Greene 
Microseris a. Q. Jones 
Troximon a. A. Gray 



MAYWEED 
Pinenppleweed 



119 



NOTHOCALAIS 



NOTHOCALAIS Greene (con.) 

N. TROXIMOIDES (A. Gray) Greene 
Microseris u A. Gray 
Scorzonella t. Jeps. 

ONOPORDUM L. (308) 

O. ACANTHIUM L. 



OXYTENIA Nutt. 

O. ACEROSA Nutt. 

PALAFOXIA Lag. (345) 

P. LINEARIS (Cav.) Lag. 
Ageratum 1. Cav. 
Paleolaria carnea Cass. 
Stevla I. Cav. 

PARTHENIUM L. 

P. INCANUM HBK. 

PECTIS L. 

P. ANGUSTIFOLDV Torr. 
P. PAPPOSA Harv. & Gray 

PEREZIA L. 

P. WRIGHTII A. Gray 

P. arizonica A. Gray 

PERICOME A. Gray 

P. CAUDATA A. Gray 

PERITYLE Benth. (339) 
P. EMORYI Torr. 

P. e. var. nuda (Torr.) A. Gray 
P. greenei Rose 
P. n. Torr. 

PETRADORIA Greene (346) 

P. DISCOIDEA L. A. Anderson 

Chrysothamnus gramineus Hall 
P. PUMILA (Nutt.) Greene ssp. 
PUMILA 
Aster p. Kuntze 
Solidago petradoria Blake 
S. p. (Nutt.) Torr. & Gray, 
not Crantz 
P. PUMILA (Nutt.) Greene ssp. 
GRAMINEA (Woot. & 
Standi.) L. A. Anderson 
P. g. Woot. & Standi. 
Solidago g. Blake 

PEUCEPHYLLUM A. Gray 

P. SCHOTTII (A. Gray) A. Gray 

Inyonia dysodioides M. E. Jones 
Psathyrotes s. A. Gray 

PLUCHEA Cass. 

P. CAMPHORATA (L.) DC. 
P. SERICEA (Nutt.) Gov. 
P. borealis A. Gray 



THISTLE 
Scotch Cotton - 
thistle 

OXYTENIA 
Prickly O. 

PALAFOXL\ 
Desert P. 



PARTHENIUM 
Mariola P. 



PECTIS 



PEREZDV 



PERICOME 
TaUleaf P. 



Rock Goldenrod 



PIGMYCEDAR 
Schotts P. 



PLUCHEA 
Camphor P. 
Arrowweed P. 



SENECIO 



PSILACTIS A. Gray 

P. COULTERI A. Gray 

PSILOCARPHUS Nutt. (347) 
P. BREVISSIMUS Nutt. 

P. chilensis (Remy) A. Gray 

P. globiierus Nutt. 
P. OR EG ONUS Nutt. 

PSILOSTROPHE DC. (348) PAPERFLOWl 

P. BAKERI Greene 

P. pumila (M. E. Jones) A. Nels. 
Riddellia tagetina Nutt. var. 
p. M. E. Jones 
P. COOPERI (A. Gray) Greene Whitestem P. 

Riddellia c. A. Gray 
P. SPARSIFLORA (A. Gray) A. Nels. Greenstem P. 

P. divaricata Rydb. 
P. tagetina (Nutt.) Greene var. 

£. Greene 
Riddellia t_. Nutt. var. s. A. Gray 
P. TAGETINA (Nutt.) Greene var. 
LANATA A. Nels. 
P. 1. Anon. 

P. t. of Intermountain authors, 
not (Nutt.) Greene 

RAFINESQUIA Nutt. 

R. CALIFORNICA Nutt. 

Nemoseris c. Greene 
R . NEOMEXICANA A . Gray 

Nemoseris n. Greene 

RAILLARDELLA A. Gray 

R. SCAPOSA (A. Gray) A. Gray 
Raillardia s. A. Gray 

RATIBIDA Raf. CONEFLOWEF 

R. COLUMNIFERA (Nutt.) Woot. & 
Standi. (5) 
Lepachys columnaris (Pursh) 







Torr. & Gray 


L. 


c. 


(Pursh) Torr. & Gray 
var. pulcherrima 
(DC.) Torr. & Gr 


L. 


c . 


(Nutt.) Macbr. 


L. 


c. 


(Nutt.) Macbr. var. p. 






Rydb. 


R. 


c. 


(Pursh) D. Don 


Rudbeckia c. Pursh 



RIGIOPAPPUS A. Gray 

R. LEPTOCLADUS A. Gray 

R. longiaristatus (A. Gray) Rydb. 

RUDBECKL\ L. 

R. LACINIATA L. var. AMPLA 
(A. Nels.) Cronq. 
R. a. A. Nels. 

R. I. of Intermountain authors, 
not L. 
R. OCCIDENTALIS Nutt. 



WIREWEED 



CONEFLOWER 



Niggerhead 



POROPHYLLUM (VaUl.) Adans. 
P. GRACILE Benth. 

P. caesium Greene 
P. junciforme Greene 
P. leucospermum Greene 
P. putidum A. Nels. 

PSATHYROTES A. Gray 

P. ANNUA (Nutt.) A. Gray 

Bulbostylis a. Nutt. 
P. PILIFERA A. Gl-ay 
P. RAMOSISSIMA (Torr.) A. Gray 

Tetradymia r. Torr. 



PORELEAF 
Slender P. 



SENECIO L. (5, 349, 350, 351) 



S. AMPLECTENS A. Gray var. 
AMPLECTENS 
S. pagosanus Heller 
S. seridophyllus Greene 



GROUNDSEL; 
RAGWORT; 
BUTTERWEEIi 

Showy Alpine G, 



S. AMPLECTENS A. Gray var. HOLMII 
(Greene) Harrington 
S. a. var. taraxacoides D. C. Eaton, 

in part, not S. U Greene 
S. h. Greene 



120 



lO 



SI'.NI-:CK) 



O L . (c on . ) 
ARONICOIDES DC. 
ATRATL'S Greene 

S. a. var. millcl'loru!; 



Raylcss G. 
Black G . 



(Greene) Greenm. 
S. foliosu.s (A. Gray) Ryttb. 
S. lugen.s Richards, var. 

exaltatus D. C. 

Ealon, not S. e. 

Nuit . 
S. lugens Richards, var. f. 

A. Gray 
S . m . Greene 
AUREUS L. 

Has been applied to numerous 

species in our area; 

however; S. aureus 

is a plant found only 

in eastern North 

America 



Golden G 



s. 


B1GEL0\'I1 A. Gray var. IIALLII 




A. Gray 




S. accedens Greene 


s. 


CA.NUS Hook. 




S. c. var. eradiatus D. C. Eaton 




S. c. var. purshianus (Nutt.) 




A. Gray 




S. hallii Britton 




S. howellii Greene 




S. h. var. e. Greenm. 




S. p. Nutt. 




S . p. ssp. e. Blake 


s. 


CONVALLIUM Greenm. 


s. 


CRASSULUS A. Gray 




S. c. var. cusickii (Piper) 




Greenm. ex Peck 




S. lepathifolius Greene 




S. semiamplexicaulis Rydb. 


s. 


CROCVTUS Rydb. 




S. longipctiolatus Rydb. 




S. pyrrhochrous Greene 




S. tracyi Rydb. 


s. 


CYMBALARIOIDES Buek, not Nutt. 




S. aureus var. subnudus 




(DC.) A. Gray 




S. paucrflorus Pursh var. s. Jeps 




S. s. DC. (as to his American 




species) not S. s. DC 




(his African species) 


s. 


DEBILIS Nutt. 




S. fedifolius Rydb. 


s. 


DIMORPHOPHYLLUS Greene var. 




INTERMEDIUS T. M. 




Barkley 


s. 


DIMORPHOPHYLLUS Greene var. 




PAYSONl T. M. Barkley 




S. d. of Intermountam authors, 




in large part, not 




Greene 


s. 


DOUGLASll DC. var. MONOENSIS 




(Greene) Jeps. 




S. d. of Intermountain authors, 




not DC. 




S. filicifolius Greenm. 




S. lathyroides Greene 




S. m. Greene 




S. pectinatus A. Nels. 


s. 


EREMOPHILUS Rich. var. 




EREMOPHILUS 


s. 


EREMOPHILUS Rich. var. 




KINGII (Rydb.) Greenm. 




S. ambrosioides Rydb. 




S. k. Rydb. 



Woolly G . 



Thickleaf G . 



Saffron G . 



Cleftleaf G. 



Desert G. 



EKl-;M<)PniLUS Rich. var. 

M.'XCnOUGALlI (Hi I! 
S. m. Heller 

KURYCEPHALUS lorr. t. Gr 
S. austinae Greene 
S. e. var. a. jeps. 

r'ENDLERI A.lU-ay 

1-OETIDUS Howell var 



r) (:ron<|. 



l-'OEIIDUS 
IIYDRO- 

M. 



l-'OETIDUS Howell var, 

PI II LOUIES (Rytil).) I' 
Barkley 
.S. h. Rydb. 
S. pere/iLfolius Rydb. 
FREMONTII Torr. ti Gray var. 
FREMONTII, not Rydb. 
FREMONTII Torr. Si Gray var. 

BLITOIDES (Greene) Cronq. 
S. b. Greene 
S. invenustus Greene 
FREMONTII Torr. & Gray var. 

OCCIDENTALIS A. Gray 
S. o. Greene 
HARTIANUS Heller 
HYDROPHILUS Nutt. 

S. h. var. paciticus Greene 
S. p. Rydb! 
INDECORUS Greene 
S. burkeri Greenm. 
S. idahoensis Ryilb. 
S. pauciflorus Pursh ssp. fallax 

Greenm. 
S. p. var. f. Greenm. 
INTEGERRIMLiS Nutt. var. 

EXALTATUS (Nutt.) Cronq. 
S. dispar A. Nel.s. 



Water G. 



Columbia G. 



S. e. Nutt. 

S. hookeri Torr. & Gray 

S. i. of Intermountain authors, 

not Nutt. 
S. lugens of Intermountain authors, 

not Rich. 
S. h Rich. var. e. D. C. Eaton, 

or A. Gray 
S. 1. var. parryi D. C. Eaton 
S. perplexus A. Nels. 
S. solitarius Rydb. 
INTEGERRIMUS Nutt. var. MAJOR 
(A. Gray) Cronq. 
S. m. Heller 
S. mesadenia Greene 
S. whippleanus A. Gray 
IN'fEGERRlMUS Nutt. var. 

OCHROLEUCIIS (A. Gray) 
Cronq. 
S. cordatus Nutt. 
INfEGERRlMUS Nutt. var. VASEYI 
(Greenm.) Cronq. 
S. V. Greenm. 
LONCfLOBUS Benth. Ilireadleaf G. 

S. douglasii var. I. L. Benson 
S . fUiiolius Nun . 
S. orthophyllus Greene 
S. ridellii Torr. & Gray 
MILLELOBATUS Rydb. 

S. nelsonii Rydb. var. uintahensis 
A. Nels. 



n. var. utahensis A. Nels. 
prolixus Greenm. 



stygius Greene 
thornberi Greenm . 
uintahensis Greenm. 
utahensis A. Nels. 



121 



SENECIO 



SOLIDAGO 



SENECIO L. (con.) 

S. MULTILOBATUS Torr. & Gray Lobeleaf G. 

S. lapidum Greenm. 
S. leucoreus Greenm. 
S. lynceus Greene 
S . 1 . Greene var . leucoreus 
~ ~ BlaJ^e 

S. MUIRII Greenm. 
S. MUTABILIS Greene 
S. NEOMEXICANUS A. Gray 

S. n. var. griffithsii Greenm. 
S. papagonius Greene 
S. PATTERSONIANUS Hoov. 

S. revolutus Hoov., not Kirk 
S. PAUPERCULUS Michx. Balsam G. 

S. balsamitae Muhl. 
S. flavovirens Rydb. 
S. p. var. f_. Boiv. 
S. p. var. thomsoniensis 

(Greenm.) Boiv. 
S. tweedyi Rydb. 
S. PSEUDAUREUS Rydb. 

S. pauciflorus Pursh var. 
jucundulus Jeps. 
S. PUDICUS Greene 

S. SERRA Hook. ButterweedG. 

S. andinus Hook. 
S . lanceolatus Torr . & Gray 
S. s. var. a. Rydb. 
S. s. ssp. ]_. Piper 
S. solidago Rydb. 
S. SPARTIOIDES Torr. & Gray 

var. SPARTIOIDES Broom G. 

S. multicapitatus Greenm. 
S. SPARTIOIDES Torr. ii Gray var. 
GRANULARIS Maguire & 
Holmgren 
S. SPHAEROCEPHALUS Greene 

S. oregonus Howell 
S. STREPTANTHIFOLIUS Greene 
S. aquariensis Greenm. 
S . aureus var . borealis 
~ ' Torr. & Gray 

S. cognatus Greene 
S . cymbalarioides Nutt . , 

not Buek 
S. c. var. ap hanactis (Greenm. 

(Greenm.) Blake 
S. c. Nutt. var. b. Greenm. 
S. c. var. s. Greemn. 
S. fulgens Rydl5., not Nichols. 
S. jonesii Rydb. 
S. leonardi Rydb. 
S. longipetiolatus Rydb. 
S. oodes Rydb. 
S. pammelii Greenm. 
S. platylobus Rydb. 
S. rubricaulis Greene 
S. r. var. aphanactis Greenm. 
S. rydbergii A. Nels. 
S. subcuneatus Rydb. 
S. wardii Greene 
S. TRIANGULARIS Hook. Axrowleaf G. 

S . longidentatus DC . 
S. subvestitus Howell 
S. t. var. £. Greenm. 
S. t. var. trigonophyllus 
(Greene) Peck 
S. t. Greene 
S. VULGARIS L. Common G. 

S. WERNERL\EFOLIUS (A. Gray) 
A. Gray 
S. alpicola Rydb. 
S. petrocallis Greene 
S. petrophilus Greene 
S. saxosus Klatt 
S. s. var. toiyabensis Greenm. 



SILYBUM Adans. (308) 

S. MARIANUM (L.) Gaertn. 
Carduus m. L. 

SOLIDAGO L. (5, 9) 

S. CANADENSIS L. var. SALEBROSA 
(Piper) M. E. Jones 
S. c. of Intermountain authors, 

not L. 
S. c. ssp. elongatus (Nutt.) Keck 
S. e. Nutt. 

S. lepida DC. var. e. Fern. 
S. j_. var. polyphylla (Rydb.) 
Henry 
S. CANADENSIS L. var. SCABRA 
Torr. & Gray 
S. altissima L. 
S. arizonica (A. Gray) Woot. 

& Standi. 
S. polyphylla Rydb. 
S. CONFINIS A. Gray 
S. GIGANTEA Ait. var. SEROTINA 
(Kuntze) Cronq. 
S. g. of Intermountain authors, 
not Ait. 
S. GRAMINIFOLIA (L.) Salisb. var. 
MAJOR (Michx.) Fern. 
S. g. of Intermountain authors, 
not (L.) Salisb. 
S. MISSOURIENSIS Nutt. var. 
MISSOURIENSIS 
S. glaucophylla Rydb. 
S. MISSOURIENSIS Nutt. var. 

EXTRARL»t A. Gray 
S. concinna A. Nels. 
S. MISSOURIENSIS Nutt. var. 

FASCICULATA Holz. 
S. glaberrima Martens. 
S. m. var. g. Ros. & Cronq. 
S . MOXLIS Bartl . ~ 

S. incana Torr. & Gray 
S. MuXtIRADIATA Ait. 
S. ciliosa Greene 



milkthist: 

Blessed M. 



GOLDENROl 



Missouri G. 



corymbosa Nutt. 
dUatata A. Nels. 



Baby G. 



S. m. var. scopulorum A. Gray 
S. s7 A. Nels^ 
S. NANA "Nutt. 

S^. nivea Rydb. 
S. radulina Rydb. 
S. NEMORALIS Ait. var. LONGI- 

PETIOLATA (Mack & Bush) 
Palmer & Steyerm. 
S. decemflora DC. 
S. diffusa A.~Nels. 
S. h Mack. & Bush 
S. n. of Intermountain authors, 

not Ait. 
S. pulcherrima A. Nels. 
S. OCCIDENTALIS (Nutt.) Torr. & Gray Western G. 

Euthamia o. Nutt. 
S. RIGIDA L. var. HUMILIS Porter 
Oligoneuron canescens Rydb. 
S. c. Friesn. 
S. SPAThIiLATA DC. ssp. SPATHU- 
LATA var. NANA (A. 
Gray) Cronq. 
S . decumbens Greene 
S. hesperia Howell 
S. SPATHULATA DC. ssp. SPATHU- 
LATA var. NEOMEXICANA 
(A. Gray) Cronq. 
S. garrettii Rydb. 
S. glutinosa Nutt. 
S. n. Woot. & Standi. 



122 



)1 I DAGO 



rOWNSr-NDIA 



iLli)AC;0 L. (con.) 

S. SPATHUU\TA DC. ssp. SPATHU- 
LATA var. SUBCINEREA 
A. Gray 
S. trinervata Greene 
S. SPECTABILIS (D. C. Eaton) 
A. Grav 



Nevada G. 



T. NirnALLlI Turr. ii Gray 

Sphaeromeria argcnlea Nutl.. 
iiot T. a. WiUd. 
T. POTENTILL.OIDES (A. Gray) 

A. Gray var. NriROPIIIUlM 
Cronri . 
T. Vl'LGAKi-; I,. 



Coniiiiun r. 



ilUS L. 

S. ARVENSIS L. 
S. ASPER (L.) HUl 
S. OLERACEUS L. 
S. ULIGINOSUS Bicb. 

'liANOMERLA N'utt. 
S. EXIGUA Nutt. var. EXIGUA 

Ptiloria e. Greene 
S. EXIGUA Nun. var. PENTA- 
CHAEl'A (D. C. 
Eaton) Hall 
Ptiloria e. var. p. 

Davids. & Moxley 
P. p. Greene 
S. p. D. C. Eaton 
LACTUCINA A. Gray 
Ptiloria 1. Greene 
LYGODESMOIDES M. E. Jones 
PtUoria 1. Heller 



SOWTHISTLE 
Fields. 
Pricldy S. 
Common S . 



WIRELETTUCE 



TARAXACUM Hall. 



PAN ICU LATA Nun. 

Ptiloria p. Greene 
PARRYI A. Gray 

Ptiloria p. Cov. 
PAUCIFLORA (Torr.) Nun. 
var. PAUCIFLORA 
Lygodesmia p. Shinners 
Ptiloria p. Raf. 
S. runcinata of Intermountain 
authors, not Nutt. , 
of which P. ramosa 
Rydb. andS. r. 
Kittell are synonyms 
PAUCIFLORA (Torr.) Nutt. var. 
PARISHII (Jeps.) Munz 
PtUoria cinerea Blake 



CERATOPIIOKUM (Lidcl).) DC. 

Leontodon c . Ledcb. 

L. dumetorum (('Irreiie) Rydli. 

L. monticola Rydb. 

T. d. Greene 

T. montanum Nun. 

T. paucisquaniosuni Peck 
ERfOPHORUM Rydb. 

Leontodon e. Rydb. 
LAEVlGATUM~(WiIld.) DC., not 
A. Gray 

Leontodon crythrospermum 
(Andrz.) Hichw. 

L. K Willd. 

T. e. Andrz. 
LYRATUM (Ledeb.) DC. 

Leontodon 1 . Ledeb . 

L. scopulorum (Rydb.) Rydb. 

T. laevigatum A. Gray, not 
(Willd.) DC. 

T. s. Rydb. 
OFFICINALE Weber 

Leontodon mexicanum (DC.) 



DANDia.lON 
Rough D. 



Smooth D. 



Common D. 



Rydb. 
taraxacum L. 
vtilgare Lam. 
m. DC. 
v. Schrank 



TETRADYMIA DC. 

T. AXILLARIS A. Ncls. 

T. spinosa Hook. & Arn. var. 

longispina M. E. Jones 
T. CANESCENS fJCT 

T. c. var. inermis (Nutt.) 



HORSEBRUSH 
Longspine H. 



Grav H. 



S. c. Blake 






S. runcinata Nutt. 


var. 


P- 


Jeps. 






TENUIFOLLA (Torr.) 


Hall 


var 


TENUIFOLLA 






Lygodesmia minor 


Hook 


, 


L. t. Shinners 






PtUoria t. Raf. 







A. Gray 



T. u Nutt. 
T. linearis 



Rycto. 



S. TENUIFOLLA (Torr.) Hall var. 

MYRIOCLADA (D. C. 

Eaton) Cronq. 
Ptiloria m. Greene 
S. m. D. C. Eaton 
S. pauciflora var. m. Munz 
S. riincmata var. m. Jeps. 
S. t. ssp. m. Blake 
S. VIRGATA BentF. 

Ptiloria V. Benth. 

Si' LOG LINE Nutt. 

S. FILAGINEA (A. Gray) A. Gray 
S. MICROPOIDES A. Gray 
S. PSILOCARPHOIDES Peck 

Sjn-RICHOPAPPUS A. Gray 
S. FREMONTII A. Gray 

■JACETUM L. 

T. CANUM D. C. Eaton 

T. DIVERSIFOLIUM D. C. Eaton 



TANSY 



T. COMOSA A. Gray 

T. c. ssp. tetranieres Blake 
T. GLABRATA A. Gray 
T. NUTTALLII Torr. & Gray 
T. SPINOSA Hook. & Arn. 

THELESPERMA Less. 

T. MARGINATUM Rydb. 

T. MEGAPOTAMICUM (Spreng.) Kuntze 

T. gracilc (Torr.) A. Gray 
T. SUBNUDUM A. Gray 

TOWNSENDL\ Hook. (:!S2, :i.S:)) 
T. ANNUA Beaman 
T. CONDENSATA D. C. I'aton 

T. anomala liciser 
T. EXCAPA (Richards.) Porter 

T. sericea Hook. 
T. FLORIFER (Hook.) A. Gray 

T. ambigua (A. Gray) Rydb. 
T. f. var. communis M. I-.. 

Jones 
T. f. var. watsoni (A. Gray) 

Cronq. 
T. scapigcra D. C. l-;aIon 

var. a. A. Gray 
T. w. A. Gray 



Hairy II. 

Lillkle.if H. 
Niutall II. 
C:otl<)ntliorn II . 

GRKI'NIIIREAD 



roWNSHNDIA 



Siemless I . 



TOWNSENDIA 



ZINNIA 



TOWNSENDIA Hook, (con.) 
T. HOOKERI Beaman 
T. INC ANA Nun. 

T. arizonica A. Gray 



Hoary T. 



T. diversa Osterh. 

T. 
T. 



fremontii Torr. & Gray 



Parry T. 



var. ambigua M. E. Jones 
T. LEPTOTES (A. Gray) Osterh. 
T. sericea Hook. var. K 
A. Gray 
T. MENSANA M. E. Jones var. 

MENSANA 
T. MENSANA M. E. Jones var. 

JONES II Beaman 
T. MONTANA M. E. Jones var. 
MONTANA 
T. alpigena Piper 
T. dejecta A. Nels. 
T. MONTANA M. E. Jones var. 
MINIMA (Eastw.) 
Beaman 
T. m. Eastw. 
T. PARRYTd. C. Eaton 

T. alplna (A. Gray) Rydb. 
T. p. var. a. A. Gray 
T. SPATHIiLATA Nutt. 
T. STRIGOSA Nutt. 

T. incana var. prolixa 
M. E. Jones 

TRAGOPOGON L. 

T. DUBIUS Scop. 

T. PORRIFOLIUS L. 

T. PRATENSIS L. 

TRICHOPTILIUM A. Gray 

T. INCISUM (A. Gray) A. Gray 

TRKIS R. Br. 

T. CALIFORNICA Kellogg 

VANCLEVEA Greene 

V. STYLOSA (Eastw.) Greene 
Grindelia s. Eastw. 



VERBESINA L. CROWNBEARD 

V. ENCELIOIDES (Cav.) Benth. & 

Hook. var. EXAURICULATA 
Robins. & Greenm. 
V. e. of Intermountain authors, 

not (Cav.) Benth. & Hook. 
Ximenesia e. Robins., Greenm.) 
Rydb. 



VIGUIERA HBK. (354) 

V. ANNUA (M. E. Jones) Blake 
Gymnolomia a. Robins. & 

Greemn. 
G. multiflora Benth. & Hook. 

var. a. M. E. Jones 
V. CILIATA (Robins. S^Greenm.) Blake 
Gymnolomia c. Rydb. 
Gray var. 



V 



DELTOIDEA A. 

PARISHIl (Greene) Vasey 
& Rose 
d. of Intermountain authors, 

not A. Gray 
p. Greene 
V. MULTfpLORA (Nutt.) Blake var. 
MULTIFLORA 
Gymnolomia m. Benth. & Hook. 



V. 



V. 



GOATSBEARD; 
SALSIFY 

Vegetable - 

Oyster S. 

Meadow S . 



TRKIS 
American T. 



GOLDENEY 
Annual G. 



Hairy G. 



Showy G. 



V. MULTIFLORA (Nutt.) Blake var. 

NEVADENSIS (A. Nels.) 

Blake 
Gymnolomia linearis Rydb. 
G. n. A. Nels] 

WYETHIA Nutt. (318) 

W. AMPLEXICAULIS (Nutt.) Nutt. 

W. lanceolata Howell 
W. ARfZONICA A. Gray 
W. HELIANTHOIDES Nutt. 
W. MOLLIS A. Gray 
W. SCABRA Hook. var. SCABRA 
W. SCABRA Hook. var. ATTENUATA 

W. A. Weber 
W. SCABRA Hook. var. CANESCENS 

W. A. Weber 

XANTHIUM L. 

X. SPINOSUM L. 

X. STRUMARIUM L. var. CANADENSE 
(Mill.) Torr. & Gray 
X. campestre Greene 
X. c. Mill. 
X. italicum Moretti 
X. STRUMARIUM L. var. GLABRATUM 
(DC.) Cronq. 
X. Chinese Mill. 
X. pennsylvanicum Wallr. 

ZINNIA L. 

Z. GRANDIFLORA Nutt. 



Nevada Sho? 



WYETHIA 
Mulesears \ 



Whitehead H 
Woolly W. 



M 



COCKLEBU; 
Spiny C. 



ZINNIA 
Rocky Mount'' 
Z. 



124 



LITERATURE CONSULTED 

1. .Abrams, Leroy. An illustrated flora of the Pacific States, Washington, Oregon, and California. "Opiiio- 
. > iceae to Aristolochiaceae: or Ferns to Birthworts" 1: 1923. "Polygonaceae to Krameriaceae" 2: 1944. 

; iMiiiaceae to Scrophulariaceae" 3: 1951. "Bignoniaceae to Compositae" 4: 1960. 

2. Davis, Ray J. Flora of Idaho. Dubuque, Iowa:Wni. C. Brown Co. 1952. 

3. Fernald, Merritt L. Gray's manual of botany. 8th Ed. American Book Co. 1950. 

4. Harrington, H. D. Manual of the plants of Colorado. Denver, Colo. : Sage Book Co. 1954. 

5. Hitchcock, C. L. , A. J. Cronquist, M. Ownbey, and J. W. Thompson. Vascular plants of the Pacific 
C thwest . Univ. Wash, Press. PartV. "Compositae, " by A. J. Cronquist . 1955. Part IV. "Ericaceae 

.: ugli Campanulaceae, " by C. L. Hitchcock, A. J. Cronquist, and M. Ownbey. 1959. Part III. "Saxifragaceae 
I iKaceae," by C. L. Hitchcock and A. J. Cronquist. 1961. 

(1. Kearney, T. H., and R. H. Peebles, and collaborators. Arizona flora. Second edition with supplement 
/. T. Howell, E. McClintock, and collaborators. Berkeley: Univ. Calif. Press. I960. 

7. Little, Elbert L.. Jr. "Checklist of native and naturalized trees of the United States including Alaska." 
|. llandb. 41: 1-472, 1953. Wash., D.C. 

S. Mason, H. L. A flora of the marshes of California . Berkeley: Lhiiv. Calif. Press. 1957. 

^. Munz, P. A., and D. D. Keck. A California flora. Berkeley: Univ. Calif. Press. 1959. 



0. Peck, M. E. A manual of the liigher plants of Oregon. Portland, Ore.: Binfords & Mort, Publishers. 
) . 

1 . Rydberg, P. A. Flora of the Rocky Mountains and adjacent plains. New York, published by the author. 

r. 

2. Tidestrom, I. "Flora of Utah and Nevada." Contributions of the United States National Herbarium. 
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3. Flowers, S. "Ferns of Utah. " Bull, of the Univ. of Utah, vol. 35, No. 7; Biol. Sci. ser. 4(6): 1-87. 

4. Clausen, R. T. " Botrycliium . " Mem. Torr. Bot. Club 19: 22-107. 1938. 

5. Tryon, R. M. "A revision of the American species of Notholaena. " Contrib. Gray Herb. 179: 1-106. 



9. . 

6. Tryon, A. F. "A revision of the fern genus Pellaea section Pellaea. Ann, Mo. Bot. Card. 42: 1-99. 
9! . 

7. Pfeiffer, N. E. "Monograph of the Isoetaceae. " Ann. Mo. Bot . Card. 9(2): 79-232. 1922. 

8. Tryon, R. M. " Selaglnella rupestris and its allies." Ann. Mo. Bot. Card. 42: 1-99. 1955. 

9. Sudworth, G. B. "The spruce and balsam fir trees of the Rocky Mountain region." U.S. Dep. Agr. Bull. 
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0. Critchfield, W. B. "Geographic variation in Pinus contorta." Maria Moors Caliot Found. Pub. 3. t"am- 
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^1. Cutler, H, C. "Monograph of the North American species of the genus Ephedra." Ann. Mo. Bot. Gard. 
6:!73-429. 1939. 



125 



22. Benson, L. "Revisions of status of south-western desert trees and shrubs." Amer. J. Botan. 30: 230 
240. 1943. 

23. Hotchkiss, N,, and H. L. Dozier. "Taxonomy and distribution of North American cat-tails. " Amer. 
Midland Natur. 41(1): 237-254. 1949. 

24. Fernald, M. L. "The linear- leaved North American species of Potamogeton, section Axillaris." Mer 
Amer. Acad. Art. & Sci. II 17: 1-183. 1932. 

25. Ogden, E. C. "The broad-leaved species of Potamogeton of North America north of Mexico. " Rhodor.) 
45:57-104,119-163,171-213. 1943. 

26. St. John, H. "A revision of the North American species of Potamogeton of the section Coleophylli." 
Rhodora 18: 122-138. 1916. 

27. Clausen, R. T. "Studies in the genus Najas in the northern United States." Rhodora 38: 333-345. 193 

28. Howell, J. T. "Remarks on Triglochin concinna. " Leafl. West. Botan. 5: 13-19. 1947. 



3^! 



29. Love, A. , and D. Love. "Biosystematics of Triglochin maritimum Agg." Naturaliste Canadien 8571! 
165. 1958. 

30. Fernald, M. L. "North American representatives of Alisma plantago - aquatica . " Rhodora 48: 86-88, 
1946. 

31. Bogin, C. "Revision of the genus Sagittaria." Mem. New York Botan. Card. 9: 179-233. 1955. 

32. Smith, J. G. "A revision of the North American species of Sagittaria and Lophotocarpus." Ann. Mo.lii 
Botan. Card. 6: 27-64. 1895. 



33. Hitchcock, A. S. "Manual of the grasses of the United States . " U.S. Dep. Agr. Misc. Pub. 200. Sec. 
edition, revised by A. Chase. Wash., D.C.: U.S. Govt. Printing Office. 1950. 

34. Wagnon, H. K. "A revision of the genus Bromus, section Bromopsis, of North America. " Brittonia 7; 
415-480. 1952. 

35. Raven, P. H. "The correct name for Rescue Grass." Brittonia 12: 219-221. 1960. 

36. Beetle, A. A. "The North American variations of Distichilis spicata." Bull. Torr. Botan. Club 70:63 
650. 1943. 

37. Church, George L. "A cyto-taxonomic study of Glyceria and Puccinellia. " Amer. J. Botan. 36: 155-1 
1949. 

38. Boyle, W. S. "A cyto-taxonomic study of the North American species of Melica." Madrono 8: 1-26. 1'' 

39. Marsh, V. L. "A taxonomic revision of the genus Poa of United States and southern Canada." Amer, f, 
Midi. Natur. 47: 202-250. 1952. 

40. Covas, G. "Taxonomic observations of the North American species of Hordeum." Madrono 9: 1-21. 
1949. 

41. Wilson, F. D. "Revision of Sitanion (Triticeae, Gramineae.)" Brittonia 15:303-323. 1963. 

42. Mobberley, D. G. "Taxonomy and distribution of the genus Spartina." Iowa State Coll. J. Sci. 30:471 
574. 1956. 

43. Hitchcock, A. S., and Agnes Chase. "The North American species of Panicum." Contrib. Nat. Herb. 
15: 1-396. 1910. 

44. Lewis, M. E. "Carex- -its distribution and importance in Utah. " Brigham Young Univ. Sci. Bull., 
vol. I, no. 2: 1-43. 1958! 



126 



P 



4S. Mackenzie, K. K. "Carex." North American flora 18:9 47«. 1931 1935. 

ib. McGivney, Sister. "A revision of the subgenus Eucyperus." Cath. Univ. Anier. Biol. ser. 26. 1Q38. 

17. Beetle, A. A. "Eleocharis in the Rocky Mountain region. " Univ. Wyo. Pub. 5(3): 19-27. 1938. 

IS. Svenson, H. K. "Monographic studies in the genus Eleocharis." Rhodora, vols. 31-41. 1929-1939. 

19. Svenson, H. K. " Eleocharis ." North American flora 18:509-540. 1957. 

M). Beetle, A. A. "Scirpus." North American flora 18:481-504. 1947. 

il. Landolt, V. E. "Physiologlsche und okologische Untersuchungen an Lamnaceen." Bern, Germany: 
;)ruckerei Buchler & Co. 1957. 

i2. Pennell, F. W. "The genus Commelina (Plumier) in the United States." Bull. Torr. Botan. Club 43: 96- 
l 1916. 

)3. Hermann, F.J. "Juncaceae of Nevada. " Contrib. toward a flora of Nevada 16: 1-26. 1940. 

)4. Ownbey, M. "The genus Allium in Arizona." Research studies of the State College of Washington 15: 
i:2. 1947. 

)5. Ownbey, M. "The genus Allium in Idaho." Research studies of the State College of Washington 18: 
3' 1950. 

i6. Ownbey, M. "A monograph of the genus Calochortus. " Ann. Mo. Botan. Card. 27:371-560. 1940. 

•1 . Gould, F. W. "A systematic treatment of the genus Camassia Lindl." Amer. Midi. Natur. 28:712-742. 

i: 

'8. Jones, Q. "A c^to-taxonomic study of the genus Disporum in North America." Contrib. Gray Herb. 173: 
V 1951. 

'9. Applegate, E.I. "The genus Eirythronium: A taxonomic and distributional study of the western North 
iilcan species." Madrono 3: 58-113. 1935. 

0. Beetle, D. E. "Monograph of the North American species of Fritillaria. " Madrot^o 7: 133-158. 1944. 

1. Ingram, J. "A monograph of the genera Bloomeria and Muilla." Madrono 12: 19-27. 1953. 

2. Galaway, D. H. "The North .'\merican species of Smilacina." Amer. Midi. Natur. 33: 644-666. 1945. 

3. Fassett, N. C. "A study of Streptopus ." Rhodora 37: 88- 1 13. 1935. 

4. Hitchcock, C. L. "The Tofieldia glutinosa complex of western North America. " Amer. Midi. Natur. 31: 
7-97. 1944. 

5. McKelvey, S. D. "Yuccas of the southwestern United States." Arnold Arboretum of Harvard Dniv. , 
nca Plain, Mass. 1: 1-150. 1938. 2:1-192. 1947. 

6. Webber, J. M. "Yuccas of the Southwest. " U.S. Dep. Agr. Monogr. 17: 1-97. 1953. 

7. Correll, D. S. "Habenaria in western North America. " Leafl. of West. Botan. 3: 233-247. 1943. 

8. Gill, L. S. " Arceuthobium " in the U.S. Conn. Acad. Arts and Sci. Trans. 32: 111-245. 1935. 

9. Kimmey, J. W., and D. P. Graham. "Dwarf mistletoes of the Intermountain and northern Rocky Mountain 
giis, and suggestions for control," U.S. Forest Serv., Intermountain Forest & Range Exp. Sta. Res. Pap. 60, 

p. 1960. 



127 






jl 



70. Knijt, J. "Dwarf mistletoes." Botan. Rev. 21(10): 569-627. 1955. 

71. Trelease, William. "The genus Phoradendron . " 1-224; pis. 1-244. 1916. 

72. Goodman, G. J. "A revision of the North American species of the genus Chorizanthe. " Ann. Mo. Bot 
Gard, 21: 1-102. 1934. 

73. Stokes, Susan G. "The genus Eriogonum. " 1-128. 1936. | 

74. Anderson, J. M, "A revision of Eriogonum section Pedunculata. " Ph.D. Thesis, Univ. Oklahoma, 71 
1959, unpublished. 

75. Stanford, E. E. "Polygonum," Several papers in Rhodora 27-29: 1925-1927. 

76. Fassett, N. G. "The variations of Polygonum punctatum ." Brittonia 6(4): 369-393. 1949. 

77. Rechinger, K. H., Jr. "The North American species of Rumex." Field Mus. Pub. Botan. 17(1): 1-1 
1937. 

78. Reed, C. F. "Chenopodiaceae of Nevada. " Contrib. toward flora of Nevada 41: 1-96. 1956. 

79. Hanson, C. A. "New species of perennial Atriplex from the western United States . " Stud. System.: 
Brigham Young Univ. 1: 1-4. 1962. 

80. Hanson, C. A. "Perennial Atriplex of Utah and the northern deserts." M.S. Thesis, Brigham YoungliJ] 
133 pp. 1962. f:> 

81. Standley, P. C. " Atriplex. " North American Flora 21: 6-7. 1916. 

82. Aellen, P. , and T. Just. "Key and synopsis of the American species of the genus Chenopodium L." A ^^ 
Midi. Natur. 30: 47-76. 1943. ~ 

83. Standley, P. C. "Chenopodium." North American Flora 21: 9-21 . 1916. 

84. Standley, P. C. "Amaranthaceae." North American Flora 21(2): 95-169. 1917. 

85. Sauer, J. "Revision of the dioecious Amaranthus." Madrono 13(1): 5-46. 1955. 

86. Standley, P. C. "Allioniaceae. " North American Flora 21(3): 171-254. 1918. 

87. Holmgren, A. H, "Portulacaceae of Nevada." Contrib. toward flora of Nevada 36: 1-18. 1955. 

88. Rydberg, P. A. "Portulacaceae." North American Flora 21(4): 279-336. 1932. 

89. Howell, J. T. "Notes on Calyptridium. " Leafl. West. Botan. 3: 262-266. 1943. 

90. Holmgren, A. H. "Anew Lewisia from Nevada." Leafl. West. Botan. 7(6): 135-137. 1954. 



f 



91. Maguire, B. "Studies in the Caryophyllaceae." I--Bull. Torr. Botan. Club 73(3): 326, 1946. II--Mad] || 
8: 258-263, 1946. III--Bull. Torr. Botan. Club 74(1): 38-56, 1947. IV--Rhodora 52: 233-245, 1950. V--Ameti 
Midi. Natur. 46(2): 493-511, 1951. 

92. Maguire, B. "Arenaria in America north of Mexico- -a conspectus." Amer. Midi. Natur. 46:493-511 
1951. 

93. Core, E. L, "The North American species of Paronychia. " Amer. Midi. Natur, 26: 369-397. 1941. ■• 

94. Hitchcock, C. L. , and B. Maguire. "A revision of the North American species of Silene," Univ. WaJ 
Pub. Biol. 13: 1-73, 1947, 

95. Rossbach, R. B. " Spergularia in North and South America," Rhodora 42: 57-83, 105-143, 158-193, 5 
213, 1940. 

128 



(1. Munz, P. A. "The cultivated and wild columbines." Gcntes Herb. 7: 1-150. 1946. 

7. Erickson, Ralph O. "Taxonomy of Clematis section Viorna." Ann. Mo. Bovan. Card. 30: 1-60. 1943. 

s. liwan, J. "A synopsis of the North American species of Uelphinium." Univ. Colo. Phys. & Biol. StLidies 
M=. 244. 1945. 

M. Campbell, Gloria R. "The genus Myosurus in North America." El Aliso 2: 389-403. 1952. 

I 1. Benson, L. "A treatise on the North American Ranunculi . " Amer. Midi. Natur. 40: 1-261. 1948. 

I.. Boivin, Bernard. "American Tiialictra and their Old World allies. " Contrib. Gray Herb. 142. 1944. 

L!. Abrams, L. R. "Tlie Mahonias of the Pacific States." Phytologia 1 : 89-94. 1934. 

L). Ownbey, Gerald B. "Monograph of the genus Argemone for North America and the West Indies." Mem. 
■] n.>tan, Clul5 21: 1-159. 1958. 

I . Greene, E. L. "Revision of Escholtzia ." Brittonia 5: 205-293. 1905. 

U.. Fedde, F, "Eschscholzia ." IN: Das Pflanzenreich 40, 104: 144-202. 1909. 

111. Ownbey, G, B. "Monograph of the North American species of Corydalis. " Ann. Mo. Botaii. Gard. 34: 
-^9. 1947. 

[I . Rollins, R. C. "Monographic study of Arabis in western North America." Rhodora 43: 289-325, 348-411, 
-,^1. 1941. 

Femald, M. L. "The North American species of Barbarea. " Rhodora 11: 134-141. 1909. 



Detling, L. R, E. "The Pacific Coast species of Cardamine. " Amer. J. Botan. 24: 70-76. 1937. 

Rollins, R. C. "On two weedy crucifers. " Rhodora 42: 302-306. 1940. 

1 . Payson, E. B, "A monographic study of Thelypodium and its immediate allies." Ann. Mo. Botan. Gard. 
:3-324. 1922. 

I.. Detling, L. R. E. "A revision of the North American species of Descurainia. " Amer. Midi. Natur. 22: 
-M). 1939. 

I. . Rollins, Reed C. "The genetic evaluation of a taxonomic character in Dithyrea (Cruciferae). " Rhodora 
15-152. 1958. ~ 

i;. Hitchcock, C. L. "A revision of the Drabas of western North America. " Univ. Wash. Pub. Biol. 11: 
3 1941. 

1]. Rossbach, G. B, "The genus Erysimum (Cruciferae) in North America north of Mexico- -a key to the 
c:s and varieties." Madrono 14: 261-267. 1958. 

II. Rollins, R. C. "Generic revisions in the Cruciferae: HaUmilobos." Contrib. Dudley Herb. 3: 241-265. 
3 

!1. Hitchcock, C. L. "The genus Lepidium in the United States . " Madrono 3: 265-320. 1936. 

U. Payson, E. B. "Monograph of the genus Lesquerella . " Ann. Mo. Botan. Gard. 8: 103-236. 1921. 

11. Maguire, B., and A. H. Holmgren. "Botany of the Intermountain region-II Lesquerella." Madrono 9(4): 
-4. 1951. 

12. Rollins, R. C. "The cruciferous genus Physaria." Rhodora 41 : 392-4 15. 1939. 
12. RolUns, R. C, "Smelowskla and Polyctenium." Rhodora 40: 294-305. 1938. 



129 



122. Payson, Edwin Blake. "Species of Sisymbrium native to North America north of Mexico." Univ. Wyo, 
Pub. Botan. 1: 1-27. 1922. 

123. Drury, W. H., Jr., and Reed C. Rollins. "The North American representatives of Smeloskia (Cruci- 
ferae)." Rhodora 54: 85-119. 1954. 

124. Rollins, R. C. "The cruciferous genus Stanleya . "Lloydia 2: 109-127. 1939. 

125. Maguire, Bassett. "Great Basin plants VII. Cruciferae." Amer. Midi, Natur. 27: 463-469. 1942. 

126. litis, H. H. "Capparidaceae of Nevada." Contrib. toward a flora of Nevada 35: 1-24. 1955. 

127. Payson, E. B. "A synoptical revision of the genus Cleomella ." Univ. Wyo. Pub. Sci. , Botan. 1: 29-4i' 
1922. 

128. litis, H. H. "Studies in the Capparidiceae- -IV, Polanisia Raf." Brittonia 10(2): 33-58. 1958. 

129. Britton, W. L. , and J. N. Rose. "Crassulaceae. " North American Flora 22: 7-74. 1905. 

130. Small, J. K,, and P. A, Rydberg, "Saxifragaceae," North American Flora 22: 81-158, 1905. 

131. Rosendahl, Butters, and Lakela. "A monograph on the genus Huechera." Minn. Studies in Plant Sci, 
1-180. 1936. 

132. Calder, J. A,, and D, B, O, Savile, "Studies in Saxifragaceae- -I. The Huechera cylindrica complex 
and adjacent to British Columbia." Brittonia 1 1: 49-67. 1959. 

133. Hitchcock, C. L. "The xerophyllous species of Philadelphus in southwest North America." Madrono 
35-56. 1943. 

134. Hu, S-y. "A monograph of the genus Philadelphus." J. Arnold Arboretum 35: 275-333, 1954; 36: 52-i 
325-365, 1955; 15-90, 1956, 

135. Berger, A. "A taxonomic review of currants and gooseberries. " Tech. Bull. 109, New York State Al 
Exp, Sta, 1924. 

136. Calder, J. A., and D. B. O. Savile. "Studies in Saxifragaceae- -II. Saxifrage section Stachyphyllum i: 
North America." Brittonia 11: 228-249. 1959. 

137. Engler, A., and E, Irmscher. "Saxifragaceae- -Saxifraga I. " Das Pflanzenreich IV, 117, 1: 1-709.1'- 

138. Calder, J. A., and D. B. O. Savile. "Studies in Saxifragaceae- -III Saxlfraga odontoloma and Lyallii,. 
North American subspecies of S. punctata," Can, J. Botan. 38: 409-435, 1960, 

139. McVaugh, Rogers, "Rosaceae of Nevada. " Contrib. toward a flora of Nevada 22: 90-96. 1942. 

140. Rydberg, P. A. "Rosaceae." North American Flora 22(3): 239-533. 1908-1918. 

141. Jones, G. N, "American species of Amelanchier, " 126 pp. Univ. 111. Press. 1946. 

142. Martin, F. L. "A revision of Cercocarpus . " Brittonia 7: 91 -1 1 1 , 1950, 

143. Ley, Arlene. "A taxonomic revision of the genus Holodiscus." Bull. Torr. Botan. Club 70: 275-288. 
1943, 

144. Keck, D, D, "Revision of HorkeUa and Ivesia." Lloydia 1: 75-142, 1938, 

145. Clausen, Keck, and Hiesey, "Experimental studies on the nature of species I. Effect of varied envir 
ments on western North American plants." (Potentilla glandulosa and its allies.) Carnegie Inst, of Wash. 520: 
26-195. 1940. ' " 

146. Rydberg, P. A. " Potentilla ," North American Flora 22(4): 293-355, 1908, 

147. Cole, Donald. "A revision of the Rosa californica complex. " Amer. Midi. Natur. 55: 211-224. 1956 

148. Lewis, Walter H. "A monograph of the genus Rosa in North America I, R, acicularis," Brittonia H: 
1-24, 1959, ~~~" 

149. Bailey, L, H. "Rubus in North America, " Gentes Herb, 5: 1-932, 1941-1945, 

150. Porter, C, L. "Leguminosae of Nevada Part III (exclusive of Lupinus, Astragalus , and Oxytropis )." 
Contrib. toward flora of Nevada 42: 1-69. 1957. 

151. Benson, Lyman. "The mesquites and screwbeans of the United States," Amer, J. Botan. 28: 748-754. 
1941, 



a 



to 



152, Hopkins, M. "Cercis in North America." Rhodora 44: 193-211 , 1942. 
130 



H 



l.S,i. Barneby, R. C. Puglllus Astragaloruni I. Leafl. West. Botun. 3: 97-114, 1944; II, Proc . Calif. Acad. 
■ 4, 45: 147-170, 1944; III-VI, Leafl. West. Botan. 4: 49-63, 65-147, 228-238, 1944-1946; 5: 1-9, 1947; VII, 
1 r. Midi. Natur. 37: 421-516, 1947; VIII-IX, Leafl. West. Botan. 5: 25-35, 82-89, 1947-1948; X, Amer. Midi, 
ar. 41: 496-502, 1949; XI, Leafl. West. Botan. 5: 193-197, 1949; XII, El Ahso 2: 203-215, 1950: XIII-XVII, 
el. West. Botan. 6: 89-101, 172-176, 7:31-37, 192-195, 8: 14-23, 1951-1956; XVIII-XIX, Amer. Midi. Natur. 
)r--503, 504-507, 1956; XX, Leafl. West. Botan. 8: 120-125, 1957. 

1,S4. Jones, M. E. "Revision of North American species of Astragalus. " 330 pp. Salt Lake City. 1923. 

155. Rydberg, P. A. "Galegeae, SL±)tribe Astragalanae. " North American Flora 245-7: 251-462. 1929. 

156. Rollins, R. C. "Studies in the genus Hedysarum in North America." Rhodora 42: 216-239. 1940. 

157. Hitchcock, C. Leo. "A revision of the North American species of Lathyrus." Univ. Wash. Pub. Biol. 
i: -104. 1952. 

158. Ottley, Alice M. "The American Loti with special consideration of a proposed new section, Simpeteria.' 
■ionia 5: 81-123. 1944. 



I~i9. Dunn, D. B. "Leguminosae of Nevada. Part II Lupinus." Contrib. toward a flora of Nevada 39: 1-64. 
l(-)0. Dunn, D. B. "A revision of the Lupinus arbustus complex of the Laxiflori." Madrono 14: 54-73. 1957. 



Idl. Shinners, L. H. "Authorship and nomenclature of Bur Clover (Medicago) found wild in the United States.' 
iilora 58: 1-13. 1956. ~ 

162. Barneby, R. C. "A revision of the North American species of Oxytropis." Proc . Calif. Acad. Sci. , 
;J rv, 27: 177-312. 1952. 

lo3. Larisey, M. M. "A revision of the North American species of the genus Thermopsis. " Ann. Mo. Botaii. 
il. 27: 245-258. 1940. 

I(i4. Martin, J. S. "Trifolium monanthum Gray." Madrono 8: 230-233. 1946. 

165. Hermann, F. J. "Vetches in the United States native, naturalized, and cultivated." U.S. Dep. Agi". 
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|166. Femald, M. L. "Geranium carolinianum and allies of in the northeastern North America . " Rhodora 
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167. Jones, G. N., and F. F. Jones. "A revision of the perennial species of Geranium of the United States 
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168. Shaw, R. J. "A cyto-taxonomic study of the genus Geranium in the Wasatch region of Idaho and Utah." 
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169. Bailey, Virginia Long. "Revision of the genus Ptelea OF^utaceae): Briltonia 14: 1-45. 1962. 

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171. Ingram, J. "New species and new combinations in the genus Argythamnia. " Torr. Botan. Club 80: 420- 
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172. Ferguson, A. M. " Crotons of the United States." Rep. Mo. Botan. Card. 12:33-73. 1901. 

173. Fassett, N. C. "CalUtriche in the New World. " Rhodora 53: 137- 155, 161-182, 185-194,209-222. 1951 

174. Barkley, F. A. "A monographic study of Rhus and its immediate allies in North and Centra! America." 
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175. Ensign, M. "A revision of the Celastraceous genus Forsellesia (Glossopetalon). " Amer. Midi. Natur. 
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176. Keller, A. C. "Acer glabrum and its varieties." Amer. Midi. Natur. 27: 491-500. 1942. 

177. Wiggins, I. L. "A resurrection and revision of the genus Iliamna Greene." Contrib. Dudley Herb. 1: 
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178. Clement, I. D. "Studies in Sida (Malvaceae) I. A review of the genus and monograph of the sections 
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179. Hitchcock, C. L. "A study of the perennial species of Sidalcea ." Univ. Wash. Pub. Biol. 18: 1-79. 1 

180. Kearney, T. H. "The North American species of Sphaeralcea subgenus Eusphaeralcea." Univ. CaUf, 
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181. Fassett, N. C. " Elatine and other aquatics." Rhodora 41: 367-377. 1939. 

182. Baker, M. S. "Studies in western violets. " I--Madrono 3: 51 -56, 1935; II- -Madrono 3: 232-238, 193i 
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183. Darlington, J. A. "Monograph of the genus Mentzelia . " Ann. Mo. Botan. Gard. 21: 103-226. 1934. 

184. Benson, Lyman. The cacti of Arizona. Tucson: Univ. Ariz. Press. 1950. 



185. Britton, N. L. , and J. N. Rose. "The Cactaceae. " Carnegie Inst. Wash. Pub. 248. 1919-1923. 

186. Munz, P. A. "Onagraceae of Nevada. " Contrib. toward a flora of Nevada 32: 1-73. 1941. » 

187. Munz, P. A. "A revision of the genus Boisduvalia. " Darwiniana 5: 124-153, 1941. ■ 

188. Lewis, H. , and M. E. Lewis. "The genus Clarkia. " Univ. Calif. Pub. Botan. 20(4): 241-392. 1955.1 

189. Trelease, W. "A revision of the North American species of Epilobium occurring north of Mexico." U 
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190. Munz, P. A. "Studies in Onagraceae XI, A revision of the genus Gaura." Bull. Torr. Botan. Club. 61 
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191. Munz, P. A. "The genus Gayophytum. " Amer. J. Botan. 19: 768-778. 1932. -H 

192. Munz, P. A. "The American species of Ludwigia. " Bull. Torr. Botan. Club 71: 152-165. 1944. 

193. Munz, P. A. "A revision of the subgenus Chylismia of the genus Oenothera." Amer. J. Botan. 15:22 
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194. Raven, Peter H. "The systematics of Oenothera subgenus Chylismia. " Univ. Calif. Press. 1962. 

195. Clausen, Keck, and Hiesey. "Experimental studies on the nature of species I, Effect of varied enviror 
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196. Smith, A. C. "Araliaceae." North American Flora 28B: 3-41 . 1944. 

197. Mathias, Mildred E., and Lincohi Constance. "Umbelliferae. " North American Flora 28B: 43-297. 
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198. Mathias, M. E,, and L. Constance. "Umbelliferae of Nevada." Contrib. toward flora of Nevada 44: 
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199. Mathias, M. E. "A revision of the genus Lomatium ." Ann. Mo. Botan. Gard. 25: 225-297. 1938. 

200. Constance, L. , and R. H. Shan. "The genus Osmorhiza (Umbelliferae) a study in geographic affinities 
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201. Shan, R, , and L. Constance. "The genus Sanicula (Umbelliferae) in the Old World and the New." Univju 
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202. Rickett, H. W. "Cornaceae." North American Flora 28B: 297-316. 1945. 
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J()5. Eastwood, Alice. "A revision of Arctostaphylos . " Leafl. West. Botan. 1: 105-127. 1934. 

_'II6. Hitchcock, C. L. "The Ledum glandulosum complex. " Leafl. West. Botan. 8; 1-8. 1956. 

Jii7. Camp, W. H. "A survey of the Americioi species of Vaccinium, subgenus Euvaccinium . " Brittonia 4: 
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210. Card, Hamilton H. "A revision of the genus Frasera ." Ann. Mo. Botan. Card. 18:245-82. 1931. 

211. St. John, Harold. "Revision of the genus Swertia (Gentianaceae) of the Americas and the reduction of 
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212. Gillett, J. M. "A revision of the North American species of Gentianella Moench." Ann. Mo. Botan. 
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213. Woodson, R, "Monogi-aph of the genus Amsonia. " Ann. Mo. Botan. Card. 15:379-434. 1928. 

214. Woodson, R. E. "Studies in the Apocynaceae L" Ann. Mo. Botan. Card. 17: 1-212. 1930. 

215. Woodson, R. R., Jr. "The North American Asclepiadaceae I. Perspective of the genera. Ann. Mo. 
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216. Woodson, R. E., Jr. "The North Am.erican species of Asclepias." Ann. Mo. Botan. Card. 41: 1-211. 

217. Yuncker, T. G. "The genus Cuscuta ." Mem. Torr. Botan. Club 18: 113-331. 1932. 

218. Yuncker, T, G. "Cuscuta of Nevada. " Contrib. toward a flora of Nevada 34: 1 -11 . 1954. 

219. Brand, A. "Polemoniaceae. " Pflanzenr. IV. 250(Heft 27). 1907. 

220. Grant, V. Natural history of the Phlox family, vol. I systematic botany. Martinus Nijhoff, The Hague, 

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221. Wherry, E. T. "Polemoniaceae of Nevada" with Ipomopsis and Cilia section Arachnion contributed by 
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222. Wherry, E. T. "Review of the genera Collomia and Gymnosteris. " Amer. Midi. Natur. 31: 216-231. 

223. Mason, H. L. "The genus Eriastrum and the influence of Bentham and Gray upon the problem of generic 
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224. Constance, L. , and Reed Rollins. "A revision of Gilia congesta and its allies." Amer. J. Botan. 23: 
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225. Wherry, E. T. "The GiUa aggregata group." Bull. Torr. Club 73: 1 94-202. 1946, 

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227. Grant, V. "A synopsis of Ipomopsis. " El Aliso 3: 351 -362. 1956. 

228. Grant, Alva, and V. Grant. "The genus Allophyllum (Polemoniaceae)." El AHso 3: 93- 1 10. 1955. 

229. Crampton, B. "Morphological and ecological considerations in the classification of Navarretia." 
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230. Wherry, E. T. The genus Phlox. Morris Arboretum Monogr. Ill, 174 pp. 1955. 

231. Davidson, J. F. "The genus Polemonium. " Univ. Calif. Pub. Botan. 23: 209-82. 1950. (19 species 
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!232. Wherry, E. T. "The genus Polemonium in North America." Amer. Midi. Natur. 27: 741-60. 1942. 
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234. Constance, L. "The genus Eucrypta Nutt." Lloydia 1 : 143-152. 1939. 

235. Constance, L. "The genus Hydrophyllum L." Amer. Midi. Natur. 27:710-731. 1942. 

236. Hitchcock, C. L. "A taxonomic study of the genus Nama ." Amer. J. Botan. 20:415-430, 518-534. 
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237. Constance, L. "The genus Nemophila Nutt." Univ. Calif . Pub. Botan. 19: 341 -398. 1941. 

238. Dundas, F. W. "A revision of the Phacelia califomica group (Hydrophyllaceae) for North America. "J 
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239. Gillett, G. W. "An experimental study of the variations in the Phacelia sericea complex." Amer. J. 
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240. Gillett, G. W. "A systematic treatment of the Phacelia franklinii group." Rhodora 62: 205-222. 1961 

241. Heckard, L. R. "Taxonomic studies in the Phacelia magellanica polyploid complex." Univ. Calif. Pu 
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242. Howell, J. T. "Studies in Phacelia." Leafl. West. Botan. 3: 95-96, 1 17- 120, 134. 1942. 



243. Howell, J. T. "Studies in Phacelia. Revision of species related to P. pulchella and P. rotundifolia." 
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244. Howell, J. T. "Sertulum Greeneanum." Amer. Midi. Natur. 30: 6-39. 1943. 



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245. Howell, J. T. "A revision of Phacelia section Miltitzi." Proc. Calif. Acad. Sci. ser. 4, 25: 357-376. 
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246. Howell, J. T. "Studies in Phacelia. Revision of species related to P. douglasii, P. linearis, and P. 
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247. Howell, J. T. "A revision of Phacelia section Euglypta." Amer. Midi. Natur. 36: 381-411. 1946. 

248. Voss, J. W. "A revision of the Phacelia hispida group." Bull. South. Calif. Acad. Sci. 33: 169-177. 
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249. Voss, John W. "A revision of the Phacelia crenulata group for North America." Bull. Torr. Club 6' 



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250. Brand, A. "Borraginaceae-Borraginoideae. Cynoglosseae and Cryptantheae. " Pflanzenr. IV. 252. 
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251. Suksdorf, Wilhelm. "Untersuchungen in der Gattung Amsinckia. " Werdenda 1: 47- 113. 1931. 

252. Johnston, I. M. "The North American species of Cryptantha . " Contrib. Gray Herb. 74: 1-114. 1925 

253. Payson, E. B. "A monograph of the section Oreocarya of Cryptantha. " Ann. Mo. Botan. Gard. 14:21 ; 
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254. Wight, William F. "The genus Eritrichium in North America." Bull. Torr. Club 29: 407-414. 1902. - 

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255. Johnston, I. M. "Studies in the Borginaceae. I. Restoration of the genus Hackelia. " Contrib. Gray iini 
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256. Ewan, J. "A review of the North American weedy heliotropes." Bull. South. Calif. Acad. Sci. 41: 51- 
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257. Johnston, I. M. "Studies in the Borginaceae. XXIII. A survey of the genus Lithospermum." J. Arnol 
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258. Williams, L. O. "A monograph of the genus Mertensia in North America." Ann. Mo. Botan. Gard. 2' 
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259. Macbride, J. F. "The true Mertensias of western North America." Contrib. Gray Herb. n. s. 48: 1- 
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260. Johnston, I. M. "Studies in the Boraginaceae. 4. A synopsis and redefinition of Plagiobothrys. " Cont 
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261. Perry, L. M. "Revision of the North American species of Verbena ." Botan. Gard. 20: 239-362. 193. 

262. Lint, H., and C. EpUng. "A revision of Agastache. " Amer. Midi. Natur. 33: 207-230. 1945. 



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_'ri3. McClintock, Elizabeth, antl Carl Rpliiig. "A review of tlie genus Monarda." L'niv. Calil'. Pub. Botan. 20: 
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267. Epling, Carl. "The American species of Scutellaria. " Univ. Calif. Pub. Botan. 20: 1-146. 1942. 

268. McClintock, Elizabeth, and Carl Epling. "A revision of Teucrium in the New World." Brittonia 5: 491- 
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269. Lewis, Harlan. "A revision of the genus Trichostema. " Brittonia 5: 276-303. 1945. 

270. Safford, W. E. "SvTiopsis of the genus Datura ." J. Wash. Acad. Sci. 11:173-189. 1921. 

271. Hitchcock, C. L. "A monograpliic study of the genus Lycium of the Western Hemisphere." Ann. Mo. 
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272. Goodspeed, T. H. The genus Nicotiana. Chron. Botan. 16: 1-536. 1954. 

273. Stebbins, G. Ledyard, Jr., and Elton F. Paddock. "The Solanum nigrum complex in Pacific North 
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274. Edwin, G. "Scrophulariaceae of Nevada Part II, the genera except Mimulus and Penstemon." Contrib. 
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275. Pennell, P. W. "Scrophulariaceae of the central Rocky Mountain States. " U.S. Contrib. Nat. Herb. 20: 
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276. Pennell, F. W. "A revision of Synthyris and Besseya ." Acad. Nat. Sci . Phil. Proc . 85: 77- 106. 1933. 

277. Newsom, V. "A revision of the genus Collinsia. " Botan. Gaz. 87: 260-301. 1929. 

278. Ferris, R. S. "Taxonomy and distribution of Adenostegia. " Bull. Torr. Botan. Club 45: 399-423. 1918. 

279. Grant, A. L. "A monograph of the genus Mimulus . " Ann. Mo. Botan. Card. 11: 99-388. 1924. 

280. Edwin, G. "Scropulariaceae of Nevada. Parti. Mimulus." Contrib. toward flora of Nevada 37: 1-21. 
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281. Campell, G. R. "Mimulus guttatus and related species." El Aliso 2: 319-337. 1950. 

282. Keck, D. D. "A revision of the genus Orthocarpus. " Calif. Acad. Sci. Proc. IV, 16: 517-571. 1927. 

283. Keck, David D. Studies in Penstemon I --A systematic treatment of the section Saccanthera. Univ. Calif. 
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284. Shaw, R. J. "The biosystematica of Scrophularia in western North America." El Aliso 5: 147-178. 1962. 

285. Pennell, F. W. " Veronica in North and South America." Rhodora 23: 1 -22, 29-41 . 1921. 

286. Fosberg, F. R. "Varieties of the desert willow, Chilopsis linearis." Madrono 3: 362-366. 1936. 

287. Beck, G. "Orobanchaceae. " Das Pflanzenreich, IV, 261: 1-348. 1930. 

288. Achey, D. "A revision of the section Gymnocaulis of the genus Orobanche, section Myzorrhiza." Bull. 
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289. Munz, P. A. "The North American species of Orobanche, section Myzorrhiza." Bull. Torr. Botan. 
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290. Rossbach, C. B. "Aquatic Utricularias." Rhodora 41 : 1 13- 128. 1939. 

291. Pilger, R. "Plantaginaceae. " Das Pflanzenreich, IV, 269: 39-432. 1937. 

292. Wheeler, Louis C. "Notes on Plantago in the Pacific States." Amer. Midi. Natur . 20: 33 1 -333. 1938. 

293. Dempster, L. T. "The re-evaluation of Galium multiflorum and related taxa. " Brittonia 11: 105-122. 
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294. Dempster, L. T. "New names and combinations in the genus Galium ." Brittonia 10: 181-192. 1958^ 

295. Ehrendorfer, F. "Survey of the Galium multiflorum complex in the west North America." Contrib. 
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296. Hilend, M,, and J. T. Howell. "The genus Galium in southern California." Leafl. West. Botan. 1: 14 
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297. Jones, G. N. "A monograph of the genus Symphoricarpos. " J. Arnold Arboretum 21: 201 -252. 1940. 

298. Nielsen, Sarah Dyal. "Systematic studies in the Valerianaceae. " Amer. Midi. Natur. 42:480-501. 1' 

299. Meyer, F. G. "Valeriana in North America and the West Indies." Ann. Mo. Botan. Gard. 38: 377-50' 
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300. McVaugh, R. "Campanulaceae (Lobelioideae). " North American Flora 32A: 1-134. 1943. 

301. Shetler, S. G. "A checklist and key to the species of Campanula native or commonly naturalized in 
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302. McVaugh, R. "A monograph on the genus Downingia." Mem. Torr. Club 194: 1-57. 1941. 

303. McVaugh, R. "Some realignments in the genus Nemacladus." Amer. Midi. Natur. 22: 521-550. 19| 

304. McVaugh, R, "The genus Triodanis Rafinesque, and its relationships to Specularia and Campanula." 
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305. Clausen, J. , David D. Keck, and William Hiesey. "Experimental studies on the nature of species. I. 
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306. Clausen, J. , David D. Keck, and William Hiesey. "Experimental studies on the nature of species. Hi 
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307. Porter, C. L. "The genus Amphipappus Torr. & Gray." Amer. J. Botan. 30: 481-483. 1943. 



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308. Howell, J. T. "Distributional data on weedy thistles in western North America." Leafl. West. Botaii. 
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309. Maguire, Bassett. "A monograph of the genus Arnica." Brittonia 4: 386-510. 1943. 

310. Beetle, A. A. "A study of sagebrush --the section Tridentatae of Artemisia." Univ. Wyo. Agr. Exp. 
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311. Hall, Harvey M., and Frederic E. Clements. "The North American species of Artemisia; the phylo- 
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312. Keck, David D. "A revision of the Artemisia vulgaris complex in North America." Calif. Acad. Sci. 
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313. Ward, G. H. "Artemisia, section Seriphidium, in North America. " Contrib. Dudley Herb. 4: 155-20 
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314. Cronquist, A. W. "North American species of Aster centering about Aster foliaceus Lindl." Amer. 
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315. Cronquist, A. W. "Revision of the Oreastrum group of Aster ." Leafl. West. Botan. 5:73-82. 1948. 

316. Sharp, Ward M. "A critical study of certain epappose genera of the Heliantheae-Verbesininae of the 
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317. Ownbey, Marion, and William A. Weber. "Natural hybridization in the genus Balsamorhiza. " Amer. 
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318. Weber, William A. "A taxonomic and cytological study of the genus Wyethia, family Compositae, with 
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319. Sherff, E. E. "The genus Bidens ." Field Mus. Pub. Botan. 16: 1 -709. 1937. 

320. Robinson, B. L. "A monograph of the genus Brickellia. " Mem. Gray Herb. 1: 1-151. 1917. 

321. Stockwell, Palmer. "A revision of the genus Chaenactis." Contrib. Dudley Herb. 3: 89-168. 1940. 

322. Hall and Clements. "The North American species of Chrysothamnus, in the phylogenetic method in 
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323. Howell, J. T. "Studies in Cirsium , Sertiilum Greene.inuni . " Anier. Midi. Natur. 30: 29-M). 1443. 

324. Howell, J. T. "Studies in Cirsium -II." Leafl. West. Botan. 9: 9- 1 S. 19S9. 

325. Cronquist, .'\. "The separation of Erigeron from Conyza." Bull. Torr. C'luh 7(1: 629-632. 1943. 

326. Babcock, E. B. "The genus Crepis ." Univ. Calif. Pub. Botau. 21-22: 1-1(130. 1947. 

327. Babcock and Stebbins. "The American species of Crepis. " Carnegie Inst. Wash. PliIi. 504: 1-199. 193S. 

328. Blake, S. F. "A revision of Encelia and some related genera." Amer. Acad. Proc . 49: 351-376. 1913. 

329. Cronquist, Arthur. "A revision of the North American species of Erigeron, north of Mexico." 
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330. Constance, Lincoln. "A systematic study of the genus Eriophyllum Lag." Univ. Calif. Pub. Bolan. IH: 
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331. Biddulph, Susan Fry. "A revision of the genus GaiUardia. " State Coll. Wash. Res. Studies 12: 195-256. 

332. Steyermark, J. A. "A monograph of the North American species of the genus Grindelia." Ann. Mo. 
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333. Solbrig, O. T. "Cytotaxonomic and evolutionary studies in the North American species of Gutierrezia . " 
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334. Hall, H. M. "The genus Haplopappus. " Carnegie Inst. Wash. Pub. 389. 1928. 

335. Weber, William A. "The genus Helianthella (Compositae). " Amer . Midi. Natur . 48: 1 -35. 1952. 

336. Turner, Billie L. "A cytotaxonomic study of the genus Hynienopappus. " Rhodora 58: 163-186, 208-242, 
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337. Cockerell, T. D. A. "The North American species of Hymenoxys." Bull. Torr. Botan. Club 31: 461-509. 
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338. Parker, K. F. "New combinations in Hymenoxys." Madrono 10: 159. 1950. 

339. Everly, M. L. "A taxonomic study of the genus Perityle and related genera." Contrib. Dudly Herb. 3: 
5-396. 1947. 

340. Shinners, Lloyd H., "Synopsis of the genus Eustoma (Gentianaceae). " Southeastern Naturalist 2: 38-43. 
157. 

341. Shinners, L. H. "Revision of the genus Leucelene Greene." Wrightia 1: 82-89. 1946. 

342. Cronquist, ,A. , and D. D. Keck. "A reconstitution of the genus Machaeranthera. " Brittonia 9: 231-239. 
57. 

343. Williams, E. W. "The genus Malacothrix (Compositae)." Amer. Midi. Natur. 58:494-512. 1957. 

344. Chambers, K. L. "A biosystematic study of the annual species of Microseris. " Contrib. Dudley Herb. 
'4): 207-312. 1955. 

345. Ammerman, E. "A monographic study of the genus Palafoxia and its immediate allies." Ann. Mo. B<.)tan. 
(ird. 31: 249-278. 1944. 

346. Anderson, Loran C . , "Studies on Petradoria Compositae: Anatomy, Cytology, Taxonomy." Transactions 
- ihu Kansas Acad. Sci. 66: 632-684. 1964! 

347. Cronquist, A. ".A review of the genus Psilocarphus." Res. Studies State Coll . Wash. 18:71-89. 1950. 



137 



i 



» 

m 



eli 

i 



I 
01 






138 



NDEX 



:es, t&s. 2 

lONlA, F, 30 
iinthmm , T&S, 104 
JTILON. F. 66 
ACIA, T&S. 52 
AMPTOPAPPLIS, T&S, 102 
microct'phalus, r&S. 115 
\NTHOCHlTON, F, 30 
inthogonum, F. 22 
ER, T&S, 65 
iRACEAE, T&S, 65 
rates . F. 80 
4ILLEA. F. 102 
4YR0NYCHIA, F, 32 
rixlordu, F. 34 
;isaiithes. F. 31 
lispon , F, 5^ 
)NITUM, F, 35 
nogonum, F. 27 
olasia. F. 68 
PAEA, F. 35 
jiea, F. 117 
jiella , F. 107. 117 
Jiolepis . F. 111. 114 
lia^ F. 79 

■NOCAULON, F. 102 
aostegia. F. 95 
ANTUM. F, 1 
)NIS, F, 35 
rium, F. 76 
)XA", F. 101 
)XACEAE, F. 101 
;iLOPS, G, 7 
5TACHE, F. 92 
,VE, T&S, 18 
ratum , F. 12u 
SERIS, F, 102 
Ipestris. F. 119 
(J^'^RON. G. 7 
.LIUCANS, G, 7 
indinum. C. 7 

■Irizonicum. G, 7 

AKERI. G. 7 
iflorum, G. 7 
revifolium. G. 7 
•aninoides. G. 7 
aninum. G. 7 
iliatum. G. 7 

:ristatum, g. i 

lASYSTACHYUM. G, 7 

subvillosum. G. 7 
•ESERTORUM. G, 7 
ivergens . G. 7 

LMERl, G. 7 

LONGATUM, G, 7 

exuosum, G. 7 

melini, G. 7 

RIFFITHSI. G. 7 

ierme, G. 7 

NiTERMEDIUM. G, 7 
"Uiceolatum, G. 7 

:AT1GLUME. G. 7 

lolle , G. 7 

;cidentale, G, 7 

almeri . G. 7 

auc iflorum . G. 7 

5EUDOREPENS, G. 7 

EPENS, G, 7 

ichardsoni , G. 7 

IFARIUM, G. 7 

'\UNDERSII. G, 7 

ftXICOLA. G, 7 

2R1BNERI. G, 7 

[BIRICUM, G, 7 

MITHll. G. 7 

j MOLLE, G, 7 
PALMERI. G, 7 



SPICATUM, G. 7 
INERME. G. 7 
PUBESCENS. G. 7 

SUBSECUNDUM. G. 7 
ANDIUM. G. 7 

subvillosum, G. 7 

tenerum. G. 7 

TRACHYCAULUM. G. 7 

TRICHOPHORUM. G. 7 

TRITICEUM, G, 7 

unilaterale, G. 7 

vaseyi. G. 7 

violacescens, G. 7 

violaceum, G, 7 
.AiGROSTEMMA. F. 32 
.^iGROSTIDEAE. G, 9 
AGROSTIS, G. 9 
Aira . G. 8 
AIZOACEAE, F, 31 
Alder, T&S. 21 
ALETES, F, 73 
Alfalfa, F. 61 
ALHAGI, T&S, 52 
Allgera , F, 101 
ALISMA, F, 4 
ALISMACEAE, F, 4 
Alkanet, F. 88 
ALLENROLFEA, T&S. 28 
ALLIONIA, F, 31 
Allioniella , F. 31 
ALLIUM. F, 16 
Allocarya, F. 91 
AUophyllum, F. 83 
ALNUS, T&S, 21 
ALOPECURUS, G. 9 
Aloysia, T&S, 91 
Alpine oat, G. 9 
Alplily. F, 17 
Alsine, F, 34 
Alsinella , F. 33 
Alsinopsis. F, 33 
Alumroot. F. 47 
ALYSSUM, F. .39 
Amaranth. F. 30 
AMARANTHACEAE. F, 30 
AMARANTHLIS. F, 30 
Amarella . F. 79 
AMARYLLIDACEAE. T&S. li 
AMARYLLIS, T&S. 18 
Amauria, F, 106 
Amauriopsis, F. 106 
AMBROSIA. F. 103 
AMELANCHIER. T&S. 49 
Amesia. F. 19 
AMMANIA, F, 70 
Amphiachyris . T&S. 103 
Amphilophis. G. 12 
AMPHIPAPPUS. T&S. 103 
AMSINCKIA. F, 88 
AMSONIA, F, 80 
Amygdalus, T&S. 51 
ANACARDIACEAE. T&S, 65 
Anacharis. F. 4 
ANAPHALIS, F, 103 
ANCHUSA, F, 88 
ANDROPOGONEAE, G, 12 
ANDROPOGON, G, 12 
Androcea, F. 93 
ANDROSACE, F, 78 
ANDROSTEPHIUM, F, 16 
Anelsonia. F, 44 
ANEMONE, F. 35 
ANEMOPSIS, F, 20 
ANETHUM, F, 73 
ANGELICA, F, 73 
ANGIOSPERMEAE, F, 3 
ANISOCOMA, F, 103 



Anisolotus. F. 59 

Anogra 

albitaula. F. 71 
bradburiana, F. 71 
buff um i , F , 7 ! 



."alifornica. F. 12 



cuierea. F. 72 
coronopifolia, I'. 72 
douglasiana. F. 73 
latifolia . f', 72 
leptophylla . F. 73 
longiflora. " F. 72 
pallida . F, 73 
perplc'.xa. F. 7 1 
pinnatifida, F. 71 



flLABRA. F. 39 

l-URCATIPILl'.S. !■•. 
gracilcnla. F. 39 

hirsuta" 

GLABRA1A. i-. 39 
PYCNOCARPA. F, i* 

llOLBOELLll. I-. 39 
PENDULOCARPA. 1- . 
PINETORUM. 1-. 39 
RF.TROl-RAinA. I'. 

howcllii . F. 39 

INYOENSIS. F. i9 

kennedyi. !■'. 59 

latifolia . F. 39 
F 



rhizomata. G. 73 


DFPAUPERATA. F. 59 


simplex. F, 72 


DREPANOLOBA. F. 59 


trichocalyx. F. 73 


LIGNIFERA. F. 39 


violacea. F, 73 


lignipes. F. 39 


vreelandii, F. 73 


longirostris. I', 45 


Anotites. F. 34 


LYALLII. F. 39 


ANTENNARIA. F. 103 


macounii. F. 39 


ANTHEMIS. F. 103 


menziesii. F. 44 


ANTHERICUM. F. 16 


lanuginosa. I-', 44 


Antheropeas, F, 114 


lata. F, 44 


Anthopogon. 1". 79 
Anthurium. 16 


MICROPHYLLA. F. 39 
MACOUNII. F. 39 


Anticlea. F. 18 


nevadensis. F, 39 


ANTIRRHINUM. F. 9,i, 95 


NUTTALLII. F, 39 


Anulocaulis. F. 31 


oblanceolata. F. .59 


Apache plume. T&S. 49 


oreophila. I-'. 39 


Apetlorhammus. T&S. 66 


ovata, F. 39 


Apinus, T&S. 2 
APIUM. F, 73 


oxyphylla. F. 39 
pediccllata. F. 44 


Aphyllon. F. 99 
Aplopappus. see Haplopappus 

F, 115 
APOCYNACEAE, F, SO 
APOCYNUM, F, 80 
AQUILEGIA, F, .55 
ARABIS, F, ,59 


pendulocarpa. F. 39 
RENDU LINA. F. 39 
peramoena. F. 40 
perelegans. F. 40 
PERENNANS. F. .W 
philonipha. F. 39 
pinetorum. F. 39 


aprica. F. 39 
arcoides. F. 40 


platyloba. F. 39 
PLATYSPERMA. F. 39 


arida. F. .59 
beckwithii, F. 39 
brebneriana. F. 42 
brucae. F. 39 


HOWCLLII. F. .59 
PUBERULA. F. ,39 
PULCHRA, F. 59 

GRACILIS. F. 39 


caduca. F. 39 


MUNCIENSIS. F. 39 


canescens. F. 39 
COBRENSIS. F. 39 


FALLENS. F. .39 
pvcnocarpa. F. 39 


cognata. F. 39 


REPANDA. F. 40 


connexa . F . 39 


GREENFI. I-. 40 


crypta. F. 39 
DAVIDSONII. F. 39 
DEMISSA. F, 39 

LANGUIDA. F. 39 
RUSSEOLA. I--. 39 


retrofracta. 1- . .i9 
secunda. F. 39 
rhodanlha. F. 39 
rugocarpa. I'. 39 
rupesiris. !■'. 39 


densicaulis. F. 39 


sabulosa. F. 39 


depaupcrata. F. 39 
deserti, F. 44 
diehlii. F. .39 
DIVARICARPA. F. 39 


SCHISTACEA. 1-. 40 
secunda. !■. 39 
SFLBYI, !■. 40 
seiulosa. 1'. 39 


pinetorum. F, 39 
drepanoloba. I-'. 39 
DRUMMONDII. F, 39 


SHOCKLFYI, F, 40 
SPARSIFLORA. l-. 40 
peramoena. I-. 40 


lyallii. F. 39 


SUBVILLOSA, I-. 40 


orcopliila. 1". 39 
duriuscula. I-'. 40 


spatifoUa. I'. 39 
stokesiae. 1- . 39 


egglestonii, I-'. 39 
elegans. F. 40 


SUFFRUTESCENS. F. 40 
thaliana. F. 39 


eremophila. F. 39 
exilis. F. 39 
FENDLERI. F, .39 

SPATIFOLIA, F, 39 
FERNALDIANA. F, 39 

STY LOS A, F, 39 
formosa. F. 39 


ARABIDOPSIS, F, 39. 42 
Aragallus.62 
ARALIA. F. 73 
ARALIACEAE, F, 73 
ARCEUTHOBIUM. F. 21 
Archemora. I-". 77 
ARCTIUM. F, 103 



139 



ARCTOMECON, F, 38 
ARCTOSTAPHYLOS, T&S, 78 
ARENARIA, F, 32 
ARGEMONE, F, 38 
Argentina. F, 50 
ARGYTHAMNIA, F, 64 
ARISTIDA, G, 9 
ARISTIDEAE, G, 9 
ARNICA, F, 103 
ARRHENATHERUM, G, 8 
Arrowgrass, G, 4 
Arrowhead, F. 4 
ARTEMISIA, T&S and F, 104 
ABSINTHIUM, F, 104 
aJbuIa , F, 105 
angiista , T&S, 105 
ARBUSCULA, T&S, 104 
NOVA, T&S, 104 
thermopola , T&S, 104 
arctica, F, 105 
argophylla, F, 104 
aromatica, F, 104 
atomifera, F, 104 
bakeri , F. 104 
BIENNIS, F, 104 
BIGELOVII, T&S, 104 
bolanderi . T&S, 104 
borcalis , T&S, 104 
CAMPESTRIS 

BOREALIS, T&S, 104 
SCOULERIANA, T&S, 
104 
pacific a. F, 104 
spithamaea , T&S, 104 
CANA, T&S, 104 

VISCIDULA, T&S. 104 
BOLANDERI, T&S. 104 
candle ans, F, 105 
CARRUTHII, F, 104 

wrightii, F, 104 
chamissoniana, F. 105 

saxatilis, F. 105 
coloradoensis, F, 104 
columbiensis, F. 104 
discolor, F. 105 

glandulifera, F, 105 
DOUGLASIANA, F, 104 
di-acunculoides, F, 104 
DRACUNCULUS, F, 104 

glauca, F, 104 
FILIFOLIA, T&S, 104 
flodmannii , T&S, 104 
FRIGIDA, T&S, 104 
glauca , T&S, 104 
gnaphalodes . T&S, 104 
gracilenta . T&S. 105 
graveolens , T&S. 105 
heterophyUa . T&S, 104 
incompta . T&S. 104 
kennedyi . T&S. 104 
latiloba, T&S, 105 
longiloba , T&S, 104 
LUDOVICIANA, F, 104 

INCOMPTA, F, 104 
LATILOBA, F, 105 
ALBULA, F, 105 
atomifera, F, 104 
candicans, F. 105 
douglasiana, F, 104 
gnaphalodes, F, 104 
MEXICANA, F, 105 
matricarioides, F, 119 
mexicana, F, 105 
MICHAUXIANA, F, 105 
microcephala, F. 105 
NORVEGICA 

SAXATILIS, F, 105 
nova, T&S, 104 



PAPPOSA, T&S, 105 


CAMPESTRIS, F, 105 


PARRYI, T&S, 105 


argillicola. F, 105 


paucicephala. F. 105 


BLOOMERI, F, 105 


PEDATIFIDA, T&S, 105 


canbyi. F, 105 


petrophila, T&S, 104 


canescens, F, 119 


plattensis. T&S. 104 


tephrodes, F, 119 


potens, F. 104 


carnosa. F, 106 


PYGMAEA, T&S, 105 


CHILENSIS 


rhizomata. F, 104 


ADSCENDENS, F, 105 


RIGIDA, T&S, 105 


cichoriaceus. F, 119 


ripicola, T&S. 104 


ciliomarginatus, F. 105 


rothrockii, T&S. 105 


coerulescens, F, 106 


saxicola. F. 105 


laetevirens, F. 106 


parryi. F. 105 


copelandi. F. 106 


saxatilis, F. 105 


denudatus. F. 105 


SCOPULORUM, F, 105 


deserticola. F. 105 


scouleriana. T&S. 104 


EATONII, F, 105 


silvicola. T&S, 104 


elegans, F. 106 


SPINESCENS, T&S. 105 


ENGELMANNII, F, 105 


spithamaea, T&S, 104 


ericaefolius, F, 118 


spiciformis, T&S, 104 


FOLIACEUS 


longiloba, T&S. 104 


APRICUS, F, 105 


subglabra, T&S, 105 


burkeri, F. 105 


TRIDENT ATA, T&S. 105 


CANBYI, F, 105 


angustifolia, T&S. 105 


eatonii, F. 105 


arbuscula, T&S. 104 


frondcus, F, 105 


bolanderi. T&S. 104 


hesperius. F. 106 


nova, T&S. 104 


PARRYI, F, 105 


ROTHROCKI, T&S, 105 


fremontii, F, 106 


VASEYANA, T&S. 105 


frondeus. F, 105 


TRIPARTITA, T&S. 105 


FRONDOSUS, F, 106 


underwoodii, F, 105 


geyeri, F. 106 


vaseyana, T&S, 105 


GLAUCODES, F, 106 


viscidiUa, T&S, 104 


glaucus, F, 106 


vulgaris 


wasatchensis. F. 106 


candicans, F, 105 


glossophylla. F, 119 


discolor, F. 105 


halophilus. F. 105 


douglasiana, F. 104 


haydenii. F. 105 


flodmanii, F. 104 


HESPERIUS, F, 106 


glandulifera. F. 105 


LAETEVIRENS, F, 106 


gnaphalodes, F, 104 


hirtifolius, F. 118 


heterophyUa. F. 104 


humistratus, F. 106 


ludoviciana, F, 104 


incertus. F. 105 


michauxiana. F, 105 


INTEGRIFOLIUS, F, 106 


wrightii, F. 104 


INTRICATUS, F, 106 


coloradoensis, F. 104 


kingii, F. 119 


Asarma, F. 93. 95 


laetevirens. F. 106 


ASCLEPIAS, F, 80 


LAEVIS 


Asclepiodora, F, 80 


GEYERI, F, 106 


ASCLEPIOIDACEAE, F, 80 


leiodes, F. 119 


Ash. T&S, 79 


leucanthemifolia, F. 119 


ASPARAGUS, F, 16 


leucelene. F. 118 


Aspen. T&S. 20 


leucopsis. F. 105 


ASPERUGO, F, 88 


linearis. F. 119 


Asperula. F. 80 


mearnsii, F. 105 


ASPLENIUM, F, 1 


mohavensls, F. 119 


ASTER, F, 105 


nelsonii, F. 105 


abatus, F, 119 


nuttallii, F. 105 


adenolepis, F, 119 


OCCIDENTALIS, F, 106 


adscendens, F, 105 


INTERMEDIUS, F, 106 


denudatus, F. 105 


YOSEMITANUS, F, 106 


ALPIGENUS 


oregonus, F, 105 


ANDERSONII, F, 105 


osterhoutii, F. 106 


HAYDENII, F, 105 


paludicola, F. 106 


amplexifolius, F, 106 


PANSUS, F, 106 


andersonii, F, 105 


parviflora, F. 119 


andinus, F, 106 


parvulus, F. 119 


angustus. F. 105 


pattersoni, F. 119 


apricus, F, 105 


PAUCIFLORUS, F, 106 


arenarioides, F, 112 


PERELEGANS, F, 106 


arenosus, F, 118 


praeatus. F, 106 


argillicola, F, 105 


proximus, F. 105 


asperugineus, F, 112 


pumila. F, 120 


beUus, F, 118 


ramulosus, F. 105 


bigelovii, F, 119 


SCOPULORUM, F, 106 


bloomeri, F, 105 


shastensis 


BRACHYACTIS, F, 105 


glossophylla. F, 119 



sibiricus. F. 113 
SPINOSUS. F. lll^ 
subgrisens, F. IU5 
subspicatus, F, 105 
tanacetifolia. F, 119 
tephrodes. F, 1 19 
thermalis. F. 10b 
tortifolia , F. 119 
vaccinus. F. 105 
venusta. F. 119 



F. I 



WASATCHENSIS 
watsoni. F. 113 
xylorhiza , F, 118 
yosemitanus. F, 106 
Asterigeron. F. 113 



ASTRAGALUS, F. 52 
ABORIGINTJM. F, 53 
GLABRIUSCULUS, 
F. 53 
acerbus. F. 58 
aculeatus, F. 58 
ACUTIROSTRIS, F, 5, 
ADANUS, F, 53 
ADSURGENS 

ROBUSTIOR, F, 53 
AEQUALIS, F, 53 
agininus. F. 55 
AGRESTIS, F, 53 
albens. F. 56 
albiflorus . F. 62 
allanaris. F. 57 
ALLOCHROUS, F, S|^ 
ALPINUS, F. 53 W 

alpiniformis, F. 58 
ALVORDENSIS, F. 5,1 
AMPHIOXYS, F. 53 
CYMBELLUS. F, 5, 
MELANOCALYX, f,. 
MODESTUS. F, 
VESPERTINUS, 
AMPULLARIUS, F, 
ANDERSONII, F, 5; 
andinus, F. 53 
apicola. F. 62 
arctus, F . 57 
ARETIOIDES, F, 5; 
argenosus. F. 56 
argillosus. F. 55 
ARGOPHYLLUS, F, 53, 
castanaeformis, H 
cnicensis. F. 53 
MARTINI, F, 53 
panguicensis, F. 53 
PEPHRAGMENOIDE: 
F. 53 
arietinus, F. 54 
ARRECTUS, F, 53, S 
palousensis, F. 53 " 
PEPHRAGMENUS, f 
remotus. F. 57 
artemisiarum, F, 5i 
ARTHURI. F, 53 
arthu-schottii, F. 55 



I 



I 



artipes. F. 57 

ASCLEPIADOIDES, F, 

ATRATUS, F. 53 

INSEPTUS, F, 53 ' 
OWYHEENSIS, F, i 
phyllophorus, F, Sa 
stenophyllus, F, 5^ 

AUSTINAE, F, 53 

BECKWITHII, F. 53 
PURPUREUS, F, 53 
WEISERENSIS, F, 5 

BERNARDINUS. F, 53 

BIGELOVII 

MOGOLLONICUS, F 
thompsonae, F. 57 



140 



sx 



RACALL'S (con.) 
isontum, I- . o.' 

minor, 1- . 62 
:SULCATUS, [■■, =>i 

HAVnEXIAXUS, F, 5.! 

NKVADKN'SIS. 1- , i,i 
DDIXI, F, Si 
)iscjnus, I- . SS 
jonujnus. F'. 57 



lAXDFGEI, 1-, 5 5 
evicaiills, F. 54 
fVidcns, F'. 54 
n'AXTII, F. 5! 
iC'Spuosus. F. 58 
\LIFORXlClIS. F'. 5.i 
\LL1THRIX. I-. 5,5 
\LYCOSUS, F, 54 

MAX'CUS, F, 54 

MOXOPIIYLLIDUS. F, 5. 

SCAPOSL'S, F, 54 
mpestris. F. 54 
mpylophyllus. F. 58 
^MPTOPL'S. F, 54 
\NADEXSIS, F. 54 

BRE\1DFXS, F, 54 

MORTONH, F, 54 
ndelarius. F, 57 

exiguus. F. 57 
nonis. F. 58 
ricmus, F. 56 
rltonii, F, 56 
iSEI, F, 54 
iSTAXAEl-ORMIS, F, 54 

CONSOBRIXUS, F. 54 
:RAMICUS. F, 54 

angustus. F. 54 

magnus . F, 54 
lANUELEL'CE, F, 54 



lAMAEMENISCUS 
ILOODES, F, 54 
loridae, F. 58 
3ARIUS, F, 54 
adeae. F. 54 
ICCIXEUS, F, 54 
ILLIXUS, F. 54 
calUornicus, F. 
54 
54 



54 



5.5 



iLTOXI, F, 
aphyllus, F. 



MOABEXSIS, F, 54 
ifertiflorus. F. 55 
ijunctus, F. 58 
NVALLARIUS, F, 54 
diversU'olius, F, 54 
FINITIMUS, F, 54 
xiphoides, F. 58 
ASSICARPUS, F, 54 
EMNOPHYLAX, F, 54 
|0NQUISTII, F, 54 
ilteri , F, 56 
■scenticarpus. F. 



5.5 



IftUobus, F, 5.5 

: SICK II, F, 54. .55 
'■ .\RPUS, F, 54 
LABER, F, 54 

:,MBOIDES, F, 54 

: [toides , F. 54 

j tyglottis , F, 5.5 

ijumbens, F, 56 
Uecurrens, F. 56 
oblongiiolius , F. .56 

llexa 
I foliolosa . F. 62 

ipissus, F, 5,5 

r^ERETICUS, F, 54 

lSPERATUS, F, 54 
CONSPECTUS, F, 54 
PETROPHILUS, F, 54 

:rERIOR, F, 54 



DI'TRITALIS, F, 54 
OinVMOCARl'L'S, 1-, 
dichlii, F. 55 
diphysus, F", 55, 56 

lalus, 1". 56 
diMi'gcns, I- . 56 
ni\ ERSli-OLIl'S. F, 
dodgcaniis, F. 5,s 
DRABELLll-'ORMIS. 1 
DRL'MMOXDIl, F, 54 



DLICIIESXE.XSIS, 
EASPWOODAF, 
EMORYANUS, F 
E.NSII-OKMIS, F 
gracilior, F. 
EPISCOPL'S. F, 
eremicus. 



54 
54 



.16 



EREMITICUS, I', 55 

iMALIlEL'RFNSIS, I- . 55 

SPENCIA.Xl'S, F, 55 
eriocarpus. F. 57 
EUREKENSIS. F, 55 
exUifolius. F, 58 
FILIPES, F, 55 

inversus. F. 55 

rcsiduus. F. 55 
flavillorus, F. 55 
FLAVUS, F, 55 

ARGILLOSUS, F, 55 

CANDICANS, F, 55 
FLEXUOSUS, F, 55 

DIEHLII, F, 55 

SIERRAE-BLANCAE, F, 55 
loliolosus, F. 54 
forwoodii, F. 5.5 

wallowensis, F. 5.5 
fremontii, F. 56 

eremicus, F. 56 
FUCATUS, F, 55 
FUNEREUS, F, 55 
garrettii, F. .56 
glabriusculus, F, 5.5 
~55 



GEYERI, F, 

TRIQUETRLIS, 
GIBBSII, F, 55 
GILVIFLORUS, F 
glareosus, F, 57 
goniatus, F, 5.5 



F. 55 




nevadensis, 1-. 5.5 

heliophllus, F. 56 

HEMIGYRUS, F, 56 

hookerianus 

siskiyouensis, F. 58 

HORNII, F, 55 

IIOSACKIAE, F, 55 

HOWELLII 

ABERRANS, F, 55 

HUMILLIMUS, F, 55 

HUMISTRATUS 

HOSACKIAE, F, 55 
HUMISTRATUS, F, 55 
HUMIVAGAXS, F, 55 
SONORAE, F, 55 

hylophilus, F, .56 

ibapensis. F. 54 

impensus, F, 55 

incurvus. F. 51 

ineptus, F, 56 

INFLEXUS, F, 55 

intermedius, F. 58 

INVERSUS, F, 55 



ixyof;nsis, i-. 5^ 

lOnAN'FIIUS. F. ■ 

!:>iAPii,\NonF;s 
vipi-:kius, f', 
ioix)Pf;fai.lis, f 
jf^iuxlis, i-, 55 

jepsoni, F, 5 5 
jessiae. I-, 55 
jonesii. F. 
junceus, F" 




54 



KFNTROPHYTA, I-, 55 
COLORAHEXSIS, \- , 55 
ELATLIS, I-. 55 
impensus, F. 55 

implTTxTjs, F, 55 
u.xgl'latus, f, 55 

kernensis. I', 56 

charlesionensis. 1". 56 



labradoricus 



oceidentalis, 1'. 58 



lagopmus. F 
lamberlii 



F 



62 

55 



55 



bigelovii 
LANCEARIUS, 
latus, F. 56 
LAYNEAE, F. 
lectulus. F, 57 
LEKTmONI, F, 55 
LENTIGINOSUS, F 
ARANEOSLIS, F 
BORREAGANUS 
CARINATUS, F 
CHARLESTONENSIS 
CHARTACEUS. F' 
eoulteri. F. 56 
DIPHYSUS, F, 56 
FLORIBUNDUS, I 
FREMONTII, F, 
INEPTUS, F. 56 
KENNEDYl, F. 56 
LATUS, F, 56 
MACROLOBUS, F, 
MALACOIDES, 
MARIANUS, F 
MOKIACENSIS, F, ': 
OROPFDII, F. 56 
PA LANS, F. 56 
PLATYI'HYLLIDIUS, 
SALINUS, F, 56 
scorpionis, !•'. 55 
SEMOTUS, F 



F, 
56 



F, 56 



56 

SESQUIMETRALF. F, 
STRAMINEUS, I'. 56 
TOIYABENSIS, F", 56 
TREMULETORUM, I-, 
URSINUS, I-, .56 
VITRFUS, !■, 56 



LIMNOCIIARLS, I- 
lingulatus, F. 58 
linifolius. F, 58 



56 



LONCHOCARPUS, !• 
longifolius. F, 54 
LUTOSUS, !■■, .56 
LYALLIA 

CARICINUS, I 
macdougalii, 1-. 56 
macer, F, .56 
macgregorii, F, 
macounii, F. 58 



55 



MALACUS, F, .56 

obfalcatus, F. .56 
malheurensis. F 
mancus, F. 54 



55 



marcus -jonesii, !■", 5.5, 58 
MARIANUS. F, 56 



mf:i;A(:arpis. i . 5i> 

pjrryi. I- . 5(i 
prodigus, ]■ . 56 
nierrillii, F' , 56 
Mr.\''mOI<XIAF:. I-. 5(^ 
GRACILIOK. !-, 56 
X'lLLOSUS, I-", 56 
MISF.R 

Dl'GUMBF.NS. 1- . 56 
IIYLOPIIILUS. F, 56 
OJSI.ONGll'Oj.IFS. I . = 

rFxrH'OLius. i-. 5ii 
MissoiiRii:.\sis 

AMPUniOLUS, I-, 56 
milopliyllus. !■. 54 
MOEXCOPPI-XSIS, I , 5(, 



mogollonicus. I' 
MOUAVFNSis, I 

iifmk;yrus, 

mokiacensis. !■. 



5,5 



MOLLISIMUS 

TIIOMPSOXAi:. 
MONOENSIS. I-, 57 
montanus, F. 55 
coloradensis. F. ' 



impensus 



ungulalus. F . 55 
MONUMFNTAI.IS. F'. 
niortonii. F'. 54 
MULF'ORDIAE, I', 57 

newlxrryoides. I- . 



55 


niunzii. F, 62 


I-, 55 


MUSINIENSIS, F. 57 


55 


NATURITFNSIS, !■', 5" 


SIS, F', 56 


NELSONIANUS, F, 57 


', 56 


NFVVBERRYI, F, 57 




easloreus. F. 57 




eriocarpus. F. 57 


•, 56 


WARDIANUS, F, 5" 


56 


waisonianus, 1^. 57 



NIDULARUIS, F, 
NIDISILIQUUS, I-', 
nudus, F. 58 
NU'TTALLIANUS, 
acutirostris. !■ 



1.5 



IMPERFECTUS, l-. 5.5 
MICRANTUIl'ORMIS. 

\'. 57 
pilil'erus. F. 57 
irichocarpus. F. 57 

NYFNSIS, F, 57 

obfalcatus . F", 56 

oblaius. I-'. 58 

OBSCURUS, 1-, 57 

occidentalis. F . 58 

ONKTI'ORMIS, F, 57 

(K)I'IIORUS. F. 57 

GAULFSCI'NS. F, 57 
CLOKFYANUS, F, 57 
LONCIIOCALYX, F, 57 

ophiogcnes. 1". 57 

oreophila. F. 62 

ow^licensis, I-'. 5.5 

pachystacys. 1'. 54 

palans, F'. 56 

palousensis, !■". 53 

PANGUICENSIS. F, 5.5. 57 

PARIMLINl'S, 1-, 57 

parry.inus. I''. 62 

PATFliRSONl, F, 57 

PAYSONI, i--. 57 

peabodianus, F', 57 

PI-:CFINAfns. l--, 57 
platyphy llus, F', 57 

pepliragme nus, ]■ . 5.5 

PHR1ANUS.~F\ 57 

phoenicu s. F, 58 

phyllophorus. F'. 5.5 



ASTRAGALUS (con.) 
pictus, F, 54 

ceramicus, F, 54 
PINONIS, F, 57 
PLATYTROPIS, F, 57 
PORRECTUS, F, 57 
PRAELONGUS, F, 57 
ELLINAE, F, 57 
LONCHOPUS, F, 57 
PREUSSII, F, 54, 57 
arctus, F, 57 
EASTWOODAE, F, 54 
uiterius, F, 57 
LATUS, F, 57 
LAXIFLORUS, F. 57 
PSEUDIODANTHUS, F, 57 
PTEROCARPUS, F, 57 
PUBENTISSIMUS, F, 57 
PULSIFERAE, F, 57 

SUKSDORFII, F, 57 
PURSHII, F, 57 

GLAREOSUS, F, 57 
LAGOPINUS, F, 57 
LECTULUS, F, 57 
LONGILOBUS, F, 57 
OPHIOGENES, F, 57 
PUMILIO, F, 57 
TINCTUS, F, 57 
pygmaeus, F, 54 
RACEMOSUS, F, 57 

TRELEASEI, F, 57 
RAFAELENSIS, F, 57 
rarus, F, 58 
RECEDENS, F, 57 
reclinatus. F, 54 
RECURVUS, F, 57 
REMOTUS, F, 58 
remulcus, F, 58 
reventoides, F, 58 
REVENTUS, F, 57 

CONJUNCTUS, F, 57 
ROBBINSII 

ALPINIFORMIS, F, 58 
OCCIDENTALIS, F, 58 
robustior, F. 53 
rothrockii, F, 57 
RUSBYI, F, 58 
rydbergii, F. 56 
sabinarum, F, 53, 57 
SABULONUM, F, 58 
SABULOSUS, F, 58 
saiinus, F. 56 
SALMONIS, F, 58 
saturalis, F, 57 
SAURINUS, F, 58 
saximontanus, F, 62 
scaposus, F, 54 
scobinatulus, F, 53 
SCHMOLLAE, F, 58 
SCOPULORUM, F, 58 
SERENOI, F, 58 

SORDESCENS, F, 58 
SERPENS, F, 58 
SESQUIFLORUS, F, 58 

BREVIPES, F, 58 
shockleyi, F, 58 
SILERANUS, F, 58 

CARIACUS, F, 58 
simplex, F, 58 
simplicifolius, F, 58 
slskiyouensis, F. 58 
SOLITARIUS, F, 58 
sonorae, F, 55 
SOPHOROIDES, F, 58 
SPATU LATUS, F, 58 

UNIFLORUS, F, 58 
spectabilis, F, 54 
spicatus, F, 54 



stenophyllus, F, 55 

residuus. F, 55 
STERILIS, F, 58 
stipularis, F. 58 
STRATURNSIS, F, 58 
streptopus, F. 53 
STRIATIFLORUS, F, 58 
striatus, F, 53 
SUBCINEREUS, F, 55. 58 
subcompressus, F, 58 
saksdorfii, F, 57 
TEGETARIOIDES, F, 58 
TEGETARIUS, F, 

elatus, F, 55 

implexus, F, 55 

ungulatus, F, 55 

viridis, F. 55 
TENELLUS, F, 58 

STRIGULOSUS, F, 58 
TEPHRODES 

BRACHYLOBUS, F, 58 
TERMINALIS, F, 58 
TETRAPTERUS, F, 58 

CAPRICORNLIS, F, 58 

CINERASCENS, F, 58 
TIDESTROMII, F, 53. 58 
TOANUS, F, 58 
TOQUIMANUS, F, 58 
torreyi, F. 54 
trtquetrus, F, 55 
tristis , F, 54 
TROGLODYTUS, F, 58 
uintensls, F, 53 



UNCIALIS, F, 58 
ursinus, F, 56 
UTAH ENS IS, F, 58 
ventosus, F. 57, 62 
vespertinus, F, 53 
VEXILLIFLEXUS, F, 58 
viarius, F, 57 
viridis, F. 55 



virgtneus, F, 58 
virgultulus, F, 53 
viscidus. F, 62 
wallowensis, F. 53 



WARDII, F, 58 

watsonianus, F, 57, 58 

weiserensis, F, 53 

WETHERILLL F, 58 

WHITNEYI, F, 58 
CONFUSUS, F, 58 

hookerianus, F. 58 
SBKIYOUENSIS, F, 58 

WINGATANUS, F, 58 
dodgeanus, F, 58 

wingatensis, F, 58 

WOODRUFFH, F, 58 

WOOTONI, F, 58 

XIPHOIDES, F, 58 

ZIONIS, F, 58 
Atelophragma 

aborigina, F. 53 

alpiniformis, F. 58 

arthuri, F. 53 

brandegei, F, 53 

glabrioscula, F, 53 

ibapensa, F, 54 

occidentalis, F, 58 

rusbyi, F, 58 

straturena, F, 58 

wallowensis, F, 53 
Atenia . F, 77 
ATHYRIUM, F, 1 
ATHYSANUS, F, 40 
Atragene . T&S, 36 
ATRICHOSERIS, F, 106 
ATRIPLEX, T&S and F, 28 

acanthocarpa 

cuneata, T&S, 28 



ARGENTEA, F, 28 

CAPUT-MEDUSAE, F, 28 
comma . F, 28 
HlLLMANl, F, 28 

EXPANSA, F, 28 
BONNEVILLENSIS, T&S, 28 
bracteosa , T&S. 28 
CANESCENS, T&S, 28 

garrettii , T&S, 28 
caput -medusae, F. 28 
carnosa, F, 28 
coUina, T&S, 28 
CONFERTIFOLIA, T&S, 28 
cornuta, F, 28 
CORRUGATA, T&S, 28 
covillei, F, 28 
CUNEATA, T&S, 28 

introgressa , T&S, 28 
DIOECA, F, 28 
draconis, F, 28 
ELEGANS, F 

FASCICULATA, F, 28 
endolepis, F, 28 
eremicola , T&S. 28 
expansa, F. 28 

cornuta , F, 28 

mohavensis, F, 28 
FALCATA, T&S, 28 
fasciculata, F, 28 
flagellaris , F. 28 
fruticulosa , T&S. 28 
GARDNERl, T&S, 28 
GARRETTII, T&S, 28 
gordoni , T&S, 28 
GRACILIFLORA, F, 28 
greenei, F, 28 
halimoides, F. 28 
hastata , F' 28 
hUlmani, F. 28 
HORTENSIS, F, 28 
HYMENELYTRA, T&S, 28 
JONESll, T&S, 28 
lapathifolia , F, 28 
LENTIFORMIS, T&S, 28 

torreyi , T&S, 28 
NAVAJOENSIS, T&S, 28 
nelsoni , T&S, 28 
nitens, T&S. 28 



nuttallu , T&S, 28, 29 
anomala, T&S, 28 
corrugata , T&S, 28 
cuneata , T&S, 28 
faJcata , T&S. 28 
gardneri . T&S. 28 
tridentata . T&S, 29 
utahensis, T&S. 29 
OBOVATA, T&S, 28 
occidentalis, T&S, 28 
ovata. F. 28 



pabularis , T&S, 28 
eremicola. T&S. 28 

PARRYI, T&S. 28 

PATULA, F, 28 
HASTATA, F, 28 

philonitra, F. 28 

PHYLLOSTEGIA, F, 28 
draconis, F, 28 

PLEIANTHA, T&S, 28 

POLYCARPA, T&S, 28 

POWELLl, F, 28 

PUSILLA, F, 28 

ROSEA, F, 28 

rydbergi. F. 28 

sabulosa . F. 28 

SACCARIA, F, 28 

SEMIBACCATA, F, 28 

SERENANA, T&S, 28 

spatiosa, F, 28 



spinosa, T&S, 28] 
subconferta, T&S J 
subdecumbens, Fj 
subspicata. F. 28 
suckleyana, F. 28 
TENUISSIMA, F, 28 
tetraptera, F, 28 
TORREYI, T&S, 28 
TRIDENTATA, T&S: 
TRUNCATA, F. 29 
saccaria. F. 28 
stricta , F. 29 
volutans. F, 28 
WELSHll, T&S, 29 
WOLFI, F, 29 
Audibertia. T&S, 92 



Audibertiella. T&S, 92 ,; 


ft 


Aulospermum, F. 74 


ijU 


AVENA, G, 8 


141 

- 


Aveneae, G, 8 


Avens, F. 49 


Awl wort. F. 45 


AYENIA, T&S, 67 _. 


at 


AZOLLA, F, 2 W 


m 


BACCHARIS, T&S, 106 


: 


BACOPA, F, 93 


_ 


BAHIA, F, 106 


__ 


achillaeoida, F. 114 


^ 


ambigua, F, 113 





cuneata, F. 114 |l_: 

desertorum , F. l%'\'^ 
DISSECTA, F, 106 i^f^ 
lanata, F. 114 i 

NUDICAULIS, F, lOl ._ 
OBLONGIFOLIA, F, - 
OUROLEPIS, F, 106 ... 
Wallace!, F, 114 

BAILEYA, F, 106 |il 

Balm, F, 92 P 

Balsamita, F, 107 P 

BALSAMORHIZA, F, 10 E 

Balsamroot. F. 106 ".-. 

Baneberry. F. 35 

BARBAREA, F, 40 

Barberry, T&S. 38 

Barley, F, 8 - 

Bartonia . F, 68 - 

BASSIA, F, 29 

Bastard Toad-flax, F, 2 

Batidophaca 

desperata , F, 54 
hosackiae, F. 55 
humistrata, F. 55 
humivagans, F, 55 
petrophila, F. 54 ~- 
sabinarum, F. 53,5/,"' 
sonorae, F, 55 

Batrachium, F. 37 

Beadlily, F. 17 

Beancaper, F, 64 

Bean, Subfamily, T&S, 

Beardgrass, G, 12 

Beardtongue, F. 96 

Beargrass, F, 18 

Bear Poppy. F, 38 

BEBBIA, T&S, 106 

BECKMANNIA, G, 11 

Beckwithia. F. 37 

Bedstraw, F. 100 

Beebalm, F. 92 j 

Beech Family. T&S, 21 f; 

Beeplant, F. 46 ^ 

Beet, F, 29 

Beggar -tick, F. 106 

Bellflower, F, 101 

BELLIS, F, 106 

Bentgrass, G, 9 



k 



ERIDACEAE, T8iS, 38 
uda Grass. G. 11 
ARDIA, T&S, 64 

ose, T&S, 48 
rvice, T&S. 4^ 
raw. F. 44 
LA, F, 7.i 
5YA, F, 93 
, F, 29 
i. V. 93 
LA, TSiS. 21 
LACEAE, T&S, 21 
aidaria , F. 69 
JS, F, 106 
via 

^s , TS;S. 108 
:elovii. T&S. 108 
)peri , T&S. 115 
3ressus . T&S. 108 
iglasii . T&S. 109 
tortifoiia . T&S, 109 
xeosa , T&S. 108 
uca, T&S, 109 
iveolens. T&S. 108 
glabratus . T&S. 108 
hololeucus . T&S. 109 
!enei . T&S. 108 
vardl , T&S. 109 
nevadensis. T&S, 109 
ricatus , F . 106 
ceolata , T&S. 109 
isperma, T&S. 108 
abbreviata . T&S, 108 
Lfolia , T&S. 109 
cronema , T&S. 116 
'adensis , T&S, 109 
Liculata . T&S. 109 
■ryi , T&S. 109 
chella , T&S. 109 
i let Lfolia , T&S, 109 
ilbinata, T&S. 108 
i ?eyi. T&S, 109 
i icidiflora , T&S, 109 
ilia Family, T&S. 99 
|)NIACEAE, T&S, 99 
jill.i, F. ,39 

. F. 27 
•^^ 21 
. ,,1. F. 95 
: ,;|K , F, 40 
: 1 .".1. F. 59 
;tri")i, F. 75 
■ F. 41 
26 
27 

T&S, .52 
, F. 40 
:iLriy, T&S, 52 
:r.ii-,h, T&S. 49 
:\Iu^ijrd. F. 40 
:i r:. rn, F, 1 
' F. 43 
, T&S. 92 
rt. F. 99 
er, F, 114 
.., .Mr, F, 68 
enghcart. F, 39 
ilARIDACHNE, G, 4 
aiARIPAPPUS, F, 106, 118 
ElARONEURON, G, 9 
histle, F, 110 
29 
' 1-, 90, 101 
T&S. 78 
-ais. F. 93 
e[yed Grass. F, 18 
e'ass, G, 6 



BluestL-m, G. 12 

BOERHAAVIA, F, 31 

Bog Orchid. F. 19 

BOISDL'X'ALIA, F, 70 

Holclia . F. 101 

Borage, F. 88 

BORAGINACEAE, F, 88 

BORAGO, F, 88 

Boslcria , F, 93 

BOTRYCHIUM, F, 1 

Botrys , F, 29 

Bouncing Bet. F. 34 

BOUT E LOU A, G, 11 

Brachyactis . F. 105 

BRASSICA, F, 40. 42 

Braya , F. 44 

Brcadfem, F, 1 

BRICKELLIA, T&S. 106 

Bristlegrass, G, 12 

Bristlethistle. F, 107 

Brittonastrum, F. 92 

BRODIAEA, F, 16 

Bromegrass, G. 4 

BROMUS, G, 4. 5 
ANOMALUS, G, 4 
lanatipes. G, 5 
ARENARIUS, G, 4 
ARIZONICUS, G, 5 
ARVENSIS, G, 5 
BREVIARISTATUS, G, ; 
BRIZAEFORMIS, G. 5 
CARINATUS, G, 5 

arizonicus, G, 5 
catharticus, G. 5 
CILIATUS, G, 5 
COMMUTATUS, G, 5 
APRICORUM, G, 5 
eximius, G. 5 
FRONDOSUS, G, 5 
HAENKEANUS, G, 5 
hookerianus, G. 5 
hordcaceus, G, 5 
INERMIS, G, 5 

pumpellianus. G. 5 
JAPONICUS, G, 5 

PORRECTUS, G, 5 
LANATIPES, G, 5 
latior , G, 5 
MARGINATUS, G. 5 
MOLLIS, G, 5 
ORCUTTIANUS, G, 5 
PANICULATUS, G, 5 
POLYANTHUS, G, 5 
PORTERI, G, 5 
PUMPELLL»iNL'S, G, 5 

TWEEDYI, G, 5 
RACEMOSUS, G, 5 
RICHARDSONII, G, 5 
RIGIDUS, G, 5 

GUSSONEI, G, 5 
RUBENS, G, 5 
SECALINUS, G, 5 
STERILIS, G, S 
subvclutinus, G. 5 
TECTORUM, G, 5 
GLABRATUM, C;, 5 
nudus, G. 5 
TRINII, G, 5 
unioloides, G, 5 
VULGARIS, G, 5 
WILLDENOWII, G, 5 

Broomrape. F, 99 

Bryan thus , T&S. 78 

BRYONIA, F, 101 

Bryony, F, 101 

Buckbean, F, 80 

Buckbrush. T&S. 66 

Buckthorn. T&S, 66 



Buckwlieat Brush. F. 26 
liuckwheal I'amily. 1-, 22 
BUDDLEJA, r&S, 79 
Buffalobcrry. T&S. 70 
Buglossoidcs. I". 90 
Buglcweed. I-, 92 
Bugsc-ed, \- . 29 
BULBOSTYLIS, GL, 12 

annua . GL. 120 
Bulrush. CL, 15 
liur - - 

Cocklf, F, 124 

dock, F. 10,3 

head. F. 4 

reed, GL. 3 
Burnet. F. 52 
Burrielia , F. HI 
Burrobrush. T&S. 117 
Bursa . F. 40 
Bursage. T&S. 114 
Bush - - 

Arrowleaf. I". 117 

Black, T&S. 49 

Creosote. T&S. 64 

Fern, T&S. 49 

Iodine, T&S. 28 

Oceanspray. T&S, 50 

Salt, T&S, 28 

Seepweed. F. 30 

Winterfat, T&S. 29 
BUTOMACEAE. F, 4 
BUTOMUS, F, 4 
Buttercup, F. 37 
Butterfly Bush, T&S, 79 
Butterweed. F, 120 

Cacao Family, T&S, 67 
CACTACEAE, T&S. 69 
Cactus . T&S. 69 
Caesalpinia . T&S. 52 
CAESALPINIOIDEAE. T&S, 52 
CALABAZILLA, F, 101 
CALAMAGROSTIS, G, 9, 10 
Calais . F. 119 
CALAMOVILFA, G, 10 
CALANDRINL\. F. 31. 32 
California Poppy. F. 38 
Calliopsis , F. 110 
CALLITRICHACEAE, F, 65 
CALLITRICHE, F, 65 
CALLIRHOE, F, 66 
CALOCHORTUS. F, 17 
CALTHA, F, 36 
Caltrop. F. 64 
CALYCOSERLS, F, 107 
CALYPSO, F. 19 
CALYPTRIDIUM. F. 3! 
Camas. F, 17 
CAMASSIA. F. 17 
CAMELINA, F, 40 
Camelthorn. T&S, 52 
CAMOMILE, F, 103 
CAMPANULA, F, 101 
CAMPAMJLACEAE. F, 10 1 
Campe, F, 40 
Campion, F, 3.3 
Canada Thistle. I'. 109 
Canaigre. F. 27 
Canary Grass. G. 11 
CANIiYA, F, .!8 
CANNABIS, F, 21 
CANOTIA, T&S, 65 
Capnoides, F. 39 
Capnorea. F. 86 
CAPPARIDACEAE, F, 46 
CAPRIFOLIACEAE, T&S, 100 
Capriola, G, II 
CAPSELLA, F, 40 



Cirawnv. 1', 74 
CAKDAMINi:. l". 4l: 

(::ARnARiA. i', 40 

CARDIIUS, !■■. 107 
acaulesceiis. F , 



110 



acuatus, F. 


110 


americanus. 


1-, 111) 


canovirens. 


I-. 109 


centaureae. 


F, 110 


coioradoensis, F, IK 


drummondii 


I-, 110 


tloccosus. I- 


. 110 


flodmannii. 


1-, 110 


foliosus, F. 


110 


laccerus. V 


110 


lanceolatus. 


1-, 110 


iongissimus 


1-, 110 


marianum. 


F, 122 


mohavensc. 


F. 110 


NUTANS, F 


107 


oblanceolafus. F, 1 K 


olivescens. 


F. 110 


parryi. F, 


10 


pulchellus. 


1-, 110 


scariosus. F, 110 


scopulorus. 


I', 110 


undulatus. I 


■. 110 


venustus. F 


. 110 



CAREX. GL, 12, 13 
ABLATA, GL, 12 
ABORIGINUM, GL. 12 
ABRUPTA, GL, 12 
acuta 

pallida . GL. 13 
af finis . GL, 13 
ALBO -NIGRA, GL. 12 
ALMA, GL. 12 
AMPLIFOLIA, GL, 12 
ANGUSTIOR, GL. 12 
APERTA, GL. 12 
apoda. GL. 12 



12 



12 



AQUATILIS, GL 
ARCTA, GL. 12 
ARCTOGENA. GL, 
aristata. GL, 12 
arizoncnsis, GL, 12 
ATllERODES, GL, 12 
ATHROSTACHYA, GL. 
athrostachya. GL, 12 

minor, GL. 12 
ATRATA. GL. 12 
airala 



discolor . GL. 12 
chalciolepis. GL. 
ATROSQl'AMA, GL. 
AURFA, GL. 12 

androgyna. 11 L 
backii . GL. 14 
12 
12 



13 



BFBBll. GL. 
BELLA. GL 
BIGI-LOVIl. GL. 12 
HIPARTITA 

AUSTROMONTANA, 
GL, 12 
BOLANDF.RI. GL, 12 
BRFVIOR. GL, 12 
BRl'VIPES, GL, 12 
brevisquama. GL. 14 
BRUNNFSCFNS. GL. 12 
BUXBAUMII, GL. 12 
CALII-OKNICA, GL. 12 
Camporum. GL. 13 
CAMPYLOCARI'A 

AFFINIS. GL. 12 
CANESCFNS, GL, 12 
cancscens 

dubia, GL, 13 



143 



CAREX (con.) 

CAPILLARIS. GL. 12 

elongata, GL. 12 
CAPITATA, GL, 12 
CHALCIOLEPIS, GL, 1.3 
chimophila, GL. 14 
COMOSA, GL, 1,3 
CONCINNOIDES, GL, 13 
concolor. GL, 12 
CRAWEI, GL, 13 
CRAWFORDII, GL, 13 
curta. GL, 12 
CUSICKII, GL, 13 
dcllexa 

brevipes . GL, 12 

rossii, GL, 14 
DEWEYANA, GL, 13 

bolanderi, GL, 12 
DIANDRA, GL, 13 
DISPERMA, GL, 13 
DOUGLASII, GL, 13 

brunnea, GL, 13 

den.sipicata. GL, 13 
DRUMMONDIANA, GL, 13 
EBENEA, GL, 13 
EGGLESTONII, GL, 13 
ELEOCHARIS, GL, 13 
ELYNOIDES, GL, 13 
ENGELMANNII, GL, 13 
engelmannii, GL, 14 
EPAPILLOSA, GL, 13 
EURYCARPA, GL, 13 
EXSERTA, GL, 13 
EXSICCATA, GL, 13 
farwellii, GL, 14 
festiva , Gl, 13 

decumbens. GL, 13 



latebrosa, GL, 13 



leporina 



atnericana, GL. 13 



gracilis, GL. 13 

haydeniana, GL, 13 

viridis, GL. 13 
FESTIVELLA, GL, 13 
FETA, GL, 13 
FILIFOLLA, GL, 13 
FISSURICOLA, GL, 13 
FLAVA, GL, 13 

rectirostrata. GL, 14 
FOENEA, GL, 13 
GARBERI, GL, 13 
GEYERI, GL, 13 
gymnoclada, GL, 14 
GYNOCRATES, GL, 13 
HALLII, GL, 13 
HASSEI, GL, 13 
HAYDENLANA, GL, 13 

ebenea , GL, 13 
HELIOPHILA, GL, 13 
HELLERI, GL, 13 
HEPBURNII, GL, 13 
HETERONEURA, GL, 13 
HOODII, GL, 13 
HOOKERANA, GL, 13 
HYSTRICINA, GL, 15 
IDAHOA, GL, 13 
ILLOTA, GL, 13 
INTEGRA, GL, 13 
interimus, GL, 12 
INTERIOR, GL, 13 
jamesii, GL, 13 
JEPSONII, GL, 13 
JONESII, GL, 13 
KELLOGGII, GL, 13 
lachenolii, GL, 12 
LAEVICULMIS, GL, 13 
lagopina , GL, 12 
lanceolata 

globosa , GL, 13 
LANUGINOSA, GL, 13 
LASIOCARPA, GL, 13 



LEPORINELLA, GL, 13 
LEPTALEA, GL, 13 
LEPTOPODA, GL, 13 
liddoni , GL. 13 
limnaea, GL, 13 



LIMOSA, GL, 13 
LIVIDA, GL, 13 
LUZULAEFOLLf^, GL, 13 
LUZULINA, GL, 13 
lyoni, GL, 13 
macloviana, GL, 13 
marcida, GL, 13 

debilis , GL, 13 
MEDIA, GL, 13 

STEVENII, GL, 13 
mceku, GL. 13 
MICROPTERA, GL, 13 
MISANDRA, GL, 13 
MISERABILIS, GL, 13 
MONTANENSIS, GL, 13 
MULTICAULIS, GL, 13 
MULTICOSTATA, GL, 13 
mutica , GL, 12 
muricata 



americana, GL, 13 

confixa, GL, 13 
nardina, GL. 13 
NEBRASKENSIS, GL, 13 
NELSONII, GL, 13 
NERVINA, GL, 13 
NEUROPHORA, GL, 13 
nigella , GL, 14 
NIGRICANS, GL, 13 
NOVA, GL, 13 
nubicola, GL, 13 
nuttallii, GL, 13 
OBTUSATA, GL, 13 
OCCIDENTALIS, GL, 13 
oedeir 

pumila, GL, 14 
owyheensis, GL, 12 
pachycarpa, GL, 13 
PACHYSTACHYA, GL, 13 

GRACILIS, GL, 13 

MONDS-COULTERI, 
GL, 13 
pachystoma, GL, 14 
parryana, GL, 13 
PAUPERCULA, GL, 13 
paysonis, GL. 14 
PELOCARPA, GL, 13 
PERGLOBOSA, GL, 13 
PETASATA, GL, 13 
PHAEOCEPHALA, GL, 13 
phaeolepis, GL. 14 
PHYSOCARPA, GL, 13 
piperi. GL, 13 
PITYOPHILA, GL, 13 
PLATYLEPIS, GL, 13 
PODOCARPA, GL, 13, 14 
PRAECEPTORUM, GL, 13 
PRAEGRACILIS, GL, 13 
PRATICOLA, GL, 13 
PRESLII, GL, 13 
PSEUDOSCIRPOIDEA, GL, 14 
PYRENACL\, GL, 14 
quadrifida , GL, 13 
rachiIlis ,"GL. 14 
RAYNOLDSII, GL, 14 
RETRORSA, GL, 14 
rhomboides, GL, 12 
ROSSII, GL, 14 
ROSTRATA, GL, 14 

utriculata, GL, 14 

rupestris, GL, 13 

drummondiana, GL, 13 



RUSBYI, GL, 14 
saxatilis 

major, GL. 13 
SAXIMONTANA, GL, 14 
scirpoidea, GL. 14 
SCOPULORUM. GL, 14 

BRACTEOSA, GL, 14 

CHIMOPHILA, GL, 14 
SHELDONII. GL, 14 
siccata . GL, 13 
SIMULATA, GL, 14 
SITCHENSIS, G., 14 
SPECIFICA, GL, 14 
SPECTABILIS, GL, 14 
stenophylla. GL. 13 

eleocharis, GL. 13 



collina . F, 94 
confusa. F. 94 



stenoptera, GL. 14 
STIPATA, GL, 14 
STRAMINIFORMIS, GL, 14 
SUBFUSCA, GL, 14 
SUBNIGRICANS, GL, 14 
substricta . GL. 12 
tenella . GL, 13 
TENERAEFORMIS, GL, 14 
tenuirostris. GL. 12 



teretiuscula 



ampla . GL. 13 
TOLMIEI, GL, 14 
TRACYI, GL, 14 
usta , GL. 13 
utriculata . GL, 14 
minor, GL. 14 
vagans. GL, 14 
VALLICOLA, GL, 14 
variabilis, GL. 12 
VERNACULA, GL, 14 
VESICARLA, GL, 14 
violacea, GL. 13 
VIRIDULA, GL, 14 
vitrea . GL. 12 
VULPINOIDEA, GL, 14 
watsoni, GL, 13 
whitneyi, GL. 13 
XERANTICA, GL, 14 

Carpetweed, F, 31 

Carrot, F. 75 

Carsonia, F. 46 

CARTHAMUS, F, 107 

CARUM, F, 74, 77 



CARYOPHYLLACEAE, 
Caryopitys , T&S, 2 
CASSIA, T&S, 52 
CASSIOPE, T&S, 78 
CASTILLEJA, F, 94 
affinis 

minor, F, 94 



F, 32 



ambigua, F. 94 
ampliflora, F. 94 
ANGUSTIFOLL\, F, 94 

collina, F. 94 

dubia. F. 94 



APPLEGATEI, F, 94 
ARACHNOIDEA, F, 94 
arcuata. F, 94 
ardifera. F. 94 
BARNEBYANA, F, 94 
bennittii, F. 94 
brachyantha . F. 94 
subinflata, F, 94 
bradburyi, F, 94 
breviflora, F, 94 
brunnescens, F, 94 



buffumii, F, 94 
CALCICOLA, F, 94 
candens, F, 94 
CHLOROTICA, F, 94 
CHROMOSA, F, 94 
CHRYSANTHA, F, 94 
CLOKEYI, F, 94 



COVILLEANA, F, 9 
crispala, F, 94 
curticalix, F. 94 
CUSICKII. F, 94 
desertorum. F, 94 
douglasii. F. 94 
dubia. F, 94 
eastwoodiana, F. 94 
ELKOENSIS, F. 94 
EXILIS, F, 94 
FLAVA, F, 94 
FLAVESCENS, F, 9 
flavoviridis, F. 94 
floccosa. F. 94 
FRATERNA, F, 94 
GLANDULIFERA, F 
globosa, F, 94 
GRACILLIMA, F, 9^ 
HISPIDA, F, 94 

ACUTA, F, 94 
humilis, F. 94 
inconspicua. F. 94 
indecora. F. 94 
INTEGRA, F, 94 
inverta. F. 94 
LANATA, F, 94 
lauta , F, 94 
LAPIDICOLA. F, 94 
LEONARDI, F, 94 
LINARIAEFOLIA, F 

OMNIPUBESCENE 
LONGISPICA, F, 94 
lutea. F. 94 
luteovirens, F. 94 ' 



MAGNISTYLIS, F, ', 
MINIATA, F, 94 

chromosa, F. 94 

crispala, F. 94 
MINOR, F, 94 
multisecta. F. 94 
NANA, F, 94 
nevadensis. F. 94 
oblongifolia, F. 94 
obtusiloba, F. 94 
OCCIDENTALIS, F, 
ochracea, F, 94 
oregonensis, F. 94 
PALLESCENS, F, <■. 

INVERTA, F, 9' 
parvula. F. 94 
payneae, F. 94 
pilifera . F, 94 
PILOSA, F, 94 
pinetorum. F. 94 
pratensis, F. 94 
PRUINOSA, F, 94 
psittacina, F, 94 
PUBERULA, F, 94 
PULCHELLA, F, 9 
pumicicola, F. 94 
PYRAMIDALIS, F, 
RHEXIFOLIA, F, < 
robiginosa, F. 94 
rubida. F. 94 

monoensis, F, ^ 
RUSTICA, F, 94 
SCABRIDA, F, 94 
septentrionaJis , F, ' 
steenensis, F, 94 
stricta. F. 94 
suksdorfii, F. 94 
SULPHUREA, F, 9 
taedifera. F. 94 
TRAINII, F, 95 ; 
trinervis, F. 94 
tweedy i, F. 94 
variabilis, F, 94 



c 



H 
a 



! ' 1 \ (coil.) 
V, '14 
.. K, ')5 
CiUULA, I-, ^5 
elandii, I'. ''4 
lowensis. 1-'. 44 
Jmingensis, F. ^'4 
BROSA, CI, 5 
■tolinum. F, ti4 
veed, F. SiS 
, F. 42 
1. F, 3 

ALIS, F. 74. 75 
ANTIIUS, F, 40, 45 
OTHUS, T&S, 66 
5TRACEAE, T&S, 65 
. F, 73 
^ F. 73 
IS, TiS, 21 
HRUS, G, 11 
AUREA, F, 107 
AURY, F, 74 
AURIUM, F, 74 
Jstegia, I- . 22 
lanthera, F. 14 
STIUM, F, 33 
us, TS;S, 51 

TOPHYLLACEAE, F, 35 
TOPHYLLU.M, F, 35 
IS, T&S, 52 
OCARPUS, TS;S, 44 
s, TiS. 64 
NACTIS, F, 107 
TADELPHA, F, 107 
3chloa, G. 12 
•bush. T&S. 103 
^ern. F. 2 

lAEBATLARIA, T&S, 44 
lAECHAENACTIS, F, 107 
lenerion. F. 70 
lAERHODOS. F, 44 
lAESARACHA, F, 43 
aesyce. F. 64 
ermallow . F. 66 
.ANTHES, F, 1 
anthus , F, 42 
inia, F. 42 
idophacos, F. 56 
OPODIACEAE, F, 28 
lOPODIL'M, F, 24 
y, T&S. 51 
;, G, 4, 5 
weed, F, .i.i, 35 
ry, F. 104 
DPSIS, T&S, 49 
APHILA, F, 77 
, F, 16 
efoil, F, 50 
aea , F, 14 
)RIDEAE, G, 11 
)RIS, G, U 
)ROCRAMBF, F, 40 
opyon . F. 95 
ILA, T&S, 64 
Jrophylla. F. 80 
^ISPORA, F, 40 
isiva , F, 118 
UZANTHE, F, 22 
iSANTHEMUM, F, 107 
aoboirya . T&S. 48 
feopogon, G, 12 
i'SOPSIS, F, 106, 107 
.'SOTHAMNUS, T&S, 108 
sothamnus 
^nis, T&S, 109 
attenuatus , T&S. 104 
bicaulis , T&S, 108 
-BIDUS, T&S, 108 



angustu.s, 



bloomt-ri 
calU'ornicus 



T&S, 108 

asper , T&S. 104 

attenuatus , T&S, 109 

baleen. T&S. 104 

bigelovii, T&S. 108 
T&S, 115 

T&S, 108 

coUmus, T&S. 108 

conflnis , T&S. 108 

consimilis, T&S. 108 

DEPRESSl'S, r&S, 108 

douglasii , T&S. 104 

elegans , T&S, 104 

filifolius , T&S. 108 

formosus, T&S. 108 

frigidus . T&S, 108 

glareosa. T&S, 108 

glaucus , T&S, 104 

gnaphalodcs. T&S. 108 

gram Ulcus. T&S. 120 

graveulcns . T&S. 108 
glabratus, T&S, 108 

GREENEI, T&S, 108 

FILIFOLIUS, T&S, 108 

howardi , T&S, 104 

humUis, T&S, 104 

junceus , T&S. 108 

lanceolatus , T&S, 109 

latilulius , T&S. 104 

Iciospermus, T&S. 108 

linifolius , T&S. 104 

marianus, T&S, 109 

monocephalus, T&S, 104 

moquianus, T&S, 108 
bigelovii , T&S. 108 

NAUSEOSUS, T&S, 108 
abbreviata . T&S. 108 
ALBICAULIS, T&S, 108 
ARTUS, T&S, 108 
BIGEL0\-I1, T&S, 108 
californicus, T&S. 108 
cunsimiIi~ T&S. 108 
GLABRATUS, T&S, 108 
glareosa. T&S, 108 
gnaphalodes , T&S, 108 
graveolens, T&S, 108 
hololcucus" T&S, 108 
HOLOLEUCUS, T&S, 108 
JUNCEUS, T&S, 108 
LEIOSPERMUS, T&S, 108 
occidcntalis, T&S. lOS 
oreophilus, T&S, lOS 
PETROPHILUS, T&S, 108 
pmifolius , T&S, 108 
salicilolius , T&S, 108 
speciosus, T&S, 108 
TURBIXATA, T&S, 108 
viridulus , T&S. 108 
VISCOSUS, T&S, 109 

nc-vadcnsis . T&S, 109 

monocephalus, T&S, 104 

occidcntalis, T&S, 108 

oreophilus , T&S, 108 

artus , T&S. 108 
orthophyllus , T&S. 108 
pallidus . t"&S. 108 
paniculatus , T&S, 109 
PARRYI, T&S, 109 
ASPER, T&S, 104 
ATTENUATUS, T&S, 109 
HOWARDI, T&S, 109 
MONCXEPIIALUS, T&S. 

104 
NEVADENSIS, T&S, 104 
VULCANICUS, T&S, 109 
pinifohus , T&S, 108 
planensis , T&S, 108 
puberulus , T&S. 104 
PLILCllELLUS, T&S, 104 



liulclierrimus. T&S. 10s 

pumilus, T&S. 109 

acuminatus, l&S. lOS 

salicilolius , T&S, 108 

scoparius, T&S. 108 

serruUilus , T&S. 109 

speciosus. T&S. 108 

g-naplialodcs, I &S 108 

stenolepis. r&S. 104 

slenophyllus . T&S. 104 

TFRFTIFOLIUS, T&S, 104 

lortifoh,! . T&S, 109 

lurbinaij, T&S. 108 

VASl'YI, r&S, 104 

virens, T&S. 108 

VISCIDIFLORUS. T&S, 109 
ekgans , T&S. 109 
IIUMILLS, T&S, 104 
LANCEOLATUS, l&S, 104 
LATIFOLIUS, T&S. 104 
LINll-'OLlUS, T&S, 104 
PUBERULUS, T&S, 104 
PUMILIS, T&S, 104 
serrulatus , T&S, 104 
stenolepis ", T&S, HKI 
stenophyll us, I&S, 104 
tort ifolia . T&S. 104 

vulcanicus, T&S. 104 

\\70m1ngens1s, T&S, lOM 
Chylismia, F. 7 



CICHORIUM. 
CICUTA, F, 74 
CINNA, C, 10 
CIRCA 1-;A, F, 70 
CIRSIUM, F. 104 
acaulescens, F. 
acuatus. F. 110 
ainericanum, 1 . 



04 



ANDERSONII, 
ARIZONICUM. F, 
ARVENSE, r, 104 

MORRIDUM, I. 

mite , F, 104 
.ircuuni, F . 1 10 
BIPINNATUM, F, 1 
BRFVII'OLIUM. F, 
breweri, F, 110 

CiUiescens, F. 1 
CALCAREUM, F, 
canescens. F. 1 10 



1 10 
104 



10 
104 



CANOVIRFNS, F, 104 
CENTAURl'AF, F, 110 
CLAVATUM, F, 110 
coloradensis, F, 1 10 
acaulescens, F. 110 



longissimus 



I 10 



DAVISII, F, 
iliflusum, F 



110 
110 



DOL'GLASII 

CANKSCF.N'S, 1', I 10 
drummondii, F . 1 10 

acaulescens. I", 1 10 
FATONI. F, 110 
engelmiuinii, F. 1 10 
floccosus ,~l'. 110 
FLOOMANII, F, 1 10 
FOLIOSUM, F, 110 
HALLI, F, 110 
humboldtense. I'. 1 10 
INAMOHNSUS. I- . 110 
laccerus. F . 1 10 
lactycinum, F". I 10 
longissimus. F. I 10 
lanceor^itui, F. 110 
megacephalum. F. 1 10 
MOIIAVENSF. F, 1 10 
NKOMEXICANUM. !■, I 
nevadensc, I- . 110 



NIDULUM, I . I 10 
ohKiiiceoUitum. F , 
l)cTlR()CFNTRr\1, 
olivescens, I". 1 in 
palousense. I- . Hi-i 
l-AKRYl. F. I 10 
PROll-ANUM. !■, I 
PUl.CIIFl.LUM. 1-. 

bipinn.iium 
remotifolium. 



ceni.iureae, 

rofiirockTi. 

RYDBFRCIl. I 



IK'i 
1 |l> 
1 10 
I II) 
10 



10 



Si:OPllL(.)RUM. I- 
IRACYI, !•■, I 10 
UNHUl.ATUM. r. 

utaiif:nsf:, f. i 
vulgakf:, f, 11 

wallowense. F , 1 
CLADIUM. GL. 14 
Cladothrix 



lanuginosa. F 
Clammyweed. F, 
CLARKIA, F', 70 
CLAY'l'ONlA 

,irenicol.i 



30 
46 



,Ts,irilolia 




mf:gariiiza. 
bfllidifofia, 

nuillicaulis, F, U 
multiscarpa. F. ,i 1 
NEVADENSIS. F, 3; 
obovata. F, 32 




spathulala. 1-. ,12 
UM'BFLLArA. F. ,(: 
ui.iliensis. F'. M 
Cle.ivers. F, 100 
CLEMAFIS, 1 &S. 3(1 
Clemenlsia. F . 4(1 

ci,f:c)mf,. f. 4(1 

rl,l-OMFLI.,\. F. 46 
(■liinir.ike, F, 1 
t:iiffrose. 1 &S 4^1 

c:linioni.\. f. i7 

Clisloyucc.i . l&S 18 
c:io;iklern, F, 1 
C'lomenocom.i. F . Ill 
Clover. F. 6,! 
Caiemidoplidcos 




iroglodytu 



CNicus, F, no 

BENEDICTUS, F, UO 
calcareum, F, 109 
clavatum, F. UO 
diffusus , F. no 
eatoni, F, 110 
nidulus , F, 110 
rothrockn. F. 110 



Cocklubur, F, 124 
Cogswellia 

ambigiium, F. 75 

anomalum, F, 76 

argensis. F, 76 

bicolor, F. 75 

canbyi. F, 75 

circumdatum, F. 75 

cottami, F, 76 

cous, F. 75 

decipicns, F. 76 

donnellii, F. 75 

gigantea. F, 76 

gray], F. 75 

hendersonii, F, 75 

jonesii, F, 75 

juniperina, F. 75 

lapidosa, F, 74 

lemmoni, F, 77 

leptocarpa, F, 75 

macdougah, F. 75 

macrocarpuni, F. 76 

millefolia, F. 75 

depauperatum, F, 75 

minima, F, 76 

mohavense. F, 76 

montanum, F, 76 



nevadense, F, 76 

cupulata, F, 76 

parishii, F, 76 

pseudorientale, F, 76 
nudicaule, F, 76 
nuttallii, F, 76 



alpinum, F. 76 
parishii, F, 76 
parryi, F, 76 
platycarpum, F, 76 
plummerae, F. 76 
nevadense 



pseudorientale. 
robustior, F, 76 
scabra. F, 76 
simplex. F, 76 
sonnei. F. 76 



F, 76 



tritcrnatum , F. 76 
robustior, F, 76 
COLDENIA, F, 88 
COLEOGYNE, T&S, 49 
Coleosanthus , T&S, 106 
COLLINSIA, F. 95 
COLLOMIA, F, 81 
Coloptera . F. 74 
Columbine, F, .i5 
COMANDRA, F, 22 
ComareUa, F, 50 
Combseed, F, 90 
COMMELINA, F, 15 
COMMELINACEA, F, 15 
COMPOSITAE, F, 102 
Conanthu s. T&S, 86 
CONDALIA, T&S, 66 
Coneflower, F, 120 
Conifers. T&S. 2 
CONIOSELINUM, F, 74 
CONIUM, F, 74 
CONRINGIA, F, 40 
CONVOL\aJLACEAE, F, : 
CONVOLVULUS, F, 81 
CONYZA, F, 110 
CORALLORHIZA, F, 19 



Coralroot, F. 19 
Cordgrass, G. 11 
CORDYLANTHUS, F, 95 
COREOPSIS, F, 110 
Coriander, F, 74 
CORIANDRUM, F, 74 
CORLSPERMUM, F, 29 
Corn, G, 12 
CORNACEAE, T&S, 77 
CORNUS, T&S, 77 
Cornbind, F, 27 
Corn-cockle. F. .32 
Cornflower, F. 107 
Cornsalad, F, 101 
CORYDALIS, F, ,39 
Corynopuntia, T&S, 70 
Coryphantha. F, 69 
Cotton Sedge. GL, 14 
Cottontop, G. 12 
Cottonwood, T&S. 20 
Covillea . T&S, 64 
COWANIA, T&S, 49 
Cowbane, F, 77 
Cow Lily, F, 35 
Cowparsnip. F, 75 
Crabgrass, G. 11 
Cranesbill, 63 
CRASSULACEAE, F, 47 
CRATAEGUS, T&S, 49 
Crazy Weed. F, 62 
Creamcup. F. 38 
Creosote Bush. T&S. 64 
CREPIS, F, no 
CRESSA, F, 81 
CROTON, F, 64 
Crowfoot Family, F, 35 
Crowfoot, F, 37 
Crownbeard. F, 124 
CRUCIFERAE, F, 39 
CruciUo, T&S, 66 
CrunocaJlis , F. 32 
CRYPTANTHA, F, 88 

ABATA, F, 88 

AFFINIS, F, 89 

AMBIGUA, F, 89 

andina, F. 89 

ANGUSTIFOLIA, F, 89 

arenicola. F, 89 

BAKERI, F, 88 

BARBIGERA, F, 89 

BARNEBYI, F, 88 

BREVIFLORA, F. 88 

CAESPITOSA, F, 88 

caJycosa, F. 90 

C A PIT ATA, F, 88 

CIRCUMSCISSA, F, 89 
HISPIDA, F, 89 

commixta, F. 89 

confusa, F. 89 

CONFERTIFLORA, F, 88 

CRASSISEPALA, F, 89 

cycloptera, F. 90 

DECIPIENS, F, 89 

denticulata , F. 89 

depressa, F, 89 

dicarpa . F. 89 

dichotoma, F, 89 

DUMETORUM, F, 89 

ECHINELLA, F, 89 

ECHINOIDES, F, 88 

FENDLERI, F, 89 

FLACCIDA, F, 89 

FLAVA, F, 88 

FLAVOCULATA, F, 88 

flexuosa, F, 90 

FULVOCANESCENS, F, i 

GLOMERIFLORA, F, 89 



GRACILIS, F. 89 
GRAHAMII, F, 88 
hillmanii , F, 89 
HOFFMANNII, F, 88 
HUMILIS, F. 88 
hypsophila , F, 89 
INAEQUATA, F, 89 
INSOLITA, F, 88 
INTERRUPTA, F, 88 
JAMESn 

ABORTIVA, F. 88 
CINEREA. F, 88 
DISTICHA, F, 88 
MULTICAULIS, F, 88 
PUSTULOSA, F, 89 
JONESIANA. F, 89 
jonesii, F. 89 
KELSEYANA, F, 89 
leptophylla . F, 89 
LONGIFLORA, F, 89 
MARITIMA, F. 89 

pilosa. F. 89 
MENSANA, F, 89 
MICRANTHA, F, 89 

LEPIDA, F. 89 
MIRABUNDA, F, 89 
modesta, F. 88 
multicaulis, F, 89 
MURICATA 

DENTICULATA, F, 89 
JONESII, F, 89 
NANA, F, 89 

COMMIXTA, F, 89 
OVINA, F, 89 
SHANTZII, F. 89 
NEVADENSIS. F, 89 
NUBIGENA, F. 89 
OSTERHOUTII, F, 89 
OXYGONA, F, 89 
PARADOXA, F, 89 
PATTERSONII. F, 89 
PROPRIA, F, 89 
PTEROCARYA, F. 90 

CYCLOPTERA, F, 90 
pustulosa, F, 89 
RACEMOSA, F, 90 
RECURVATA, F, 90 
ROLLINSII, F, 89 
RUGULOSA, F, 89 
scoparia. F. 89 
SEMIGLABRA, F, 89 
SERICEA, F, 89 

PERENNIS, F, 89 
SETOSISSIMA. F, 89 
spiculifera , F, 88 
submollis , F. 90 
SUBRETUSA, F, 89 
suffruticosa, F. 90 
TENUIS, F, 89 
TORREYANA, F, 90 

CALYCOSA, F, 90 
torreyi , F. 90 
UTAHENSIS, F, 90 
vinctens. F, 90 
VIRGINENSIS, F, 89 
WATSONII, F, 90 
WETHERILLII, F, 89 
wyomingensis, F, 89 
CRYPTOGRAMA, F. 1 
ctenophyllum , F. 53, 57, 58 
CUCURBITACEAE, F, 101 
CUCURBITA, F, 101 
Cudweed, F. 114 
CUPRESSACEAE, T&S, 3 
Currant, T&S, 48 
CUSCUTA, F, 81 
CUSCUTACEAE, F, 81 
Cutgrass, G, 11 



Cyclachaena, F. 118 
CYCLOLOMA. F. 29 
Cylindropuntia. T&S. 69 
CYMOPTERUS, F, 74 
ABORIGINUM, F, 74 
ACAULIS. F, 74 
albiflora , F. 74 
alpina . F. 76 
ANISATUS. F. 74 
bakeri, F. 76 
BASALTICUS, F. 74 
BIPINNATUS, F, 74 
BULBOSUS, F, 74 
calcarea, F, 74 
californica, F. 75 
CINERARIUS, F. 74 
CORRUGATUS, F. 7- 
coulteri. F. 74 
scopulicola, F. 74 
COULTERI, F, 74 
decipiens. F, 74 
DUCHESNENSIS, F, 
FENDLERI. F. 74 

newberryi. F. 74 
GILMANI. F, 74 
GLAUCUS. F, 74 
GLOBOSUS, F. 74 
grayanus, F. 77 
HENDERSONII. F, 7- 
IBAPENSIS, F, 74 
JONESII, F. 74 
lapidosa. F. 74 
leibergii, F. 74 
ligusticoides, F. 77 
puniceus, F. 77 
tenuifolius. F, 77 
LONGIPES. F. 74 
macdougali, F. 73 
MEGACEPHALUS, F, : 
MINIMUM, F, 74 ' 
MULTINERVATUS, I ! 
nevadensis, F. 77 
NEWBERRYI. F, 74 

jonesii. F. 74 
NIVALIS, F, 74 
PETRAEUS, F, 74 
plurijugus. F, 77 
PURPURASCENS. F, 
PURPUREUS, F, 74 
RIPLEYI, F, 74 

saniculoides, F, 7 
ROSEI, F, 74 
TEREBINTHINA, 
ALBIFLORA, F, 7 
CALCAREA, F, 7 
CALIFORNICA, F 
utahensis. F. 74 
WATSONI, F, 75 
CYNANCHUM, F, 81 
CYNODON, G, 11 
CYNOGLOSSUM, F, 90 
Cynomarathrum 
alpinum, F. 76 
latilobum , F. 75 
macbridei, F. 74 
megarrhizum. F, 76 
nuttallii. F. 76 
parryi. F. 76 
scabrum, F. 76 
Cynopaema , F. 80 
CYPERACEAE, GL, 12 
CYPERUS, GL, 14 
CYPRIPEDIUM, F, 19 
Cyrtorhyncha . F, 38 
Cystium, F. 55 
CYSTOPTERIS, F, 1 
Cytherea. 19 



146 



x G, 5 
Hum , F. 84 
106. Ml 
; \S, S'). 62 
!m. I-, 4 
lA, G, K 

F. 110, 12.i 

F, 51 
1, G. 7 
ma. F. 7^ 
F, ^3 
um, F, 76 

F, 15 
\, F. 92 
AS. F. IS 
M, F, 36 
l^IA, G. 8 
;\'1A, F, 41) 
■ idehoii, F. 119 
: :. .Id, F. 114 
■ i i'lisley, F. 75 

chbush, T&S. 51 

T&S, 64 
!low, T&S, 99 
-,, F, 99 
•., F, 3^^ 
(lima, F. 17 

!-", Ill 

. DO.\EAE, F it T&S. 20 
. 70 
. il9 
\. C, 11 

r. 53 

RESIA, F, HI 
alia , F. 46 
pappus . F, 106 
DTAXIS, F, 41 

CACEAE, F, 101 

CUS, F, 101 

ostemon, F. 17 

a, F. 66 

RUM, F, 17 
jgia, T&S. 100 
i^LIS, G, 5 
jis. F. 64 
^ -grass. F. 4 
YREA, F, 41 
JCATHEON, F, 78 
, F, 27 
er, F, 81 
ane, F. 80 
';nnel, F, 103 
both Violet, F. 17 
feed, F. Ill 
[ood, T&S. 77 
ia, F, 30 
las-fir, T&S. 3 
JNINGIA, F, 101 
3A, F, 41 
iidina, F, 41 
PICULATA, F, 41 
:<GYRAEA, F, 4 1 
:<IDA, F, 41 
5PRELLA 

KAIBABENSIS, F, 41 

STELLIGERA, F, 41 
5TEROPHORA, F, 41 
UREA, F, 41 
iselformis , F . 4 1 
UCHYSTYLIS, F, 41 
^EWERI, F. 41 
leruleomontana . F. 41 
ma . F. 41 
iloradensi s, F. 41 
Jumbiana. F, 41 



CRASSA, F, 41 
CRASSIFOLIA. F, 4 1 

NEVADENSIS, F. 41 
crockeri, F, 41 
CUNEIFOLIA, F, 41 
calil'ornicj. F. 4 1 
INTEGRIFOLIA, 1- , 41 
cusickii. F, 41 



decumbens, F, 41 
DENSIFOLIA, I- , 41 
DOUGLASII, F. 41 

CROCKERI, F, 41 
eurycarpa. F. 44 
FLADNIZENSIS, F, 41 
glacialis, F, 41 
globosa. F. 41 
helleri , F, 41 
INCERTA, F. 41 
integrifolia. F. 41 
laevicapsula . F. 41 
LANCEOLATA, F, 41 
lapilutea. F. 41 
LEMMONNII 

INGRASSATA, F, 4 1 
LONCHOCARPA, F, 41 
luteola, F, 41 
MAGUIREI, F, 41 

BURKEI, F, 41 
micrantha, F, 41 
montana, F, 41 



mulfordae. F, 41 
nelsonii, F, 41 



NEMOROSA, F, 41 
nitida. F. 41 



NIVALIS, F, 41 
elongata. F. 41 
EXIGUA, F, 41 
novolynipica. F, 41 
OLIGOSPERMA, F, 41 
oreibata, F. 41 
parryi, F. 41 
pattersonii, F, 41 
PAYSONII, F, 41 

TRELEASII, F, 41 
pectmata. F. 41 
PECTINIPILA, F, 41 
PRAEALTA, F, 41 
QUADRICOSTATA, F, 41 
RECTIFRUCTA, F, 41 
REPTANS, F, 41 

MICRANTHA, F, 41 
STELLIFERA, F, 41 
saximontanus. F. 41 
SOBOLIFERA, F, 41 
SPECTABILIS, F, 41 
SPHAEROIDES, F, 41 

CUSICKII, F, 41 
sphaerula , F . 4 1 
STENOLOBA 

NANA, F, 41 
SUBALPINA, F, 41 
uber. F. 41 
unicinalis, F. 41 
valida, F, 41 
VENTOSA, F, 41 
VERNA, F, 41 
yellowstonensis, F. 41 
ZIONENSIS, F, 41 

DRACOCEPHALUM, F, 92 

Dragonhead. F, 92 

Drosace, F. 78 

DROSERA. F, 46 

DROSERACEAE, F, 46 

DRYAS, F, 49 

Dropseed, G. 9, 10 

DrymocaJlis, F. 50 

DRYOPTERIS, F, 1 

Duckweed Family, F, 15 



DUnLEVA, F, 4ft 
Dugaldc-a . 1'. 116. 117 
Dwarfmistlctoe, I'. 20 
Dysmicudoii. F, 102 
DYSSODIA, F, 111 

Earlocassia, T&S. 52 



Flyn.i. GL. 15 

IvMMHNANTHl-:. 

Hmplectocladus. 



EATONELLA, F. Ill 
Eatonia. G, 9 



EBUROPIIYTON, F, 19 
Echevcria. F. 46 
ECHINOCACTUS. T&S. 69 
ECHINOCEREUS. T&S. 69 
ECIIINOCHLOA, G. 1 I 
ECHINOCYSTIS. F. 10 1 
ECHINODERUS. F. 4 
EchLnomastus. T&S, 69 
Echinopsilon. F. 29 
Eddy a . F~88 
Edwinia. T&S. 47 



ELAEAGNACEAE. T&S. 70 
ELAEAGNUS, T&S, 70 
ELATINACEAE, F. 67 
ELATINE, F, 67 
Elderberry. T&S, 10 1 
ELEOCHARIS, GL, 14 
Elephantella . F, 96 
ELEUSINE, G, 11 
Ellisia. F, 86 
Elm Family, T&S, 21 
ELODEA, F, 4 
ELYMUS. G, 7 

AMBIGUUS, G. 7 
STRIGOSUS. G. 7 

aniericanus. G. 8 

angustifolius, C, S 

ARISTATUS, G, 7 

arizonicum. G. 7 

brachystachys. G. 7 

CANADENSIS, G, 7 

CAPUT-MEDUSAE, G, 8 

CINEREUS, G, 8 

condensatus. G, 8 

elymoides, G, 8 

FLAVESCENS, G. 8 

GLAUCUS, G, 7. 8 
JEPSONI. G. 8 

hanseni, G. 8 

HIRTIFLORUS, G, 8 

HYSTRIX, G, 8 

jejunus, G. 8 

lanceolatum, G. 7 

MACOUNII. G, 8 

marginalis. G, 8 

nitidus, G, 8 

pauciflorum. G. 7 

pauciflorus. G. 7 

repens. G. 7 

riparium, G. 7 

rydbergi, G. 7 

SALINA, G, 8 

saxicola. G. 7 

saundersii, G. 7 
caJifornicus, G. 7 

scribneri. G. 7 

simplex. G. 8 

smithii. G. 7 

spicatum. G. 7 

striatus. G. 8 

strigosus. G. 7 

subvillosus. G. 7 



TRITICOIDES, G, 8 
PUBESCENS, G, 8 
SIMPLEX. G, 8 
villiflorus. G. 7 
VIRGINICUS, G, 8 
SUBMUTICUS, G. 8 



ENCHLIA. T&S. 
ENCHLIOl'SIS. 1- 
Endolcpis. T&S. 



•) 



I-', 86, 
I &S, • 
I 1 I 

1 1 I 
28 

l-nglish Daisy, I', 106 
FNNFAPOGON. G. 5 
EPHEDRA. I&S. 3 
FPHHDRACEAF. T &S, 
FPILOBUIM. F. 70 
1:PIPACTIS, F. 19 
l-i^UISHTACEAl 

1-,(,)uisktum. i-. 2 
i-:ragrostis. g. 5 

F:rc'in,]lchc, I-, 66 
l-:remiastrum. 1', 1 I9 
I 1 1 

89 

eremocrinum, f. 

Eremoliihia. F", 34 
ERIASTRUM. 1-. 82 
ERICACEAE. I&S 
Eric amen a 

bloomeri. 1- . I 
cervmus. 1- , II 



E rem inula. \- 
Eremocarya, F', 



78 



cooperi, F , 115 
nana, T&S, 1 16 
paniculata, l\ 109 
tertifolius. I'. 109 
ERIGERON. F, 111 
ABAJOENSIS. F. Ill 
accedens. F. 112 
ACRIS. F, HI 

ASTEROIDES. F. Ill 
DEBILIS. I-. 112 
algidus. F, 1 l,i 
ambiguus. F, 113 
andersonii, F. 105 
angustifolius, F, 1 l.i 
APHANACTIS. F. 112 

CONGESTUS. F. 112 
apiculatus, V . 113 
ARENARIOIDES. F. 112 
arenarius. F, 1 12 
ARGENTATUS. F. 112 
ASPERUGINEL'S, !■ . 112 
asteroides, F, HI 
austinae. F. 112 
bakcri. F. 113 
BELLIDIASTRUM. F. IK 
BLOOMERI. F. 112 
BREWERI, F. 112 

PORPHYRFTICUS. 
F. 112 
CAESPITOSUS. I-. 112 
anactis. F. 113 
laccolilicus, F, 
nauseosus. F, 



1 12 
I 13 
13 



callianthemus, F 

canadensis, I- , I 10 

glabrauis, 1- , 1 10 

canescens. F. 112 

CANUS. F, 112 

CHRYSOPSIDIS, F, 112 
AUSTINAE. 1-. 112 

cinereus. !■', 1 12 

CLOKEYI. F. 112 

COMPACTUS. I', 112 

CONSIMILIS. I-. 112 

COMPOSITUS. F. 112 

breviradiatus. F. 112 
DISCOIDEUS. F, 112 
GLABRATUS, F, 112 
incenus , F' , 112 
multilidus . F . 112 
petraeus, I', 112 
submontanus, F, 112 
trifidis. F, 112 



147 



ERIGERON (con.) 

concinnus, F, 112, 113 

aphanactis, F, 112 
condensatus, F, 113 
congestus, F, 112 
consimilis, F, 112 
controversus, F 



112 



copelandii, F. 113 

CORYMBOSUS, F, 112 

COULTERI, F, 112 

CRONQUISTII, F, 112 

debihs , F, 112 

DISPARIPILUS, F, 112 

divaricatus, F, 112 

DIVERGENS, F, 112 

arenarius, F. 112 
CINEREUS, F, 112 
nudlflorus, F, 112 

eastwoodiae, F, 112 

EATONII, F, 112 

PLANTAGINEUS, F, 112 

ELATIOR, F, 112 

eldensis, F, 113 

ELEGANTULUS, F, 112 

ENGELMANNII, F, 112 

elkoensis. F. 112 

eximius, F, 112 

FILIFOUUS, F, 112 

bloomeri, F, 112 

FLAGELLARIS, F, 112 
TRILOBATUS, F, 112 

foliosus 

porphreticus, F, 112 

FORMOSISSIMUS, F, 112 
VISCIDUS, F, 112 

frondeus, F, 112 

fruticetorum, F. 112 

furcatus. F, 112 



GARRETTII, F, 112 
GLABELLUS, F, 112 
glacialis, F. 113 
gormani. F, 112 
graciUimus, F, 112 
grandiflorus, F, 112 

elatior . F. 112 
grayi, F, 113 
hesperocallis, F. 113 
hirsutus , F. 113 
hirtuosus, F, 112 
hispidissimus, F, 113 
inamoenus, F. 113 
incanescens, F, 113 
incomptus. F. 112 
INORNATUS, F, 113 
JONESII, F, 113 
jucundus, F, 112 
lapilutens, F, 111 
LATUS, F, 113 
lavandulaceus, F, 112 
LEIOMERUST F, 113 
leiophyllus, F, 113 
leptophyllus , F , 112 
leucanthemoides, F, 112 
leucotrichus, F. 113 
linearis, F. 113 

elcgantulus, F, 112 
LONCHOPHYLLUS, F, 113 
loratus, F, 113 
lucidus, F. 112 
luteus, F, 113 
macdougalii, F, 112 
macranthus, F, 113 
MAGUIREI, F, 113 
MANCUS, F, 113 
MELANOCEPHALUS, F, 113 
membranaceus, F, 113 
niicrolonchus, F, 112 
minor, F, 113 
minusculus. F, 113 



multifidus . F. 112 
discoideus, F, 112 
incertus, F, 112 
NANUS, F, 113 
NAUSEOSUS, F, 113 
nelsonii, F, 112 
nevadensis, F. 113 
pygmaeus. F. 



113 
113 



NEVADINCOLA, F, 
nivalis, F, 112 
nudlflorus , F, 112 
oblanceolatus, F, 112 
OVINUS, F, 113 
peasei, F, 112 
pedatus, F, 112 
PEREGRINUS 

CALLIANTHEMUS, F, 113 

ANGUSTIFOLIUS, F, 113 

HIRSUTUS, F, 113 

SCAPOSUS, F, 113 
PETIOLARIS, F, 113 
petrocallis, F, 112 
peucephyllus, F, 113 
PHILADELPHICUS, F, 113 
pinnatisectus 

msolens, F, 113 
plantagineus, F. 112 
POLIOSPERMUS, F, 113 

latus . F, 113 
porphyreticus, F, 112 
PULCHERRIMUS, F, 113 

WYOMINGIA, F, 113 
pulvinatus, F, 112 
PUMILUS, F, 113 

CONCINNOIDES, F, 113 

CONDENSATUS, F, 113 
INTERMEDIUS, F, 113 

GRACILIOR, F, 113 
PYGMAEUS, F, 113 
racemosus, F. 113 
ramosa, F, 113 
regalis, F, 113 
REUGIOSUS, F, 113 
rubicundus, F. 112 
salicinus, F, 113 
salsuginosus, F, 113 
scaberulus, F. 112 
Sftulosus, F. 113 
SIMPLEX, F, 113 
suTiulans, F, 112 
SIONIS, F, 113 
smithil , F, 112 
sonnei, F, 112 
sparsifolius. F, 113 
spathultfolius. F. 113 
SPECIOSUS, F, 113 

MACRANTHUS, F, 113 
stenophyllus , F. 112, 113 
stolonifer , F. 112 
STRIGOSUS, F, 113 

SEPTENTRIONALIS, 
F, 113 
subasper, F, 112 
subcanescens, F. 112 
SUBTRIVERNIS, F, 113 
SUPERBUS, F, 113 
TENER, F, 113 
tetrapleuris. F, 113 
trifidus , fT 112 

deficiens, F. 112 

discoideus, F. 112 

prasinus, F, 112 
UINTAHENSIS, F, 113 
UNCIALIS 

CONJUGANS, F, 113 
uiiiflorus, F, 113 

melanocephalus, F. 113 
U RS INUS, F, 113 



UTAHENSIS, F, 113 

SPARSIFOLIUS, F, 113 
TETRAPLEURIS, F, 113 
VAGUS, F, 113 
WATSONI, F, 113 
wyomingensis , F . 113 
wyomingia, F. 113 
Eriocarpum 

australe, F, 116 
gracilis, F. 115 
grindelioides, F. 119 
Eriocoma. F, 10 
ERIODICTYON, T&S, 86 
ERIOGONUM, T&S, 22 
ACAULE, F, 22 
ALATUM, F, 22 

TRISTE, F, 22 
AMPULLACEUM, F, 23 
andinum. F. 23 
anemophilum, F. 24 
angulosum. F, 24 
maculatum, F, 24 
patens. F, 24 
pauciflorum, F. 24 
rectipes. F, 24 
anserinum, F. 25 
ARCUATUM, F, 23 
ARETIOIDES, F, 23 
aridum, F. 26 
AUREUM, F, 23 
azaeleastrum, F. 26 
BAILEYI, F, 23 

BRACHYANTHUM, F, 23 
TOMENTOSUM, F, 23 
bakeri , F, 23 
bannockense, F. 23 
BATEMANI, F, 23 
BICOLOR, F, 23 
biumbellatum, T&S, 26 
brachyanthum, F. 23 
brachypodum, F, 23 
BREVICAULE, F, 23 

campanulatum, F. 23 
CAESPITOSUM, F, 23 
acaule, F. 23 
douglasii, F. 23 
CAMPANULATUM, F, 23 

brevicaule, F. 23 
CERNUUM, F, 23 

ACUTANGULUM, F, 23 
TENUE, F, 23 
multipedunculatum, 

F. 26 
umbraticum, F. 23 



VIMINALE. F, 23 

CHRYSOCEPHALUM, F, 
ALPESTRE, F, 23 
bannockense, F, 23 
CUSICKII, F. 23 
DESERTORUM, F, 23 
loganum, F, 24 

CLAVELLATUM. F, 

GLUTEI, F, 23 

cognatum, F. 26 

COLLINUM. F, 23 

commixtum, F, 26 

comosum, F, 25 



23 



23 



COMPOSITUM, F, 23 
confertiflorum, F. 24 
CORYMBOSUM. T&S, 23 

divaricatum, T&S. 23 
covillei, F. 26 
crispus, F. 24 
croceum, F, 26 
cupreum. F, 25 
cusickii . F. 23, 25 
cuspidatum. F, 26 
DARROVII, F, 23 
DAVISIANUM, F, 23 



DEFLEXUM, F, 23 
BRACHYPODUM. F, 
EXALTATUM. F, 2 
gilvum , F. 24 
hookeri. F. 24 
INSIGNE, F, 23 
parryi, F. 25 
ULTRUM. F, 23 
watsonii. F. 2b 
demissum, F, 23 

romanum, F, 23 
dcndroideum. F, 26 

hillmani. F. 26 
depressum, F. 25 
desertorum, F, 23 
dichotomum. F. 24 
DIVARICATUM. F, 2.3 
DIVERGENS, T&S. 23 
DOUGLASII, F, 23 
DUDLEYIANUM. F. 2.3 
eastwoodae, F. 25 
EFFUSUM, T&S, 23 
corymbosum, 1 \S 
divaricatum. 1 \S. ; 
DURUM. T&S. 23 
leptocladon. TisS, 2 
NELSONI, T&S. 23 
ORDICULATUM.T& 
pallidum , T&S. 24 
SALINUM, T&S, 23 
SHANDSII, T&S. 23 
simpsoni. T&S, 25 
E LATUM, F, 23 
ESMERALDENSE. F, ; 
TOIYABENSE, F, 
exaltatum , F. 23 
eximium. F. 25 
FASCICli LATUM, T&S 
POLIFOLIUM, T&S. ' 
REVOLUTUM. T&S, . 
fascicultfolium, T&S. ; 
ferrissi . T&S. 26 
FILICAULE, F, 23 
filiforme , F, 25 
flavissimum, F. 25 
FLAVUM, F, 23 

CRASSIFOLIUM. F, I 
piperi. F. 25 
FLEXUM, F. 23 

FERRONIS. F, 2 
friscanum, F, 24 
fruticosum. F, 23 
FRUTICULOSUM, T&S 
fusiforme, F, 25 
geniculatum, F. 25 
GLANDULOSUM. F, 2: 
glaucum. F, 24 
GORDONI, F, 23 
gracilipes . F. 24 
halimioides. F. 25 
HEERMANII, T&S, 23 
ARGENSE, T&S, 23 
HUMILIUS, T&S, 24 
SULCATUM, T&S, : I 
HERACLEOIDES, T&S: 
angustifolium. T&S, 
subalpinum, F. 26 
HOLMGRENII, F, 24 
HOOKERI, F, 24 
HOWELLII, F, 24 

SUBRACEMOSUM 
F, 24 
idahoense. F. 24 
INF LATUM, F, 24 

DEFLATUM, F, 
insigne. F. 23 



:| 



' )NUM (con.) 
ii:sii, !■, 2.i 

arcuaiuiii, 1-'. 2.! 
bakcri. F. 23 

rLAVHSCl'NS, 1-, 
23. 24 
i-tomi, I'. 2) 
.! SII. I'. 2-t 
:ncyi. I'. 24 
.XEDYI, F, 24 
ji-acilipes, F'. 24 



>.n. F, 24 
UXOGYNUM. F, 24 
iiiostfgium, '.' . 25 
lactam. F. 25 



L.^TEX'S, F, 24 

LATIFOLIL'M 

nudum, T&S. 24 
saMuoUi. TiS. 24 



sulphurtum, T&S. 24 



laxLllorum. TS^S. 24 



LEMMO.X'I, F. 24 
LEPTOCLADO.X, F, 24 
LEPTOPIIYLLUM. F, 24 
LOBBII, F, 24 

ROBUSTUM, F, 24 
LOGANUM, F, 24 
longilobum, F. 25 



macdougalu, F, 24 



MACULATUM, F, 24 
MARIFOLIUM, F. 24 
MEARXSII, F, 24 

PLILCHRUM, F, 24 
medium, F. 24 
MICROTHECUM, T&S, 
2.i, 24 
aureum, T&S. 23 
bicolor, TS;S. 23 

CONFERTIFLORUM 

T&S, 24 
CRISPUS, T&S, 24 
EXPANSUM, T&S, 24 
FRISCANUM, T&S, 24 
IDAHOENSE, T&S. 24 
INTERMEDIUM, T&S. 24 
LAXIFLORUM, T&S, 24 
MACDOUGALU, T&S. 
24 
mearnsii, T&S, 24 
pulchrum, T&S. 24 
minimum, F. 25 



mohavense 



ampullaceum, F, 23 
MONTICOLA, F, 24 
negleccum, F, 25 
nelsoni, F, 23 
NIDULARIUM, F, 24 
NIVEUM, F, 24 

DICHOTOMUM, F, 24 
NODOSUM, F, 24 

KEARXEYI, F, 24 
MONOE.NSE, F, 24 
NOVONUDUM, F, 24 
NUDICAULE, F, 24 
ANGUSTUM, F, 24 
GARRETTI, F, 24 
OCHROFLORUM, F, 24 
PARLEYENSE, F, 24 
PUMILUM, F, 24 
NUDUM, F, 24 

PURIFLORUM, F, 24 
NUMMULARE, F, 24 
NUTANS, F, 24 

BREVIPEDICELL.ATUM, 
F, 24 
OCHROCEPHALUM, F, 24 
ANEMOFHILUM, F, 24 
CALCAREUM, F, 24 
GRACILIPES, F, 24 



DC'hrolL-ucum, F. 25 
orthocaulun, I-. 25 
orthocladun, F'. 25 
OSTLLINDF \' , 25 
0\'ALIFOLIUM. I'. : 
CELSUM, 1-, 2 
DEPRESSUM. I 
EXIMIUM. F. 25 
flavissimum, F. ; 
riL-v.idL-nsL', F, 



ochrok-ucum. I-, 
PLIRPURFUM, 
utaliense. F, 

25 



24 



2b 



VIXFUM, 
pallidum. [•' 
p.dmcri, I- . 
PARRY I, F, 
pcrfoliatum, 
PHARXACEOIDES, I 
PIPERI, F, 25 
PLUMATELLA. F, : 
portt-ri. F, 2ti 
praebciis. F. 23 
prattcniajium. F 



2f> 



pruliiurum, F. 25 
anurinum, F, 25 

PUBERULUM, F, 25 

VENOSUM, F, 25 

pulchrum, F. 24 

pulvinatum, F. 25 

purpurcum, F. 25 

pusillum. F, 25 

RACEMOSUM. F, 25 

orthocladon, F. 25 

RAMOS ISSIMUM, F. 25 
eastwoodae. F. 25 

reclmatiim, F. 26 

RENIFORME, F, 25 

COMOSUM, F, 25 
PUSILLUM, F, 25 

restioides, F. 23 

revolutum, F. 23 

RHODANTHUM, F, 25 

robustum, F. 24 

ROSENSE, F, 25 

rubiflorum, F, 24 

RUBRICAULE, F, 25 

rydbergu, F, 26 

sabulosum, F, 23 

salicornioides, F, 23 

saJinum, T&S. 23 



25 



SALSUGINOSUM, F 
saxicola, F. 24 
sericoleucum, F. 25 
SESSILE, F, 25 
SHOCKLEYl, F, 25 
CANDIDUM, F, 25 
LONGILOBUM, F, 25 
shoshoense. F. 26 
SIMPSONI, F, 25 
smallianum, F. 26 
spathuliforme, F. 25 
SPATHU LATUM, F, 25 

PANGUICENSE, F, 25 
SPATHULIFORME, F, 25 
SPERGULINUM, F, 25 

REDDINGIANUM. F, 
25 
SPHAEROCEPHALUM, F, 25 
fascicuIUohum, F, 25 
GENICULATUM, F\ 25 
HALIMIOIDES, I-, 25 
MEGACEPllALUM, F. 

25 
MINIMUM, F, 25 
SERICOLEUCUM, F, 
25 
spinescens, F. 26 
stellatum, F. 26 



STRRMUM. v. 25 

AX'SI-.RIXUM. F\ 
"cusickiaruim." F' 



CUSICKII. !■■, 25 
FACIIX'OSI l-CIUM. 



I'ROLU ERl'M. I 
subal|imum, F, 26 



SUBREXIFORMI'.. F\ 
sulciium. T&S. 2i 
c. l&S 
F', 24 



.irgc-n 
sulphurcum 

tf;nf:llum. 

COTIAMI 

ostlundi, I 
THOMAS II. I-, 25 
TIIOMPSOXAE, F. 
tiiurberi 

acuiangulum 



'5 



25 



F, 2.! 



THYMOIDES 

CONGESTUM, F, 
torrcyanum. F, 26 
tracliygonum, F' 

wriglitii. p. 26 
TRICHOPES, F, 25 

glandulosum. F, 

MINUS, F, 25 
rubricaule, F. 



trichopoduni. \- . 2 
trinervata. F. 23 



tristc. F. 22 



turbinatum. F, 



25 



UMBELLATUM, T&S, 
ARIDUM, T&S, 26 
cognatum. T&S. 26 
COVILLEl. T&S, 26 
croceum. T&S. 26 
glabratum . T&S, 26 
intectum. T&S. 25 
MAJUS, T&S. 26 
modocense, T&S. 26 
MONOCEPHALUM. T&S. 
26 
polypodum. T&S, 26 
porleri . T&S. 26 
smallianum , T&S. 26 
ST ELLATUM, T&S. 26 
ffhissii, T&S. 26 



subaridum , T&S. 26 
subalpmum, T&S. 26 
SUBARIDUM, T&S. 26 
TOLMIEANUM, T&S. 26 
TORREYANUM. T&S. 26 

umbellilcTum, T&S. 25 
umbelliferum, T&S. 25 
vegetius. F. 24 
VILLIFLORUM, F, 26 

TUMULOSUM, F, 26 
VIMINEUM. F, 26 
baileyi . F. 23 

brachyjnthum. F. 23 
CALIFORNICUM. 

F. 26 
COMMIXTUM, F, 

26 
DENSUM, F, 26 
divergens. F. 26 
JUNCINELLUM. F. 26 
multiradiarum. F'. 
26 
nidularium, F. 24 



oregonense, F 
porphyreticum, 

23 
restioides. F 
rigescens, F" 
salicornioides. 

F. 23 
SHOSHOENSE, F 

26 



26 

F. 



23 
26 



vinium. I- , 25 
VISDinfil.UM. I-', 20 
WAHSA'I'CHI'XSF. !■ . . 
WA'ISOXII, [■. 26 
\VI IHFRIl.Lll. i\ 26 
WKICIII II 

TK.ACIIVGONnM, !■ 
SUIiSCAI'DSMM. I . 
■/lOXIS. F'. 26 

GOCCINiaiM. F. 
F;riogynla. l&S. 5(1 
FrionL'uron, ('.. 7 
FTUOmOlTuM. CI,, 14 

f:riophyli,um. f', i i ) 

I'-.Rn-RHMIIUM . I-. 'HI 
NANUM 

KLONGAri.lM, V 
EritrichiunT 



angustdohum 
argt-ntcum. F. 'JO 
bafbigerum. F. «') 
cuxumscibsum, I", 
clijiigatum, F, yt) 
argenifum, I 



.S'» 



lulvocanescens. F'. 
micranthum. F, .S'* 
Itpidium, F . .' 

eloxgatlim. 

o.xygonum, F. i<^) 
ptcrocaryum. F 
racemosum. F. 



32 



setosissmium. 
Erocallis. F. 32 

triphyllum . F . 
ERODIUM. F, 63 
ERUCA. F. 42 
ERYNGIUM. F. 75 
ERYSIMUM, F, 42, ■ 
ERYTHRONIUM. F. 
Erxlfbenia. F. 7,S 
ESCHSCHOLZIA. F. 
Espeleiia . T&S. 106 
Bucephalus. F. 105 
EUCLIDIUM. F. 42 
EUCNIDE, T&S. 6H 
EUCRYPTA. F, Sn 
Euklisia . F. 40 
Eulophus. F, 77 
Eunanus. F". 95 
EUPATORIUM, I 



'10 
90 
F. S9 



I 14 

EUPHORBIACEAE. F. 64 
EUPHORBIA, F. 64 

albicaulis, F. 65 

ALBOMARGINA'FA, F, 64 

arenicola, F. 65 

ARIZONICA, F, 64 

CRENULATA, F, 64 

CYPARISSIAS, F, 64 

DENTATA, F, 64 

dictyosperma. F , 65 

ESULA, F, 64 

EUPHOSPERMA, F, 64 

FENDLERI, F, 64 

CHAETOCALYX, F, 65 

gooddmgii, F, 64 

GLYPfOSPERMA, F, 65 

grcenei, F, 65 

IXC ISA, 1-, 65 

LAFHYRIS. F, 65 

LURIDA, F, 65 

MICR0MF:RA, I-, 65 

monlana. F . 65 

OCELLAI A, F, 65 
ARENICOLA. F. 65 

PALMI'RI, F, 65 
SUBPUBFNS, 1-, 65 

PAKISHII, I-, 65 

PARRYI, F, 65 



149 



INI :; 3t' 



EUPHORBIA (con.) 

POLYCARPA, F, 65 
HIRTELLA, F, 65 

pseudo serpyllifolia , F. 65 

ROBUST A, F, 65 

SERPYLLIFOLIA, F, 65 

SETILOBA, F, 65 

SPATHULATA, F, 65 

virgata, F, 64 
Euphorosyne. F. 118 
Euploca ,"F~90 
EUROTIA, T&S, 29 
Emhamia , F. 122 
Euioca . F, 87 
Evening Primrose, F, 71 
Everlasting, F, 103, 114 

FAGACEAE, T&S, 21 
FAGONIA, F, 64 
Fairy Bells, F, 17 
Fairy Slipper Orchid. F, 19 
FALLUGIA, T&S, 49 
Falsecarrot, F. 74 
False Dandelion. F, 102 
False Hellebore, F, 18 
False Pimpernel, F, 95 
False Solomonseal, F, 17 
Fameflower, F. 32 
Fawnlily, F, 17 
FENDLERA, T&S, 46 
FENDLERELLA. T&S, 4b 
Fennell, F, 75 
Fern-- 

bladder, F, 1 

bracken, F, 2 

bread, F, 1 

bush, T&S. 49 

chain, F, 2 

cloak, F, 1 

gold, F. 1 

grape, F, 1 

holly, F, 2 

lady, F, 1 

lip, F. 1 

oak, F, 1 

pod, F, 1 

wood, F, 1 
Ferocactus, T&S, 69 
Ferula , fT 75 
Fescue, G, 5 
FESTUCA, G, 5 

ARIDA, G, 5 

ARIZONICA, G, 5 

ARUNDINACEA, G, 5 

brachyphylla , G, 5 

brevifolia, G, 5 
utahensis, G, 5 



calligera, G, 5 
confinis, G, 6 
cristata, G, 9 
DASYCLADA, G, 5 
ELATIOR, G, 5 

arundmacea, G, 5 
IDAHOENSIS, G, 5 
ingrata. G, 5 
jonesii, G, 5 
kingii, G, 6 
MEGALURA, G, 5 
minutiflora, G, 5 
MYUROS, G, 5 
nervosa. G, 6 



OCCIDENTALIS, G, 5 
OCTOFLORA, G, 5 

HIRTELLA. G, 5 

TENELLA, G, 5 
oregona, G, 5 
OVINA, G, 5 

BRACHYPHYLLA, G, 5 

ingrata, G, 5 

oregona, G, 5 



PACIFICA, G, 5 
pratensis, G. 5 
pusilla, G, 5 
REFLEXA, G, 5 
RUBRA, G, 5 

LANUGINOSA, G, 5 
s aximontana , G, 5 
SORORIA, G, 5 
spicatum, G, 7 
SUBLATA, G, 5 
THURBERI, G, 5 
VASEYANA, G, 5 
VIRIDULA, G, 5 
watsoni, G, 6 
FESTUCEAE, G, 4 
FESTUCOIDEAE, G, 4 
Fiddleneck. F, 88 
Field- - 

gumweed. F, 114 
pepperweed. F, 42 
cress, F, 44 
Figwort, F, 93, 99 
FILAGO, F, 114 
FIMBRISTYLIS, GL, 14 
Fingergrass, G, 11 
Fir, T&S, 2 
Firechalice, F, 73 
Fireweed, F, 70 
Flatsedge. GL, 14 
FLAVERL^, F, 114 
Flax, F, 64 

bastard toad, F, 22 
Fleabane, F, 111 
Fleeceflower, F, 27 
FLOERKEA, F, 65 
Flower -- 

blanket, F, 114 
day, F, 15 
fame, F, 32 
foam, F. 49 
globe, F. 38 
paper, F, 120 
sun, F, 116 
twist, F, 45 
wall, F, 42 
Flowering rush, GL. 4 
Flower -of -an -hour, F. 66 
Fluffgrass, G. 7 
Fluffweed, F, 114 
Fluminea, G, 7 
FOENICULUM, F, 75 
FORESTIERA, T&S, 79 
Forget-me-not, F, 90 
Forsellesia , T&S, 65 
Four-o'clock, F, 31 
Foxtail, G, 9 
FRAGARIA, F, 49 
FRANSERIA, T&S, 114 
FRASERA, F, 79 
FRAXINLIS, T&S, 79 
FREMONTIA, T&S, 30 
FRITILLARIA, F, 17 
Fritillary, F, 17 
Frogs bit, F, 4 
FUMARIA, F, 39 
Fumitory, F, 39 
FUMARIACEAE, F, 38 
Funastrum, F, 81 
Funnellily, F, 16 

Gaertneria , T&S, 114 
GAILLARDIA, F, 114 
GALEGA, F. 59 
GALINSOGA, F, 114 
GALIUM, F, 100 
GALLETA, G, 11 
Galpinsia, F, 72 



Garden -- 

beet, F, 29 
orach, F. 28 
parsnip, F, 77 
snowberry, T&S. 101 
GARRYA, T&S, 77 
GARRYACEAE, T&S, 77 
GAULTHERIA, T&S, 78 
GAURA, F, 71 
GAYOPHYTUM, F, 71 
Gentian, F, 79 
GENTIANA, F, 79 
GENTIANACEAE, F, 79 
Gentianella . F, 79 
GERAEA, F, 114 
GERANIACEAE, F, 63 
GERANIUM, F, 63 
Germander, F, 93 
GEUM, F, 49 
Gianthyssop. F, 92 
GILIA, F, 82 

AGGREGATA, F, 82 
ARIZONICA, F, 82 
ATTENUATA, F, 82 
BRIDGESII. F, 82 
formosissima , F. 82 
macrosiphon , F. 83 
alpina, F, 83 
alipuanta , F, 82 
ALIQUANTA 

BREVILOBA, F, 82 
arenicola, F, 84 
aristella . F, 82 
arizonica, F, 82 
attenuata , F, 82 
aureus, F, 84 

decorus, F. 84 
AUSTRO-OCCIDENTALIS, 

F, 82 
bigelovii, F. 84 
BRECCIARUM. F, 82 
breweri, F, 84 
bridges ii , F, 82 
burleyana, F, 82 
CAESPITOSA, F, 82 
caespitosum , F, 83 
CALCAREA, F, 82 
CAMPANULATA, F, 82 
CANA 

SPECIFORMIS, F, 82 
TRICEPS, F, 82 
CAPILLARIS, F, 82 
cephaloidea, F, 83 
ciliatus , F. 84 
CLOKEYI, F, 82 
CONGESTA, F, 82 
burleyana , F, 82 
FRUTESCENS, F, 82 
iberifolia, F, 82 
MONTANA, F, 82 
orchidacea, F, 83 
PALMIFRONS, F, 82 
VIRIDIS, F, 83 
dactylophylla , F, 84 
debilis , F, 81 
demissa, F. 84 
densifolia, F. 82 
DEPRESS A, F, 83 
dichotoma , F. 84 
eremica, F, 82 
arizonica, F, 82 
yageri, F, 82 
filifolia , F, 82 
diffusa , F, 82 
sparsiflora, F, 82 
FILIFORMIS, F, 83 
floccosa, F. 82 
floribundus , F, 84 
formosissima. F, 82 



frutescens. F. 82 
GILIOIDES, F, 83 
gilmanii, F, 83 
grandiflora. F, 82 
axillaris. F. 81 
GUNNISONI, F, 83 
hallii, F. 84 
harknessii. F. 84 



HAYDENI, F, 83 
hookeri, F, 84 
HUTCHINSIFOLIA, F, i 
iberifolia . F. 82 
INCONSPICUA. F, 83 

austro -occidental is, 
F. 82 

sinuata . F. 83 
INTERIOR. F. 83 
INYOENSIS, F, 83 
jonesii, F. 84 
kennedyi, F. 84 
latiflora . F, 82, 83 

triceps . F, 82 
LATIFOLIA, F, 82. 83 
LAXIFLORA, F, 83 
leptalea 

capillaris, F. 82 
LEPTANTHA, F, 83 

SALTICOLA, F, 83 
LEPTOMERIA, F, 83 

MICROMERIA, F, 83 

myriacantha. F, 83 

rubella . F, 83 

tridentata. F. 83 
leptotes. F. 82 
lilacina , T&S. 84 
linearis 



subulata, F, 82 



83 



liniflora 

pharnaceoides, F, i 
LONG I FLORA, F, 83 
matthewsii. F. 83 
McVICKERAE, F, 83 
micromeria, F. 83 
minima, F. 84 
MODOCENSIS. F, 
montana. F. 82 
MULTI FLORA, F, 
nevadensis. F, 82 
nuda. F. 83 
nudicaulis, F. 83 
nuttallii . F. 84 
ochroleuca. F. 82 

clokevi. F. 82 



transmontana. F. 83 
OPHTHALMOIDES. F, 8: 

clokeyi , F, 82, 83 
palmifrons. F. 82 
parryae. F, 84 
parvula, F. 83 
pharnaceoides. F. 84 
pinnatifida. F, 82 
POLYANTHA, F, 83 

VVHITINGI, F, 83 
POLYCLADON, F, 83 
pulchella . F. 82 
PUMILA, F, 83 
pungens, F. 84 

caespitosa, F. 83 

hallii, Fr84 
RIPLEYI, F, 83 
ROSEATA, F, 83 
salticola, F. 83 
schottii . F, 83 
SCOPULORUM. F, 83 

deformis. F. 83 
septentrionalis. F. 84 
setosissima, F. 83 

punctata. F, 83 
sinister, F. 82 



150 



LIA (con.) 
SIM'ATA. F, 83 

TWEEDYI. F, 8,i 

: sLtlora . F. 82 
ATA, F, 8,J 

. FPHALOIDEA, F, 83 

■'Lserca. F, 83 



muticum, G. 4 



shcarii. G. ^) 



wollii, G, 9 



83 



iRCHIDACEA, F, 83 

IRlDACrVLA, F, 83 
iiLLLATA, F, 83 
STENOTHYRSA, V 
subacaulis, F. 83 
SUBNUDA, F, 83 

superba, F. 83 
lenella , F. 84 
tenuiflora, F, 82 

interior, F. 83 

sinuata. F. 83 

triceps. F, 82 
tenuiloba , F. 84 
TENUITUBA, F, 83 
tetrabreccia. F. 83 
tinctoria, F, 82 



TRANSMONTANA, F, 83 
tridactyla, F. 83 



trifida, F. 83 
tweedyi, F 



83 



VIOLACEUM, F, 83 
virgata 

yageri, F, 82 
watsoni, F. 84 



vvilcoxii, F, 82 



nseng, F, 73 

asswort, F, 29 
:.AUCOCARPUM, F, 42 
:.AUX, F, 29, 78 
obeflower, F. .)8 
obemallow, F, 67 
orybind, F. 81 
-OSSOPETALON, T&S. b5 
:.YCER1A, G, 5, 6 
I BOREALIS, G, 5 
I DECLINATA, G, 5 
j ELATA, G, 5 
I ERECTA, G, 7 

GRANDIS, G, 6 
I NERVATA, G, b 
.| OCCIDENTALIS, G, 6 

PAUCIFLORA, G, 7 
• STRIATA, G, 6 
lycosma , F, 76 
LYCYRRHIZA, F, 59 
LYPTOPLEURA, F, 114 
[MAPHALIUM, F, 114 
batgrass, G. 7 
patsbeard, F. 124 
oatsrue, F, 59 
ODETIA, F, 70 
olden Aster, F, 107 
oldeneye. F. 124 
oldenhead, T&S, 102 
olden Poppy, F. 38 
oldenrod, F, 122 
oldenweed, F, 115 
oldfern, F, 1 
omphocarpus , F, 80 
OODYERA, F, 19 
ooseberry, T&S, 48 
oosefoot, F, 29 
oosegrass, G, 11 
ORMANIA, F, 46 
ourd, F, 101 
rama,G, 11 
RAMINEAE, G, 4 
rape. T&S. 66 
rapefern. F, 1 
RAPHEPHORUM, G, 6 

brajidegi . G. 9 

flexuosum. G. 6 



Grass-- 

alkali. G. 6 

aparejo, G. 10 

arrow, G. 4 

barnyard. G. 11 

bear. F, 18 

beard, G, 12 

bent, G. 9 

bermuda, G, 11 

blowout, G, 6 

blue, G. 6 

blue -eyed. F. 18 

bristle, G. 12 

brome, G, 4 

brook, G. 5 

burro, G. 7 

canary. G. 11 

cheat, G, 5 

cord, G, 11 

crab. G. 11 

cut. G. 11 

dallas, G, 12 

ditch, G, 4 

feather, G. 10 

fescue. G. 5 

finger. G. 11 

Huff, G, 7 

goat, G, 7 

goose, G. 11 

hair, G, 8 

Indian, G. 12 

Johnson, G, 12 

June. G, 9 

knot. G. 12 

love, G, 5 

manna, G. 5 

melic, G. 6 

mutton, G, 6 

needle, G, 10 

needle -and -thread, G, 10 

oat, G, 8 

onion, G. 6 

orchard. G, 5 

pappus. G. 5 

pine, G, 10 

quack, G. 7 

rabbitfoot, G, 10 

reed, G, 9 

rescue, G, 5 

rice, G. 10 

rice cut-. G, 11 

ring, G. 10 

ripgut. G. 5 

rye, G. 8 

salt, G, 5 

saw, GL, 14 

scratch, G. 10 

slough, G, 11 

stink, G, 5 

Sudan, G, 12 

sweet, G, 11 

switch, G, 12 

tumble, G, 11 

wedge , G , 9 

wheat, G, 7 

windmill, G, 11 

wire, GL, 15 

witch, G, 11 

-of-pamassus, F. 47 
GRATIOLA, F. 95 
GRAYIA, T&S, 29 
Greasebush, T&S, 65 
Greasewood, T&S, 30 
GreenmoUy, F, 29 
Greeneocharis, F. 89 
Greenthread, F, 123 



CRINDFI.IA, i', 1 14 
Gromwell, I-. 90 
Grossularia. T&S. 48 
Ground- - 

cherry. 1-. 93 

smoke. \\ 71 
Groundsel. !■ . 120 
Gumplant . 1- . 1 U 
Gumweed, I'. 1 14 
GUTIFRRHZIA, T&S, 1 15 
GYMNOCARPIUM, 1-, 1 
Gyannogonum , F . 26 
Gyninolomia. F. 124 
GYMNOSPHRMAK. TScS, 2 
CYMNOSTFRIS, I-', 83 
GYPSOPHILA, F, 33 

HABENARIA. F, 19 
Hackberry. T&S. 21 
HACKELIA, F. 9(1 
Hairgrass. G, 8 
llalerpesles , F. 37 
HALIMOLOBUS. F, 42 
HALOGETON, F, 29 
HALORAGIDACEAE, F, 73 
Hamosa 

acutirostra, F. 53 
atrata, F. 53 
atratiforma, F. 58 
bernardina. F. 53 
calycosa, F. 52 
emorvana, F. 54 



imperfecta. F. 57 
layneae. F, 55 
malaca, F, 56 
mancus, F, 54 



minthorniae, F. 56 
monophyllidia, F, 54 
paysonii. F. 57 
scaposa, F. 54 
HAPLOPAPPUS, F and T&S. 115 
ACAULIS, F, 115 

GLABRATUS, F, 115 
APARGIOIDES, F, 115 
ARMERIOIDES, F, 115 
BLOOMERl, F, 115 

angustatus. T&S. 115 
BRICKELLIOIDES. T&S, 115 
brachycephalus, F. 116 
CARTHAMOIDES 

CUSICKII, F, 115 
CERVINUS, F, 115 
CLEMENTIS, F, 115 
CONTRACTUS, F, 115 
COOPERl, F, 115 
CROCEUS, F, 115 
CUNEATLfS, T&S, 115 

spathulatus , T&S. 115 
DRUMMONDl, F, 115 
eriopodus, T&S. 1 16 
falcatus . F. 115 
GOODING II, F, 115 
GRACILIS, F, 115 
GREENEI, F, 115 

mollis. F. 115 
IIIRTUS. F, 115 

LANULOSUS, F, 115 
howellii . F, 116 
INSECTICRURIS, F, 115 
integrifolius 

insecticruris, F. 115 
interior , T&S, 116 
muloides, F, 116 
LANCEOLATUS, F, 115 

solidaginae , F . 115 

subviscosus. F. 115 

TENUiCAULIS, F, 115 



i,im:akii()LU's, ; 

interior. rj,S 1 
LYAl.I.I. I', 116 
MAGRONFMA, 1 &S 

linearis. ItiS. 1 
monaciis. I' , 115 
NANOsTt&S. 1 16 



cervmus 
nelsoni. !■ . 



depress 



paniculatus 



T&S 11 
1 15 
1-. 115 

1 19 
. 1-. 1 19 

F, 116 



stenocephalus. 1- . 1 16 



PARRYl. 1". 
minor. F 



1 16 
116 



SPINULOSUS. I-. 
austrule. F. 

I- 



RACFMHSUS. T&S. 116 
dunusculus. T*>.S. 116 
GLOMFRATUS. I &S. 1 16 
prionophyllus. T6iS. 116 
SFSSILIFLORl'S, T&S. 116 
RADIATUS. T&S. 116 
RYDBERGII. 1 &S. 1 16 
SCOPULORUM. T&S. 1 16 
sphaerocephalus. T&S. 1H2 
116 
16 
gooddingii. I'. 115 
TURBINELLUS. I-. 116 
stenocephalus, T&R, 116 
STENOPHYLLUS. I-, 116 
subviscosus, F. 115 
SUFFRUTICOSUS, T&S, 116 
tortifolia . F. 119 
UNIFLORUS. F. 116 

HOWFLLIl. F. 116 
WATSONI. T&S. 1 16 
IIARBOURIA. F. 75 
Harebell. F. 101 
Haresear. F". 40 
llarpaecarpus, F. 119 



Hawks Beard. 


F, 110 


llawkweed. I-\ 


117 


HawThorn. 1&S. 49 


Heath Family, 


T&S. 78 


HECASTOCLEIS, F, 116 


HEDEOMA, 1- 


, 92 


Hedgehyssop. 


F, 95 


Hedge Nettle, 


F. 93 


HEDYSARUM, 


F, 59 


Heleniastrum 


F. 116 



HELENIUM, F, 116 
HELIANTHELLA, F, ! 16 
HELIANTHUS, F, 116 
HELICTOTRICHON, G, 9 
Heliotrope, F. 90 
HELIOTROPIUM, F, 
Helleborine . F. 19 
HEMICARPHA, GL, 



9U 



1 = 



Hemisphacrocarya . F'. 88 
Hemlock. T&S. 3 
llemlockparsley. F. 74 
Hemp. F. 21 
llenbiine. F. 93 
HERACLEUM, F, 75 
HKRMIDIUM. F, 31 
Herpeslis . F. 96 
Hesperastragulus. F. 54 

iiesperochiron, f, 86 
iihsperoc:hloa, G, 6 



vaseyi. 



F. 115 



Hespcrocordum. F. 
Hesperodoria, T&S. 
Hesperolinon. F. 64 
Hespcronia. F. 31 
Hesperis. F. 43 
Heterisia. F. 48 
HETEROCODON. F, 
HETEROPOGON. G, 
Heterothrix, F. 44 



16 
116 



102 
12 



151 



HEUCHERA, F, 47, 73 

HIBISCUS, F, 66 

HIERACIUM, F, 117 

HIEROCHLOfi. G, 11 

HILARIA, G, 11 

HIPPURIS, F, 73 

HOFFMANSEGGIA, T&S, 52 

HOFMEISTERIA, F, 117 

HOLCUS, G, 9 

HOLODISCUS, T&S, 50 

HOLOSTEUM, F, 33 

Homalobus 

acerbus, F, 58 
acutirostris, F, 53 
aculeatus, F. 58 
brachycarpus, F, 58 
caespitosus, F, 58 
californicus, F, 53 
collinus, F, 54 
coltoni, F, 54 
convallarius, F, 54 
curvicarpus, F. 54 
decumbens. F, 56 
decurrens, F, 56 
detritalis, F. 54 
dispar. F, 58 
divergens, F, 56 
dodgeanus, F, 58 
eplscopus, F. 55 
exilifolius, F, 58 



LEPORINUM, G, 8 
murinum, G. 8 
nodosum, G. 8 



filipes, F. 55 
flexuosus, F, 55 
glabriusculus, F. 53 
grallator, F, 53 
humilis, F, 56 
hylophilus, F, 56 
inversus, F, 55 
junceus, F, 54 
junciformis, F, 55 
lancearius, F, 55 
lingTjIatus, F, 58 
lonchocarpus, F, 56 
macgregorii, F, 55 
macrocarpa, F, 56 
microcarpus, F, 56 
oblongifolius , F , 56 
paucijug-us, F, 56 
plummerae, F, 55 
simplicifolius, F, 58 
strigulosus, F. 58 
subglaber, F, 54 
tegetarioides, F, 58 
tegetarius, F, 58 
tenellus , F. 58 
tenuifolius, F, 56 
uniflorus, F, 58 
vexilliflexus, F. 58 
wingatanus, F, 58 

Homopappus, F, 115 

Honeysuckle, T&S, 100 

Hoorebekia, F. 115 

Huokera , F, 16, 17 

Hophornbeam, T&S, 21 

Hops. F, 21 

Hopsage, T&S, 2Q 

Hop-tree, T&S, 64 

HORDEAE, G, 7 

HORDEUM, G, 8 

BRACHYANTHERUM, G, 
boreale, G, 8 
caespitosum, G, 8 
caput -medusae, G, 8 
DEPRESSUM, G, 8 
DISTICHON, G, 8 
elymoides, G, 8 
HYSTRIX, G, 8 
gussoneanum, G, 8 
JUBATUM, G, 8 

CAESPITOSUM, G, 8 



brachyantherum, G, 8 
dcpressum, G, 8 

PUSILLUM, G, 8 
PUBENS, G, 8 

STEBBINSII, G, S 

trifurcatum, G, 8 

virginicus, G, 8 

VULGARE, G, 8 

TRIFURCATUM, G, 8 
Horehound, F, 92 
HORKELIA, F, 50 
Horn wort, F, 35 
Horsebrush, T&S, 123 
Horse -purslane, F. 31 
Horsetail, F, 2 
Hosackia , F, 59 
Hound's Tongue, F, 90 
HOUSTONIA, T&S, 100 
Huckleberry, T&S, 78 
Huegelia, F, 82 
HULSEA, F, 117 
HUMULUS, F, 21 
HUTCHINSIA, F, 42 
Hydatica . F, 48 
HYDROCHARITACEAE, F, 4 
HYDROCOTYLE, F, 75 
HYDROPHYLLACEAE, F, 86 
HYDROPHYLLUM, F, 86 
HYMENOCLEA, T&S, 117 
HYMENOPAPPUS, F, 117 
Hymenophysa, F, 40 
HYMENOXYS, F, 117 
HYOSCYAMUS, F, 93 
HYPERICACEAE, F, 67 
HYPERICUM, F, 67 



Ibidium, F, 19 
IDAHOA, F, 42 
ILIAMNA, F, 66 
Ilysanthes. F, 95 
IMPERATA, G, 12 
Incense-cedar, T&S, 2 
Indian - - 

grass, G, 12 

hemp, F, 80 

potato, F, 76 

wheat, F, 100 
Indian Paintbrush, F. 94 
Indigo Bush, T&S, 59 
INULA, F, 118 
Inyonia , T&S, 120 
Iodine Bush, T&S. 28 
lonactis, F, 106 
Ipomopsis 

aggregata, F, 82 
arizonica, F, 82 
attenuata, F, 82 
bridgesii, F, 82 
formosissima, F. 82 

arizonica, F, 82 

bridgesii, F, 82 

congesta, F, 82 
montana, F, 82 

depressa, F, 83 

frutescens, F, 82 

gunnisoni, F, 83 

laxiflora, F, 83 

longiflora, F, 83 

multiflora , F, 83 

polyantha. F, 83 

polycladon , F, 83 

pumilus , F, 83 

roseatus, F, 83 

spicata, F, 83 

tenuituba, F, 83 
IRIDACEAE, F, 18 



IRIS, F, 18 
ISATIS, F, 42 
Isnardia, F. 70 
Isocoma, F. 116 
ISOETACEAE, F, 2 
ISOETES, F, 2 
IVA, F, 118 
IVESIA, F, 50. 51 

Jacksonia, F, 46 
JAMESIA, T&S, 46 
JANUSIA, T&S, 64 
Jerusalemoak, F. 29 
Jimson Weed, F. 93 
Johnson Grass. G. 12 
Johnstonella , F. 89 
Jonesiella 

arctus, F. 57 
asclepiadoida, F. 53 
mearnsii. F. 57 



pattersoni. F, 57 
praelongus, F, 57 
sabulosus, F, 58 

Joint -fir. T&S. 3 

JUGLANDACEAE, T&S, 21 

JUG LANS, T&S, 21 

JUNCAGINACEAE, F, 4 

JUNCACEAE, GL, 15 

JUNCUS, GL. 15 

Juncoides, GL, 16 

June Grass. G. 9 

Juniper, T&S. 3 

JUNIPERUS, T&S, 3 

Jussieua. F. 72 

KALMIA, T&S, 78 

KELLOGGIA, T&S. 100 

Kentrophyta 

aculeata, F. 58 
coloradensis. F. 55 
impensa, F, 55 
minima, F. 58 
montana, F. 55 
tegetarius, F. 58 
ungulata. F, 55 
virida, F. 55 

Kittentails. F, 93. 99 

KOBRESIA, GL. 15 

KOCHIA, F, 29 

KOELERIA, G, 9 

Knot weed, F. 26 

KRAMERIA, T&S, 52 

Krynitzkia 

affinis , F. 89 
ambigiia, F. 89 
angustifolia, F. 89 
barbigera. F. 89 
circumscissa. F, 89 
crassisepala. F, 89 
cycloptera. F. 90 
decipiens. F. 89 
denticulata , F, 89 
depressa. F. 88 
dumetora, F. 89 
echinoides. F. 88 



fendleri , F. 89 
fulvocanescens. F. 
jonesii, F. 89 
maritima, P. 89 
mensana, F. 89 
mixta , F. 89 
multicaulis. F, 88 
abortiva, F, 



INDE 



torreyana, F. 90 
utahensis. F. 90 
watsonii, F. 90 

LABL\TAE, F, 92 
Labrador Tea. T&S. 78 
LACTUCA. F, 118 
Ladiestresses. F. 19 
Ladysthumb. F. 26 
Ladyslipper. F, 19 
LAGOPHYLLA, F, 118, 119 
Lambsquarters, F. 29 
LAMIUM, F, 92 
LANGLOISIA, F, 83 
LAPHAMIA, T&S, 118 
Lappa , F, 103 
LAPPULA, F, 90 
Larch, T&S, 2 
LARIX, T&S, 2 
Larkspur, F, 36 
LARREA, T&S, 64 
Lastarriaea. F. 22 
Lasthenia. F, 114 



LATHYRUS, F, 59 
Laurel, T&S, 78 
Laurentia. F, 102 
Lavauxia 

flava, F, 72 
howardi, F. 71 



88 

suffruticosa. F, 81 
pattersonii, F. 89 
racemosa, F. 90 
ramosissima, F. 89 



sericea, F. 89 
setosissima, F. 



lobata. F. 73 

primiveris. F. 73 

wrightii. F, 71 
LAYIA. F, 118 
Lebetina. F. Ill 
LEDUM, T&S, 78 
LEERSIA, G, 11 
Legouzia, F, 102 
LEGUMINCSAE. F and T&S ' 
Leiostemon. F. 96 
LEMNA. F, 15 
LEMNACEAE, F, 15 
LENTIBULARIACEAE. F, ', 
Leontodon. F. 123 
LEONURUS. F, 92 
Lepachys . F. 120 
Lepargyraea. T&S. 70 
LEPIDIUM, F and T&S. 40, I 
LEPIDOSPARTUM, T&S. 11 
Leptasea 

austromontana, F, 48 

chrysantha. F. 48 

flagellaris" F. 48 

tolmiei , F. 48 
Leptilon . F. 110 
LEPTOCHLOA, G, 11 
LEPTODACTYLON, T&S, i 
Leptoseris. F. 119 
Leptosiphon, F. 84 
Leptotaenia, F. 75 
LESQUERELLA, F, 43 
Lettuce, F, 118 
Leuc anthemum , F. 107 
LEUCELENE. F. 118 
Leucocraspedum. F. 79 
LEUCOCRINUM. F, 17 
Leucosyris, F. 106 
LEWISIA, F, 32 
LIBOCEDRUS, T&S, 2 
Licorice. G. 59 
LIGUSTICUM, F, 75 
Ligusticella, F. 77 
LILAEACEAE, F, 4 
LILAEA, F, 4 
LILIACEAE, F, 16 
LILIUM, F, 17 
Lily-- 

alp. F. 17 

bead, F. 17 

Columbia. F. 17 



152 



ri 



u..n.) 






milk-lolia, F. 75 


v.. 1-. .iS 






MINIMUM, F, 76 


uilv. 1-. 10 






MOIIAVEXSE, F, 7t. 


vii, !■. 17 






MONTANUM, F, 7(i 


:.ncl. I-. Id 






X'FVADEN'SE, F, 7t. 


ripos.i. 1-". 17 






cupulatum. 1- . 7(i 


:k1. I-. .i.^ 






PARISIIII, F, 7(1 


-,o, I-. 17 






PSEL'DORIHMAL 


rr,i. !■, 17 






NUDICAULE. F, 76 


r. I--, 17 






NUTTALLII, F, 76 


■ icr. V. i5 






ALPIXUM, F, 76 


Ntern orangecup. 


F. 17 


parishii, F, 76 


-WTHACEAE. 


F, 


6-t 


PARRYI. F, 76 


.a, F, 32 






phuyc.irpum, 1", 76 


,|.ii.,i.obotrya, TScS. 


4S 




PLL'MMERAE, F, 76 


.imnorchis, F. 19 


SONNEI, F, 76 


,IMC6ELLA, F, ')5 


purpureum, F, 76 


.INACEAE, F, b4 






RAVENII, F, 76 


.INANTHASTRUiVl, 


I-, 


S4 


robust ior. F, 76 


.INANTHUS, F, 83, 


S- 




SCABRL'M, F, 76 


.INARIA, F, >-)5 
.INDERNLA, F, 95 






seniisepultum, F. 75 


simplex, F, 76 


.INNAEA, F, inO 






Sonne i, F. 76 



.inosyris 

albicaulis, F. Ills 
"I hioelovii, F, lOS 



ressus, F. IDS 



vardi, F. 1(19 



nevadensis, F. 109 
parryi, F. 109 
pulchellus , F. 109 
serrulatus, F, 109 
stenolepis, F. 109 
teretUolius , F. 109 
viscidiflorus, F, 109 
.INUM, F, 64 
-IPPA, T&S, 91 
ISTERA, F, 19 
ITHOPHRAGMA, F, 47 
ITHOSPERMUM, F, 90 
-izard-tail Family, F, 20 
LOYDL^, F, 17 
-OASACEAE, F, 68 
OBELIA, F, 102 
[Locoweed, F, 52 
l-ocust, T&S. 62 
.OEFLINGIA, F, 33 
^oeselia, F, 83 
.OGANIACEAE, T&S, 79 
ogania FamUy, T&S. 79 
OLIUM, 0, 8 
^OMATIUM, F, 75 
alpinum, F. 76 
AMBIGUUM, F, 75 

leptocarpum, F. 75 
anomaJum, F. 76 
argensis. F, 76 
BICOLOR, F, 75 
CANBYI, F, 75 
CIRCUMDATUM, F, 75 
COUS, F, 75 
DISSECTUM, F, 75 
EATONII, F, 75 
MULTIFIDUM, F, 75 
DONNELLII, F, 75 
foeniculaceum , F, 75 
gigantea . F, 76 
GRAYI, F, 75 

DEPAUPERATUM, F, 75 
HENDERSONII, F, 75 
jonesii , F, 75 
JUNIPERINUM, F, 75 
lapidosa , F, 74 
LATILOBUM, F, 75 
lemmoni , F. 77 
LEPTOCARPUM, F, 75 
MACDOUGALI, F, 75 
MACROCARPUM, F, 76 
MEGARRHIZUM. F, 76 



TRITERNATUM, F, 76 

ANOMALUM, F, 76 
MACROCARPUM, F, 76 
PLATYCARPUM, F, 76 



Lumatogonium, F. 
Lonchophaca 



80 



duchesnensa. F, 54 
kaibena, F, 55 



macer, F, 56 
macrocarpa, F, 



56 
100 



LONICERA, T&S, 
Loosestrife, F. 79 
Lophanthus , F. 92 
Lophotocarpus. F, 4 
LORANTHACEAE, F, 21 
Lotus, F, 59 
Lousewort, F. 96 
Love Grass, G, 5 
Love-lies-bleeding, F, 30 
LUDWIGIA, F, 70 
LUPINUS, T&S and F. 59 
abonivus, F. 61 
adscendens, F. 60 
ADUNCUS, F, 61 
albicaulis, F, 60 
ALPESTRIS, F, 60 
AMMOPHILUS, F, 60 
ANDERSONI, F, 60 
apodotropis, F, 61 
ARBUSTUS, F, 60 

mom anus, F. 60 
CALCARATUS, F, 60 
NEOLAXIFLORUS, F, 60 
PSEUDOPARVIFLORUS, 

F, 60 
SILVICOLA, F, 60 
ARGENTEUS, F, 61 
DEPRESSUS, F, 61 
macounii, F. 60 
PAR VI F LOR US, F 



STENOPHYLLUS, 
tenellus, F, 61 
argeminus, F. 61 
ARIDUS, F, 6 1 
cusickii , F , 61 
lobbii , F. 61 
torreyi, F, 6 I 
utahensis, F. 61 
ARIZONICUS, F, 60 
barbatus, F. 61 
BARBIGER, F, 61 
bassett-maguirei, F, 
brachypodus, F, 61 
BREVICAULIS, F 



61 
F, 61 



BKFWIKI, I >vS. 6 1 
lil<Y()ll)i:S. I\S. 
CRAX'OIIT.OKUS, 
burk ei. I- . 6 1 
C.lesp imsu-^. I- . 6 1 
calc araius. I- , 6li 
tandidissinius. 1\ 6 I 



MICROS I 1-:K1S. !■ 
niilllU ilnluix. !■ . h 



c.inescen^. 


I-, 6 1 


e.ipitaiu>, 1 


59 


i:Al!|)ArUS 


F. 6 1 


columbianiis 


, 1-. 6 


CO.X'CINNUS 




ORCUTTll. 1 , 


cuniusLis, !■■ 


(1 1 


cusickii. 1- , 


6 1 


cvaneiis. !■ . 


6 1 


dan.ius. l-. 


ll 


davisumum. 


!■, 6 1 


dccumbcns, 


!■■, 6 1 


depressus, 


-.6 1 


dispersus. 


-, 611 


DURANIl. 1- 


. 61 


egglt stonisnius, 1" 


elegantulus. 


F. 60 


clong.itus, I 


, 61 


crcctus, F . 


61 


evcrmannu. 


1-. 6 1 



EXCUBITUS, I &S 
FLAVOCULATUS. 
flexuosus , F . 6 1 
floribundus. F. 6 



Iremonlensis . F 
FULCRATUS. 1- 
grandifolius , !• , 
GRAYI, F. 6 1 
hellcrac. 1'. 6 1 
F. 
61 



61 



60 



hendersonii. 
llILLll. T&S, 
llOLMGRENANUS, F. ( 
HOLOSERICEUS. F, 6 1 
humicola . F . 6 I 
mtermontanus. 1^. 59 
INYOENSIS. 1-. 6 1 
KINGII, F, 60 
lassencnsia. I', 60 
LATIFOLIUS 

BARBATUS. F. 61 
COLUMBIANUS. F. 
laxiflorus, F. 60 
arbustus. F. 60 
calcaratus , F. 60 
pseudoparviflorus . I 
silvicola. F. 60 
villosulus, I-'. 60 
laxus . F, 60 
LEPIDUS 

aridus , F , 6 1 
ARTULUS. ]■'. 61 
caespitosus. F. 6 1 
CUSICKII, F. 6 1 
LOBBII. |-, 6 1 
lyallii. F. 6 I 
TORRFYI. F. 1 
UTAIIFA'SIS, I'. 6 1 
LEUCOPIIYLLUS. F. 6 
TENUISPICUS. l-. 6 1 
l obbii . F. 6 1 
lupinu.s. F. 6 1 
lyallii , F\ 6 1 

subpandens. 1- . 6 1 
macounii, F. 60 
macrostachy s . F , 61 
maculatus, F'. 61 
MALACOPHYLLUS. F', 
marcusianus. F . 6 1 
MEIONANTHUS, 1-, 6 1 
micensis. F. 60 
niicrocarpus, F, 60 



inonoensis. !• , 6 1 




MOM lc;i:\'US. 1- 


(1 1 


nuilticiniciniiis. 1- 


, 6 1 


NANUS 




MFNKFKAi;. 1 


60 


NF:o| LAXlIl.ORl 


'S, 1 


NFN'ADFNSIS. 1 , 


6i 


TUildek.ic-, 1', 6(1 
ODOKAIUS. 1-. 611 


ll.ivocul.itiis. 1- 


, 6(1 


rii.osi-i.i.us. 


!■ , 611 


rubeiis. 1- 59 




ONUSTUS. 1-, 6 1 




nrciittii. I-, 6(1 





orn.iius, I- . 6 1 
Osri-RllOUl lANUS. I 
PAIMIYLOBUS. F. oO 
padre -crnwieyi. I- . 6 1 
PALM1;RI. F. 59. (,! 
parvillurus . I ■ . 6 1 
perconfertus. F , 60 
pinelorum. F . 6 1 
plu^1osu■^. 1- , 6 1 
mi.YPHYLLUS. F. 61 
BUR K EI, F. 6 1 
PRUNOPIIILUS, 1 . I 
SPARSIFILOSUS. F. 
superbus. F , 6 I 
proteanus. F. 60 
prunopliilus . F'. 6 1 
psi.'udoparvifl()rus. F . 
psor.ileoides . F . 6 1 
PUSILLUS. F, 60 
INTERMON'FANUS, 
rubens. F. 60 
61 
F", 60 



F. 61) 



rosei. F 
RUBENS 

I'lavoculatu 



60 



rubricaulis, 1 
rydbergii, F . 6 1 
SAXOSUS. F. 6 1 
scaposus. F. 60 
scllulus. F. 6 1 

artulus. F, 61 
SERICEUS. F. 6 1 

egglestoni smu^ 
silen , F. 60 
silvicola. F, 60 
F 



6 1 



SIlOCKLIsYI, 
SPARSIFLORUS, F , 6 

arizonicus, 1'. 60 
spalhulatus. F. 6 1 
stenophyllus, 1'. 6 1 
SUBLANATUS. F 
superbus, F. 6 1 



60 



6 1 



SUBVEXUS. F. 60 

tegeticulatus, F. 6 1 

tenellus . F' . 6 1 

lenuispicus , I- . (i 1 

tooelensis. F . 6 I 

UNCIAL IS. F. 60 

uiahensis. F . 6 1 

variegalus. F', 60 

volutans, F , 6 1 

washoensis, F'. 6 1 

watsonii, \- . 6 1 

WYETllII. F. 6 1 
LUZULA. CI.. 16 
LYCHNIS. F, li 
LYCIUM. T&S. 9.! 
LYCOPUS. F. 92 
LYCURUS. c;. 10 
LYGOOFSMIA, 1-, 1 IK. 123 

lysiell a. I-. 19 
LYSIMACJIIA. F, 79 
LYTHRACFAi;. F", 70 
LYTHRUM, F. 70 



1,53 



INDEX 



MACHAERANTHERA, F, 119 
MACHAEROCARPUS, F. 4 
Macronema 

greenei, F. 115 

mollis, F, 115 
grindelLfohum, T&S, 116 
imbricatum, T&S, 116 



linearis , T&S, 116 
mollis, F, 



115 



116 



obtusum, T&S. 116 

suffruticosus . T&S. 

watsoni , T&S. 116 
MADIA, F, 119 
Madorella , F, 119 
Madronella. F, 92 
Madwort, F, 88 
Mahonia, T&S, 38 
Maidenhair, F, 1 
Maize. G, 12 
Malacolepis, F. 119 
MALACOTHRIX, F, 119 
MALAXIS, F, 19 
MALCOLMIA, F, 43 
Mallow, F, 66 
Malpighia Family. T&S. 64 
MALPIGHLACEAE, T&S, 64 
MALVA, F, 66 
MALVACEAE, F, 66 
MALVASTRUM, F, 66, 67 
MAMMILLARIA, F, 69 
Mannagrass. G, 5 
Manzanita, T&S, 78 
Maple, T&S, 65 
Marestail. F. 73 
Marilaunidium, F, 86 
Marijuana, F, 21 
Mariposa Lily, F, 17 
Mariscus, G. 14 
MARRUBIUM, F, 92 
Marshfire, F, 30 
Marshmarigold, F, 36 
MARSILEA, F, 2 
MARSILEACEAE, F, 2 
Martynia Family, F, 99 
Martynia , F, 99 
MARTYNLACEAE, F, 99 
Maruta . F, 103 
Matchbrush, T&S, 115 
MATRICARIA, F, 119 
Matrimony Vine, T&S, 93 
Maurandia, F. 95 
MAURANDYA, F, 95 
Mayweed, F, 119 
Meadow-foam Family. F. 64 
Meadow-rue, F. 38 
MEDICAGO, F, 61 
Medick. F. 61 
Medusahead, G, 8 
Melic, G, 6 
MELICA, G, 6 
MELILOTUS, F, 62 
MELISSA, F, 92 
MENODORA, T&S, 79 
MENTHA, F, 92 
MENTZELIA, F, 68 
MENYANTHACEAE, F, 80 
MENYANTHES, F, 80 
Menziesia . T&S, 78 
MERTENSIA, F, 90 
Mesquite. T&S. 52 
Michaelmas Daisy, F. 
Micranthes . F. 48 
Micropuntia , T&S, 69 
MICROSERIS, F, 119 
MICROSTERIS, F, 84 
Microstylis, F, 19 
Milk-- 

Uiistle, F, 122 



105 



vetch, F, 52 
weed, F, 80 
wort, T&S, 64 
MiUet, G, 12 
Miltitzia 

glabberrima, F, 87 
glandulifera, F. 86 
lutea , F, 87 
parviflora, F. 87 
pusilla , F, 87 
salina, F. 87 
scopulina, F. 87 
Mimetanthe , F, 96 
Mimosa, T&S, 52 
MIMOSOIDEAE, T&S, 52 
MIMULUS, F, 95 
ampliatus, F. 96 
AUSTINAE, F, 95 
BIGELOVII, F, 95 

CUSPIDATUS, F, 95 

ovatus, F. 95 
BRACHYSTYLIS, F, 95 
BREVIFLORUS, F, 95 
BREWERI, F, 95 
CARDINALIS, F, 95 

VERBENACEUS, F, 95 
COCCINEUS, F, 95 
corallinus, F, 96 
CUSICKII, F, 95 
deltoideus, F, 95 
DENSUS, F, 95 
EASTWOODL\E, F, 95 
exihs, F, 96 
FLORIBUNDUS, F, 95 

MEMBRANACEUS, F, 95 
geyeri, F, 95 
GLABRATUS 

FREMONTII, F, 95 

UTAHENSIS, F, 95 
glaucescens, F. 95 
gratioloides, F. 96 
GUTTATUS, F, 95 

DEPAUPERATUS, F, 96 

gracilis, F, 96 
hallii, F, 96 
jamesii, F, 95 
laxus, F, 95 
LEFTALEUS, F, 96 
LEWIS!!, F, 96 

tetonensis, F, 96 
longiilus, F, 96 
macranthus, F, 96 
maguirei, F. 9.S 
membranaceus, F, 95 
MEPHITICUS, F, 96 
microphyllus, F, 96 
mmor, F. 96 
MONTIOIDES, F, 96 
MOSCHATUS, F, 96 

LONGIFLORUS, F, 96 
NANUS, F, 96 
nasutus, F, 96 

microphyllus, F, 96 
nevadensis, F, 96 
PARRYI, F, 96 
piloscUus. F, 96 
PILOSUS, F, 96 
PRIMULOIDES, F, 96 

PILOSELLUS, F, 96 
REIFSCHNEIDERAE, F, 96 
rivularis. F, 95 
roseus, F. 96 
RUBELLUS, F, 96 
SPISSUS, F, 96 

LINCOLNENSIS, F, 96 
stain ineus, F, 95 
SUKSDORFII, F, 96 
thermalis, F, 96 



TILINGI, F, 96 

CORALLINUS, F, 96 

tolmiei , F, 96 

TORREYI, F, 96 

verbenaceus, F. 95 

WASHINGTONENSIS, F, 96 

washoensis. F, 95 

wolfii , F. 95 
Miner's Lettuce, F, 32 
Mint, F, 92 
MIRABILIS, F, 31 
Mistletoe, F, 21, 33 
MITELLA, F, 47 
Mitellastra , F. 47 
Miterwort, F. 47 
Mockcucumber, F, 101 
Mock -orange, T&S. 47 
Mockpenny royal, F, 92 
Moehringia , F, 33 
MOHAVEA, F, 96 
MOLDAVICA, F, 92 
MOLLUGO, G, 31 
MOLUCCELLA, F, 92 
MONARDA, F, 92 
MONARDELLA, F, 92 
MONESES, F, 77 
Monkey Flower, F, 95 
Monkshood, F, 35 
Monniera, F. 93 
MONOCOTYLEDONEAE, G and 

GL. 3 
MONOLEPIS, F, 29 
MONOPTILON, F, 119 
MonothrLx . T&S, 118 
MONTIA, F, 32 
Montiastrum, F, 32 
Montolivaea, F, 19 
Moon Pod, F, 31 
Moonwort, F, 1 
MORACEAE, F, 21 
Mormon Tea, T&S, 3 
Morning-glory Family, F, 81 
MORTONIA, F, 65 
Motherwort, F, 92 
Mountain -- 

ash, T&S, 52 

avens, F, 49 

dandelion, F, 102 

heather, T&S, 78 

mahogany, T&S, 49 

ninebark, T&S, 50 

snowberry. T&S. 101 

sorrel, F. 26 
Mouse -ear, F, 33 
Mousetail, F. 37 
Mudwort. F. 95 
MUHLENBERGIA, G, 10 
Muhly, G, 10 
MUILLA, F, 17 
Mulberry Family, T&S, 21 
Mullein, F, 99 
MUNROA, G, 11 
Muscaria, F, 48 
MUSINEON, F, 76 
Muskroot, F, 101 
Mustard, F, 39 
Mutton Grass, G, 6 
Myginda , T&S, 65 
MYOSOTIS, F, 89, 91 
MYOSURUS, F, ,37 
MYRIOPHYLLUM, F, 73 
Myrtle, T&S, 65 
Myzorrhiza, F, 99 

Naias , F, 4 
Nail wort, F, 34 
Naiocrene, F. 32 
NAJADACEAE, F, 4 



NAJAS, F, 4 

NAMA, F, 86 

NASTURTIUM, F,43, 44 

NAVARRETIA, F, 84 
aristella , F, 82 
BREWERI, F, 84 
campanulata, F, 82 
densifolia, T. 82 
grandiflora, F. 82 
harknessii, F. 84 



INTERTEXTA, F, 84 
PROPINQUA, F, 84 
leptotes , F. 82 
LEUCOCEPHALA, F, 8 
linearis, F. 82 



matthewsii, F, 83 
MINIMA, F, 84 
nudicaulis, F, 83 



propinqua. F, 84 

schottii, F. 83 

setosissima, F, 83 

wilcoxii, F, 82 
Needle -and -thread grass, G, 
Needlegrass, G, 10 
Negundo , T&S. 66 
NEMACLADUS, F, 102 
NEMOPHILA, F, 86 
Nemoseris, F, 120 
Neomammillaria, F, 69 
NEPETA, F, 92 
Nettle Family, F, 21 
NICOTLANA, F, 93 
Niggerhead, F, 120 
Nightshade, F, 93 
NITROPHILA, F, 29 
Ninebark, T&S. 50 
NOLINA, F, 17 
Norta, F, 44 
Noseburn. F. 65 
NOTHOCALAIS. F, 119 
NOTHOLAENA, F, 1 
Notholcus , G. 9 
NUPHAR, F, 34 
Nuttallia , F, 68 
NYCTAGINACEAE, F, 30 
Nyctelea , F, 86 
NYMPHAEA, F, 35 
NYMPHAEACEAE, F, 35 
Nymphozanthus, F, 35 

Oak, T&S, 21 

Oakfern, F, 1 

Oats, G, 8 

Obione 

argentea. F. 28 
bracteosa. F. 28 
canescens, T&S. 28 
confertifolia, T&S. 28 
gardneri, T&S, 28 
hynienelytra, T&S, 28 
lentiformis, T&S, 28 
occidentalis, T&S. 28 
phyllostegia, F. 28 
polycarpa, F. 28 
pusilla, F, 28 
spinosa, T&S, 28 
subconferta, F, 28 
tetraptera, T&S, 28 
torreyi, F, 29 
truncata, F, 29 

Oceanspray, T&S, 50 

Ochrocodon, F, 17 

Odostemon, T&S, 38 

OENOTHERA, F, 71 
abramsii, F. 72 
ALBICAULIS. F, 7l 
ALYSSOIDES, F, 71 
minutiflora , F, 73 
VILLOSA, F, 71 



154 



)EX 



NOrilERA (con.) 
ambigua, F, 72 
ANDINA, F, 71 
BIENNIS, F, 71 
BOOTHII, F, 71 
BRACHYCARPA 

WRIGHTII, F, 71 
bradburiana. F. 71 
BREVIFLORA, F, 71 
BREVIPES, F, 71 

PALLIDULA, F, 71 
buffumi , F . 7 1 
bufonis, F, 73 
CAESPITOSA, F, 72 
CRINATA, F, 72 
JONESII, F, 72 
LONGIFLORA, F, 72 
MARGINATA, F, 72 
MONTANA, F, 72 
PURPUREA, F, 72 
CALIFORNICA, F, 72 

AVITA, F, 72 
CAVERNAE, F, 72 
CHAMAENERIOIDES, F, 72 
CLAVAEFORMIS 

AURANTIACA, F, 72 
CITRINA, F, 72 
CRUCIFORMIS, F, 72 
integrior, F. 72 
! PURPURASCENS, F, 72 
j clutei , F, 72 
CONTORTA, F, 72 

FLEXUOSA, F, 72 
I PUBENS. F, 72 
tORONOPIFOLL\, F, 72 
bruciformis, F. 72 
IDECORTICANS 
I CONDENSATA, F, 72 
I DESERTORUM, F, 72 
pELTOIDES, F, 72 
] ambigua, F, 72 
decumbens, F. 72 
PIPERI, F, 72 
OENTATA 

.; JOHNSTONII, F, 72 
teserti, F, 73 
livarlcala . F. 71 
lASTWOODLAE, F, 72 
fLAVA, F, 72 
■i^ETERANTHA, F, 72 
4ETEROCHROMA, F, 72 
megalantha , F. 72 
MONOENSIS, F, 72 
lewettii , F, 72 
lirsutissima, F, 72 
iOOKERI 

j ANGUSTIFOLIA, F, 72 
HEWETTII, F, 72 
HIRSUTISSIMA, F, 72 
ORNATA, F, 72 
owardi, F, 71 
Jahoensis , F. 72 
Jhnsoni , F, 73 
-ATIFOLW, F, 72 
-AVANDULAE FOLIA, F, 72 
': GRANDULOSA, F, 72 
eptophyUa, F, 72 
|ONGISSIMA, F, 72 
I GLUTEI, F, 72 
jiarginata, F. 72 



MULTIJUGA. F. 73 
orienialis , F, 73 
parviflura . F. 73 

MUNZII. F, 73 

NEVADENSIS, F. 73 

nuitallii, I'. 73 

ornata, F. 72 

PALLIDA, F, 73 

pallidula , F. 71 

PALMERI, F, 73 

PARRYI, F, 73 

parvula, F, 72 

phlebophylla. F. 73 

puinatilida, F, 71 

PRIMIVERIS, F, 73 

PTEROSPERMA, F, 73 

purshiana, F, 71 

purshii, F. 71 

REFRACT A, F, 73 

rydbergil, F. 71 

SCAPOIDEA, F, 72. 73 
BRACHYCARPA, F, 73 
eastwoodiae, F. 72 
parryi, F. 73 
seorsa, F. 73 



tortilis , F, 73 
UTAHENSIS, F, 71, 73 

scapoides, F. 73 

SPECUICOLA, F, 73 
HESPERL\, F, 73 

strigosa, F. 71 

subacaulis, F. 72 

TANACETIFOLIA, F, 73 

TRICHOCAL'i'X, F, 73 

utahensis, F, 71 

WALKERI, F, 73 
TORTILIS, F, 73 

watsonil, F, 73 

wTightii, F, 71 

XYLOCARPA, F, 73 
OLEACEAE, T&S, 74 
Oleaster Family, T&S. 70 
OLIGOMERIS, F, 46 
Oligoneuron, F, 122 
Olive FamUy, T&S, 79 
Olsynium , F, 18 
Onagra 

ornata. F, 72 

strigosa, F. 71 

subuJifera, F, 71 
ONAGRACEAE, F, 70 
Onion, F, 16 
Oniongrass. G. b 
ONOBRYCHIS, F, 62 
ONOPORDUM, F, 120 
ONYCHIUM, F, 1 
OPHIOGLOSSACAE, F, 1 
Ophrys . F. 19 
Opulaster , T&S. 50 
OPUNTL\, T&S, 69 
Orach, F, 28 
ORCHIDACEAE, F, 19 
Orchid. F. 19 
Orchis , F. 19 
Oreastrum, F, 105 
Oreobroma, F. 32 
Oreocarya 

aboniva, F. 88 



confcrtiflora . I-', 88 
cristata . I-. 88 
disticha . F. 88 
dolosa. F, 89 
eastwoodae. !■". 88 
echinoides, I-', 88 
eulophus. F. 88 
flava , F. 88 
flavoculata. F. 88 
fulvocanescens. I-'. 88 
hispida . F. 88 
hoffmanii, F. 88 
humilis . F. 88 
insolita, F. 88 
interrupta. F. 88 
jonesiana. F, 89 
lemmoni, F, 88 
longiflora , F. 89 
lutea, F, 88 
mensana, F. 89 
multicaulis. F. 88 
nana , F. "89 
nubigena . F. 89 
ostcrboutii. F, 89 
paradoxa. I'. 89 
perennis. F, 89 
propria. F. 89 
pustulosa, F, 89 
setosissima, F. 89 
shantzii . f7 89 
shockleyi. F. 88 
subretusa, F. 89 
rugulosa, F. 89 
sericea, F. 89 
setosissima. F. 89 
spiculifera. F. 88 
subretusa, F. 89 
suffruticosa. 



lEGALANTHA, 


F, 


72 


IICRANTHA 






abramsii, F. 


72 




EXFOLIATA, 
IINOR, F, 73 


F, 


72 






•' CUSICKII, F, 


73 




Montana. F, 72 







alata , F. 88 
argentea. F. 89 
bakeri, F, 88 
breviflora , F. 88 
caespitosa, F, 88 
capitata , F, 88 
cilio-hirsuta. F, 8 
cinerea, F. 88 
commixta, F, 89 



abortiva , F, 88 

cinerea, F, 88 

multicaulis. F. 88 

tenuis , F, 89 

virgmensis, F. 89 

wether ill JiT F. 89 

Oreochrysum , F. 116 

OREOXIS, F, 73. 76 
macdougali, F. 73 

ORNITHOGALUM, F, 17 

OROBANCHACEAE, F, 99 

OROBANCHE, F, 99 

Orobus. F. 58 

OROGENIA, F, 76 

Orophaca, F. 53 

ORTHOCARPUS, F, 94. 96 

ORYCETES, F, 93 

ORYZEAE, G, II 

ORYZOPSIS. G, 10 

OSMORHIZA. F. 76 

OSTRYA, T&S, 21 

Owlclover. F. 96 

OXALIDACEAE, F. 64 

OXALIS. F, 64 

Ox -eye -daisy. 1'. 107 

OXYBAPllUS. F, 31 

OXYPOLIS, I-, 77 

OXYRIA. F, 26 

OXYSTYLIS, F, 46 

OXYTENL\. F, 120 

OXYTHECA, F, 25. 26 
reddingianum, F. 25 

OXYTROPIS. F. 62 

Ozomelis, F. 47 

PACHISTIMA. TScS, 65 
Pachylophis. F. 72 
PAEONIA. F, 37 
PAEONIACEAH, F. 37 



I'.imi Brush. I-, ')4 
r.iimc-ci Cup. I- . 'M 
PAI.AI-OXIA. I'. 12(1 
Paleolaria. F. 120 
PANICEAH, G, I 1 
PANICOIDFAI-:. G, 1 1 
Panicularia, G, 5, 7 
PANICUM, G. II, 12 
PAPAVHR. F'. 38 
PA1'AV1',R,\CI',AI-;. !■•. ,i8 
Paperflower. 1- , 120 
PAPILIONOIPFAH. T&S, 52 
Pappophorum. G, 5 
PARIFTARIA. I-, 21 
Pappusgrass, C!, 5 
PARNASSIA, F, 47 
Parnassus, I-", 47 
PARONYCHIA. I-, 34 
Parosela . I &S. =.9 
Parrotlealher, 1', 7,i 
PARRYA, F, 44 
PARRYELLA. T&S. 62 
Parsley, F. 73 
Parsnip, F, 77 
PARTHENUJM. T&S. 120 
PARTI IE NOG ISS US, T&S, 66 
PASPALUM, G. 12 
Pasqueflower. F, .35 
PASTINACA. 1-. 77 
Pea. F. 62 

Pea Family. F and T&S, 66 
Pearl -everlasting. F. 103 
Pcarlwort, !•', 34 
Pectiantia, !•', 47 
PECTLS. F, 120 
PECTOCARYA. F. 91 
PEDICULARIS, F, 96 
PEDIOC ACTUS. F. 69. 70 
Pcdiomclium. F, 62 
PEGANUM, F. 64 
PELLAEA. F, 1 
Pellirory. F, 21 
PENNELLIA, F. 44 
Pennywort. F. 75 
PENSTEMON. F and T&S, 96 

ABIETINLIS, F, 96 

aboriginum. F. 98 

ACAULIS. F, 96 
congestus. F, 97 

aggregatus, F, 98 

ALBERTINUS, F. 96 

ALBOMARGINATUS, F. 96 

AMBIGUUS, F, 96 

LAEVISSIMUS. F. 96 

ANGUSTIFOLIUS 
VENOSUS, F. 96 

ARENARIUS. F. 96 

ARENICOLA. I', 96 

arizonicus. F. 98 

assurgens , F . 96 

ATTENUATUS. F. 96 
liyacinthiniis. I', 96 
MILITARIS. F, 96 
varians. [■' . 98 

auricomus. !•". 97 

austinii, \- . 97 



ambiguus, I-', 98 

BARBATUS, F. 96 
PUBERULUS. F, 97 
TORRKYI, I-, 97 
TRICHANnER. F. 97 

BRACTEATUS. F, 97 

BRHVIFLORUS. T&S. 97 
GLABKISEPALUS, T&S, 
97 

brcvifolius. T&S. 97 



155 



IN 



PENSTEMON (con.) 

brevis, F, 97 

BRIDGESII, F, 97 

AMPLEXICAULIS, F, 97 

cacuminis, F, 98 

caelesnnus, F, 96 

CAESPITOSUS, F, 97 
DESERTIPICTI, F, 97 
PERBREVIS, F, 97 
suffrutescens, F. 98 



aberrans, F, 98 
attenuatens, F, 96 
procerus, F, 98 

CONFUSUS, F, 97 

CONGESTUS, F, 97 

CRANDALLII, F, 97 
ATRATUS, F, 97 

crassifolius, F, 97 

cristatus, F, 97 

CUSICKII, F, 97 

CYANANTHUS, F, 97 
COMPACTUS, F, 97 
LONGIFLORUS, F, 97 
SUBGLABER, F, 97 

CYANEUS, F, 97 

CYANOCAULIS, F, 97 

DAVIDSONII 

PRAETERITUS, F, 97 

depressus, F, 97 

deserticola, F. 98 

desertipicti, F, 97 

DEUSTUS, F, 97 
arenarius, F, 96 
HETERANDER, F, 97 
SUDANS, F, 97 

divergens, F, 98 

DOLIUS, F, 97 

douglasii, F. 97 

eastwoodiae, F. 98 

EATONI, F, 97 
UNDOSUS, F, 97 

ERIANTHERUS, F, 97 
saliens, F, 97 

FLORIDUS, F, 97 
AUSTINII, F, 97 

formosus, F, 97 

FREMONTII, F, 97 
parryi, F 98 
subglaber, F, 97 

FRUTICIFORMIS 

AMARGOSAE, F, 97 

FRUTICOSUS, F, 97 
crassifolius, F, 97 
douglasii, F, 97 

GAIRDNERl, F, 97 

GARRETTII, F, 97 

glaber 

cyananthus, F, 97 
fremontii, F, 97 
occidentalis, F, 98 
speciosus, F, 98 
utahensis, F, 98 
wardii, F, 98 



GLANDULOSUS, F, 97 

GRACILENTUS, F, 97 

GRAHAMII, F, 97 

HALLII, F, 97 

heterander, F, 97 

HETERODOXUS, F, 97 

HUMILIS, F, 97 

BREVIFOLIUS, F, 97 
OBTUSIFOLIUS, F, 97 

incanus, F. 98 



97 



SUFFRUTICOSUS, F, 97 


interruptus. F, 98 


thompsoniae, F, 98 


JAMESll, F, 97 


calcareus, F. 98 


breviculus, F, 97 


CARNOSUS, F, 97 


OPHIANTHUS, F, 


chionophilus, F, 98 


JONESII, F, 97 


CINERASCENS, F, 97 


KECKII, F, 97 


cinereus, F, 97 


kennedyi, F. 98 


CINIGOLA, F, 97 


KINGII, F, 97 


CLEBURNEI, F, 97 


glauca, F. 98 


coccinatus, F, 97 


LAETUS 


coUinus, F, 97 


ROEZLII, F, 97 


coloradoensis, F. 98 


LAEVIS, F, 97 


sileri, F, 98 


lassenianus, F. 98 


COMARRHENUS, F, 97 


latifolius, F, 98 


CONCINNUS, F, 97 


LAXUS, F, 97 


confertus 


LEIOPHYLLUS, F, 9 



98 



F, 98 



LEMMONl, T&S, 97 
LENTUS, F, 97 

ALBIFLORUS, F, 
LEONARDl, F, 98 
leptanthus, F, 97 
LINARIOIDES 

COLORADOENSIS, 

seorsus, F, 98 

SILERI, F, 98 

VIRIDIS, F, 98 
lineolatus. F, 98 
macbridei, F, 97 
macranthus, F, 98 
menziesii 

newberryi, F. 98 
micranthus, F, 98 
militaris, F. 96 
minidokanus, F, 98 
MISER, F, 98 
modestus, F. 98 
MOFFATTIl, F, 98 

MARC US II, F, 98 
MONOENSIS, F, 98 
MONT ANUS, F, 98 
NANUS, F, 98 
NEWBERRYI, F, 98 
nitidus 

major, F, 98 
obtusifolius, F. 97 
ophianthus, F, 97 
oreocharis, F, 98 
OSTERHOUTII, F, 98 
PACHYPHYLLUS, F, 98 

congestus. F. 97 
PALMERI, F, 98 

EGLANDULOSUS, F, 98 
PARVUS, F, 98 
PAYETTENSIS, F, 98 
PAYSONIORUM, F, 98 
PERPULCHER, F, 98 
PETIOLATUS, F, 98 
pMogifolius, F, 98 
pUosigulatus, F. 97 
P^ATYPHYLLUS, F, 98 
PROCERUS, F, 98 

ABERRANS, F, 98 

FORMOSUS, F, 98 

MODESTUS, F, 98 
productus, F, 98 
propinquus, F. 96 
pseudohumilis, F, 98 
pulchellus, F, 98 



pumilus 

incanus, F, 98 
thompsoniae, F, 

RADICOSUS, F, 98 

recurvatus. F, 98 

rex, F. 9"8" 

roezlii, F. 97 



violaceus. F, 97 



98 



98 



F, 98 



98 



ROTHROCKII, F, 
RUBICUNDUS, F, 
RYDBERGII, F, <; 
aggregatus. F 
VARWNS, F, 
saliens, F. 97 
SCAPOIDES, F 
SCARIOSUS, F, 98 
SEORSUS, F, 98 
SEPALULUS, F, 98 
shockleyi. F, 98 
SPECIOSUS, F, 98 

KENNEDYI, F, 98 
SPECTABILIS, F, 98 
staticifolius, F, 97 
strictiformis , F. 98 
STRICTUS, F, 98 
ANGUSTUS, F, 98 
STRICTIFORMIS, 
SUBGLABER, F, 98 
sudans, F, 97 
SUFFRUTESCENS, F, 
suffruticosus, F, 97 
THOMPSONL^E. F, 98 

JAEGERl, F, 98 
THURBERI. F, 98 
TlDESTROMIl. F, 98 
tinctus . F. 98 
tolmiei 

formosus, F, 98 
torreyi, F, 97 
trichander, F, 97 
truncatus, F. 97 
UINTAHENSIS, F, 98 
UTAHENSIS, F, 98 
VIRGATUS, F, 98 
WARDII, F, 98 
washoensis, F, 98 
WATSONII, F, 98 

laxus, F, 97 
WHIPPLE ANUS, F, 98 
woodsii . F. 98 
xylus , F, 97, 98 

Peony, F, 37 

PEPLIS, F, 70 

Pepo , F, 101 

Pepper - - 

mint, F. 92 
weed, F. 40 
wort. F. 2 

Peramium, F, 16 

PERAPHYLLUM, T&S, 50 

PEREZIA, F, 120 

PERICOMA, F, 120 

PERIDERIDL\, F, 77 

Peritoma , F, 46 

PERITYLE, F, 118, 120 

Persecaria, F, 26 

PETALONYX, F, 69 

PETALOSTEMON, F, 62 

PETERL\, F, 62 

PETRADORL«i, F, 120 

PETEROPHYTUM, T&S, 50 

Peucedanum 



ambiguum. F. 75 
leptocarpum, F. 

argensis, F. 76 

bicolor, F. 75 

gumboris, F, 75 

canbyi, F, 75 

circumdatum, F, 75 



75 



cous , F, 75 
donnellii . F, 75 
grayi, F. 75 

aberrans. F. 75 
hendersonii, F. 75 
juniperinum, F. 75 
kingii . F. 76 

alpinum, F. 76 
lapidosa. F, 74 
leptocarpum, F. 75 
macrocarpus. F. 76 
megarrhizum. F. 76 
millet olia. F. 75 
mohavense, F. 76 
montanum, F. 76 
nevadense. F, 76 

cupulatum, F, 76 
nudicaule, F, 76 
parishii, F. 76 
parryi. F. 76 
plummerae. F. 76 
scopulorum. F. 76 
simplex, F. 76 
triternatum. F, 76 
PEUCEPHYLLUM. T&S, 
Phaca 

agresta. F. 5.3 
allochroa , F. 53 
alpina. F, 53 
ampullaria. F. 53 
annua. F. 55 
arenicola. F. 58 
argentata. F. 58 
argophylla, F. 53 
arrecta, F. 53 
artemisiara, F. 53 
artipes. F. 57 
beckwithii. F. 53 
cusickii, F. 54 
eastwoodae. F, 54 
glareosa. F. 57 
hookeriana. F, 58 
hornii. F. 55 
jejuna. F. 55 
laxiflora, F. 57 



lutosa, F. 56 
macrocarpa. F. 56 
megacarpa. F, 56 
mortonii. F. 54 
oophora. F, 57 
picta . F. 54 
platytropa, F. 57 
preussii. F, 57 
pubentissima, F, 57 
pulsiferae. F. 57 
purshii, F, 57 
pygmea, F, 54 
sabulona . F. 58 
serpena , F. 58 
sesquiflora. F. 58 
silerana, F. 58 
subcinereus, F, 55, I 
suksdorfii, F. 57 
triquetra. F. 55 
wardii, F, 58 
wetherillii, F. 58 
whitneyi , F. 58 
PHAGE LIA, F, 86 

ADENOPHORA, F, : f 
adspersa . F. 86 | 

AFFINIS, F, 86 

PATENS, F, 86 
alba . F, 87 
aldersonii, F, 86 
alpina. F, 87 
ambigua, F. 86 
ammophila. F. 87 
ANELSONI, F, 86 
AUSTROMONTANA 



156 



\ (con.) 
F, S7 
LUYAXA. i-. S6 
COLOR. F. .S6 

LEIBERGII. F. >S6 
ennis . I'. 87 

annani . F . 8 7 

rken , F. 87 
\LTHIFOLIA. F. 86 

mpestris. F . 87 

nescfn>. F. 87 
iPHALOTES, F. 86 
ho^ia. F, 87 
DERULEA. F, 8o 
impacta . F", 87 

rrugata . 1". Sb 
lENULATA, F. 86 

AMBIGL'A. l-. 86 

CORRUGATA. F, 86 

VULGARIS, F. 86 
lYPTANTHA. F, 86 

derivata. F. 86 
JRVIPES, F, 86 

MACRANTHA, F, 86 

syphylla , F. 86 

vidsonii , P. 86 
■cumbens . F, 87 
SMISSA. F, 86 

HETEROTRICHA. F, 87 
BTANS, F, 87 

australis , F. 87 

emica . F. 86 

emophila . F, 87 
ILIFORMIS, F, 87 
rmomarginata , F. 87 
etida. F. 87 
liosepala , F. 87 
ilEMONTU. F. 87 

dasyphylla , F. 87 
ERANIFOLIA, F, 87 
LABBERRIMA, F, 87 
LANDULIFERA, F, 87 
|lANDULOSA, F, 87 
; splendens , F, 87 
I'LECHOMIFOLIA, F. 87 
wddingii. F, 87 
YMNOCLADA, F, 87 
jUii, F, 87 
',ASTATA, F, 87 

alpma, F. 87 
[ compacta . F. 87 

leucophylla . F, 87 
lETEROPHYLLA, F, 87 

alpina . F, 87 
i VIRCATA, F, 87 
;terosperma . F, 87 
UMILIS, F, 87 

DUDLEYL F, 87 

lobata , F, 86 
YDROPHYLLOIDES. F. 87 
OAHOENSIS, F, 87 
^CANA, F, 87 
NiCONSPICUA, F. 87 
MDECORA, F, 87 
NTEGRIFOLLA, F, 87 

palmeri . F, 87 
itermedia, F, 80 
NJUNDATA, F, 87 
vvenuata, F, 86 
V'ESIANA, F, 87 

glandulifera . F, 87 

pediculoides , F, 87 
nightii, F, 86 
AXIFLORA. F, 87 
-Uaergii, F, 86 
.EMMONII, F, 87 
iucophylla , F, 87 

alpina , F, 87 

compacta, F, 87 



LL\'HARIS. l-. 87 


Piloscll.i. I-. 42 


lobata. F. 86 


PINACFAi:, r\s. 2 


LUTE A, F, 87 


Pink. I\ i2 


CALVA, F, 87 


Pine, r\S. 2 


SCOPULINA, F, 87 


Pin<.appli.\vcc'd. 1 , 


lutcopurpurcd. F. 87 


Pincdrops. 1- . 77 


mogcllanica 


Pincgrass. G. 10 


hctcrophylhi, F, 87 


PINUS. T&S. 2 


niL-nzicsn. F. 87 


Pinvon. T&S. 2 


MLN'UTISSIMA. F. 87 


Pipc-ri.i. ]■'. I') 


iiionosperma, F. 87 


Pipsissewa. F. 77 


MUSTELINA. F, 87 


Pisopluica 


NEGLECTA. F, 87 


du-hlii, r. =i5 


NEOMEXICANA 


flexuosa, !■ . =it 


ALBA, F, 87 


pinonis, I-. .t7 


PSEUDO-ARIZONICA, F. 


S7 sR-rrac-blaiiCiir. 


NEVADENSIS. F. 87 


PISUM. F. 62 


nudicaulis, F. 86 


PITHYROGRAMMA. 


orbicularis 


PLAGIOBOTIIRVS. 1 



l.i'PKX'OM.x. (;, 

lintosa, G. 6 



FingipiL 



PALMERL F, 87 

FOETIDA, F. 87 
PARISHU, F. 87 
PEDICULOIDES. F, 87 
PEIRSONLANA. F, 87 
peirsoniae . F. 87 
periiyloides 

jacgeri, F. 87 
pmetorum, F. 86 
polysperma , F, 87 
prafensis , F. 86 
PULCHELLA. F, 87 

GOODDINGII. F. 87 
RAMOSISSIMA. F. 87 

EREMOPHILA, F, 87 
RATTANII. F, 87 
ROTUNDIFOLIA, F, 87 
rugidosa, F. 86 
sallna, F. 87 
SAXICOLA. F, 87 
scopulina, F, 87 
SERICEA, F, 87 

CILIOSA. F, 87 
SERRATA, F, 87 
SPLENDENS, F, 87 
TANACETIFOLIA. F, 87 
TETRAMERA, F, 87 
THERMALIS, F, 87 
UTAHENSIS. F, 87 
VALLIS-MORTAE, F, 87 
violacea, F. 87 
virgata, F. 87 

Riacomene, F. 53 

Phaeostoma, F. 70 

PHALARIDEAE, G, 11 

PHALARIS, G, 11 

Phellopterus. F. 74 

Phellosperma. F. 69 

PHILADELPHUS, T&S, 47 

Philotria . F. 4 

PHLEUM, G, 10 

PHLOX, F, 84, 85 

PHOENICAULIS, F, 44 

PHOLISTOMA, F, 88 

PHORADENDRON, F, 22 

PHRAGMITES, G, 6 

PHYLLODOCE, TSiS, 78 

Phymosia , F, 66 

PHYSALIS, F, 93 

PHYSARIA, F, 43, 44 

PHYSOCARPUS, T&S, 50 

Riysostegia, F, 92 

Phytosalpinx , F. 92 

PICEA, T&S, 2 

Plcklewecd, F, 29 

Picrandenia , F. 117 

Picrothamnus , T&S, 105 

Pigmy -weed, F, 46 

Pigweed, F, 29 

Pilocanthus, F, 70 



1 18 
31 



Plant - - 

bee. I\ 46 

gum. F, 114 

skeleton. 1'. 

wishbone, l- 
PLANTAGINACEAE. 
PLANTAGO. F. 100 
Plantain, F. 1(10 
Plaiyschkuria. T&S. 
PLATYSTEMON. 1-. 
PLECTRITIS. F, 101 
Pleiacanthus . F. 118 
Pleuraphis ~G , 1 1 
Pleurophragma, F. 4 
PLUCHEA. T&S, 120 
Plum, T&S, 51 
Pneumonanthc, 



F. 100 



106 
38 



79 



callichroa. 
CANBYl. C 



POA, G, 6 

alpicola. G. 6 
ALPINA, G, 6 
AMPLA. G, 6 
andina, G. 6 
ANNUA, G, 6 
aperta. G. 6 
ARCTICA, G, 6 
argentea. G. 6 
ARIDA, G, 6 
BlGELOVIl. G, 6 
BOLANDERI, G, 6 
brevipaniculata. G. 6 
buckleyana. G. 6 
BULBOSA. G, 6 
californica. G. 6 
G. 6 
6 

COMPRESSA, G, 6 
confusa. G. 6 
crandallii, G. 6 
cristata. G. 9 
crocata. G. 6 
CURTA, G, 6 
CUSICKII, G, 6 
eatoni, G, 6 
EPILIS, G, 6 
FENDLERLANA, G, 6 

longiligula. G, 6 
fcstucoides, G, 6 
filifolia, G, 6 
GLAUCIFOLIA. G, 6 
GRACILLIMA, G, 6 
grayana , C, 6 
helleri . G, 6 
idahoensis, G. 6 
INCURVA, G, 6 
INTERIOR, G, 6 



JUNCIFOLIA, G, 6 
kaibensis. G. 5 
kingii, G. 6 
laeviculmis, G. 6 
LEIBERGII, G, 6 



longipedunculala. G, 6 
longiligula. G. 6 
MACROCLADA. G. 6 
montana. G. 6 
mulmomac, G. h 



nemaiophylla. G. 6 

NERVOSA, r;. 6 

NFVADENSIS. G. 6 

nuitalliana. G. 6 

olneyae. G. 6 

paddensis. G. 6 

PALUSIRIS. <;. 6 

PATTIiRSONI. G. (1 

paucillor.i. G. 6 

pec k 1 1 . G , 6 

planifolia. G. 6 

pr.itensilormis. G. 6 

PRATENSIS. G. 6 

praiericoKi. G. 6 

PRINGLEl. G. 6 

pseudopratcnsi.s. G. 6 

pudica. G ft 

purpurascens. G. 6 

REFLEXA. G. ft 

rupestris, G, ft 

RUPICOLA. G, 6 

SANDBERGII. G. ft 

scabcrrima. G. ft 

scabil'olia. G. ft 

SCABRELLA. G. ft 

scabriuscula. G. ft 

secunda, G. 6 

sheldoni. G. 6 

striata. G. ft 

subaristaia. G. 6 

subpurpurca. G. ft 

subreflexa. G. ft 

subtrivialis, G. ft 

SUKSDORMl, G, ft 

tcnuil'lora, G. 6 

tenuifolia, G. ft 

thurberiana. G, ft 

tricholepis, ('•. ft 

triflora. G. ft 

TRIVIALIS, G. 6 

truncal a, G. 6 

vaseyana. G. 6 

VASEYOCHLOA, G, 6 

wliceleri. G. 6 
\\k~- 

bladder. 

fern. F". 

moon, F 

twin. F 
POniSTHRA. F, 77 
Poinseitia. F. 64 
Poisonhemlock. F 
Poisonweed. F". 52 

polanisia. 1-. 46 
poli-;mc)\'Iagi-;af, 

Polemoniella , F. 85 
POLEMONIUM, 1-, 85 
POLIOMINTHA, T&S. 92 
POLYCl'ENIUM, F, 44 
POLYGALA, T&S, 64 
POLYGALACEAE, T&S. 64 
POLYGONATUM, F, 17 
POLYGONUM. F, 26. 
POLYGONACEAE, F, 
POLYPODIACEAE, 1', 
POLYPODIUM, F, 2 
Polypody, F, 2 
POLYPOG.ON, G, 10 
POLYSTICIIIUM. 1". : 
Pondweed. I". 3. 4 
Po|X'ornflowcr. F. 91 



I-. 43 
1 

. 31 
44 



74 



I-, M 



27 
22 
1 



1.57 



Poplar, T&S, 20 
POPULUS, T&S, 20 
Poppy, F, 38 
Poppymallow, F, 66 
Poreleaf, F. 120 
POROPHYLLUM, F, 120 
PORTERELLA, F, 102 
PORTULACACEAE, F, 31 
PORTULACA, F, 32 
POTAMOGETON, F, 3 
POTAMOGETONACEAE, F, 3 
POTENTILLA, F and T&S, 50 

anomalofolia, F, 51 

ANSERINA, F, 50 
concolor, F, 50 
sericea, F, 50 
F, 50 



ARGENTEA 
ARGUTA 

CONVALLARIA 
arizonica, F, 51 
balleyi, F, 50 

setosa, F, 50 



F, 50 



BIENNIS, F, 50 
BREVIFOLIA, F, 50 

perseverans, F, 50 
BREWERI, F, 51 
bruceae, F. 51 
brunnescens, F, 51 
Candida, F, 51 
chrysantha, F, 51 
CONCINNA. F, 51 
DIVISA, F, 51 
RUBRIPES, F, 51 
concinnaeformis, F, 51 



convallaria, F, 50 

CRINITA, F, 51 
LEMMONI, F, 51 

ctenophora, F, 51 

diffusa, F, 51 

dissecta, F, 51 

glaucophylla, F. 51 
multisecta, F, 51 

DIVERSIFOLIA, F, 51 
MULTISECTA, F, 51 
pinnatisecta, F, 51 

divisa, F, 51 



DRUMMONDII, F, 51 

BRUCEAE, F, 51 
effusa, F, 51 
elmeri, F, 51 
eremica, F, 50 
fastigiata, F, 51 
fUipes. F, 51 
FRUTICOSA, T&S, 51 
glabrata, F, 51 
glabrella , F. 51 
GLANDULOSA, F, 51 

ARIZONICA, F, 51 

glabrata, F, 51 

INTERMEDIA, F, 51 

MICROPETALA, F, 51 

NEVADENSIS, F, 51 

PSEUDORUPESTRIS, F, 

REFLEXA, F, 51 
glaucophylla , F, 51 
glomerata, F. 51 
gordonii, F, 50 
GRACILIS 

BRUNNESCENS, F, 51 

ELMERI, F, 51 

fillpes. F, 51 

FLABELLIFORMIS, F, 51 

GLABRATA, F, 51 

nuttallii, F, 51 

PULCHERRIMA, F, 51 
HIPPIANA. F, 51 

diffusa , F. 51 
humtfusa, F, 51 
intermittens, F, 51 



51 



jucunda, F. 51 

kingii, F, 50 

klamathensis, F. 51 

laterifolia . F. 50 

lemmoni, F, 51 

leucocarpa, F. 51 

leucophylla, F. 51 

macdou galii, F. 51 

MILLEFOLIA, F, 51 

KLAMATHENSIS, F, 51 

millegrana, F, 51 

modesta. F, 51 

monspeliensis, F, 51 

multisecta, F. 51 

nelsoniana, F, 51 

NEWBERRYI, F, 51 

nipharga, F. 51 

NIVEA, F, 51 

quinquefolia, F, 51 

NORVEGICA, F, 51 
monspeliensis, F, 51 

nuttallii , F, 51 
glabrata . F, 51 

osterhoutii, F, 52 

OVINA, F, 51 

PALUSTRIS, F, 51 

PARADOXA, F, 51 

pectinisecta, F, 51 

PENSYLVANICA 
STRIGOSA, F, 51 

pensylvanica, F. 51 

pinnatisecta , F , 51 

PLATTENSIS, F, 51 

propinqua. F, 51 

proxima, F, 51 

pseudorupestris. T&S. 51 

pulcherrima, F. 51 
fOipes, F. 51 

purpurascens, F. 50 

QUINQUEFOLIA, F, 51 

reflexa, F, 51 

RIVALIS, F, 51 

MILLEGRANA, F, 51 

rubric aul is, F. 51 

rubripes, F, 51 

sabulosa, F. 50 

SAXOSA 

SIERRAE, F, 51 

strigosa, F. 51 

utahensis, F. 50 

virgiilata, F, 51 

webbcri, F. 50 
Poteridium, F. 52 
Prenanthel Ta, F, 118 
Prickly-- 

currant. T&S. 48 

lettuce, F, 118 

oxytenia, T&S, 120 

pear, T&S. 69 

poppy. F. 38 

sowthistle, F, 123 
Primrose, F, 78, 79 
PRIMULA, F, 79 
PRIMULACEAE, F, 78 
Princesplume, F. 45 
PROBOSCIDEA, F, 99 
Prosartes . F, 17 
PROSOPIS, T&S. 52 
PRUNELLA, F. 92 
PRUNUS, T&S, 51 
PSATHYROTES, T&S, 120 
Psedera . T&S, 66 
PSEUDOCYMOPTERUS, F, 77 

aletifolius , F. 74 

anisatus , F, 74 

longilobus , F, 74 

bipirmatus , F. 74 

hendersonii, F, 74 

MONTANUS, F, 77 



multifidus. F. 77 
nivalis. F. 74 
purpurens. F, 77 
sylvaticus , F, 77 
tenuifolius, F, 77 
tidestromii , F. 77 
versicolor. F, 77 
Pseudopteryxia. F, 74 
Pseudoreoxis, F. 74 
PSEUDOSERICEA, F. 51 
PSEUDOTSUGA, T&S, 3 
PSILACTIS, F, 120 
PSILOCARPHUS, F, 120 
PSILOSTROPHE, F, 120 
PSORALEA, F, 62 
Psoralidium, F, 62 
Psorodendron. T&S. 59 
PTELEA, T&S, 64 
PTERIDIUM, F. 2 
PTERIDOPHYTA, F, 1 
Pterochiton , F. 28 
Pterophacos. F. 58 
PTEROSPORA, F, 77 
PTEROSTEGIA, F, 27 
Pteryxia 

albiflora . F. 74 
anisatus, F, 74 
calcarea. F. 74 
californica. F. 75 



subviscosa, F. 115 



hendersonii, F. 74 
petraeus. F, 74 
terebinth ina 

albiflora, F, 74 
calcarea, F, 74 
californica, F, 74 

Ptilocalais , F. 119 

Ptilonella , F. 106 

Ptilophora , F. 119 

Ptiloria , F. 123 

PUCCINELLIA, G, 6. 7 

Pulsatilla . F. 35 

Puncture -vine. F, 64 

PURPUSIA, T&S, 52 

PURSHIA, T&S, 52 

Purslane, F, 32 

Pussypaws. F, 32 

Pussytoes, F, 103 

Pycnosphace. T&S. 92 

PYROLA, F, 77 

PYROLACEAE, F, 77 

Pyrrocoma 

acuminata. F. 115 
apargioides, F. 115 
argutus, T&S. 116 
cheiranthifolia. F. 115 
dementis, F. 115 
crepidinea, F. 116 
croceus, F, 115 
cusickii, F. 115 
demissa, F. 115 
duriusculus. T&S, 116 
eriopodus. T&S. 116 
glomerata, T&S. 116 
hirtus . F. 115 
hololeuca. F. 116 
insecticruris, F. 115 
inuloides, F, 116 
kennedyi, F. 115 
lanceolata. F. 115 
lapathiiolia . F. 115 
lyallii . F. 116 
microdonta. T&S. 116 
pratensis, F. 115 
prionophylla, T&S, 116 
radiatus, f&S. 116 
sericea, F. 116 
sessiliflora, T&S. 116 
solidaginae, F. 115 
subcaesia, F, 115 



tenuicaulis, F, 115 
uniflora , F. 116 
vaseyi, F, 115 

Quack Grass, G, 7 
Quamasia, F. 17 
Quamoclldion . F. 31 
QUERCUS, T&S, 21 
Quickweed. F. 114 
Quillwort. F. 2 

Rabbitbrush. T&S. 108 
Rabbitfoot Grass, G, 10 
Radicula, F, 43. 44 
RAFINESQUIA, F, 120 
Ragweed, F, 103 
Ragwort, F, 120 
Raillardia . F. 120 
Raimannia. F. 72 
Ramischia. F. 77 
Ramona , T&S. 92 
RANUNCULACEAE. F, 
RANUNCULUS, F, 37 
Raspberry. T&S, 52 
RATIBIDA, F, 120 
Rattlesnake Plantain, F 
Razoumofskya, F, 21 
Redbud. T&S. 52 
Red Sage, F, 29 
REDFIELDIA, G, 6 
Reed-- 

bur. GL, 3 
common, G, 6 
grass, G. 9 
Rein Orchid. F. 19 
Resinweed. F. 114 
RESEDACEAE, F, 46 
Reseda. F. 46 
REVERCHONU, F, 65 
RHAMNACEAE, T&S, 
RHAMNUS, T&S, 66 
Rhodiola. F. 46 
RHUS, T&S, 65 
RHYSOPTERUS, F. 74' 
RBES, T&S, 48 
Ricegrass, G, 10 
Riddellia . F. 120 
RIGIOPAPPUS, F, 120 
Ring-grass, G. 10 
ROBINIA, T&S, 62 
Rock - - 

brake, F, 1 
cress, F, 39 
Jasmine, F. 78 
mat, T&S. 50 
nettle, T&S, 68 
purslane. F. 31 
Rocket Salad, F. 42 
ROEMERIA. F, 38 
Rompelia. F. 73 
RORIPPA, F. 43. 44 
ROSA, T&S, 52 
ROSACEAE, T&S, 49 
Rose. T&S. 52 
mallow. F, 66 
marymint. T&S. 9 
RUBIACEAE, F, 100 
RUBUS, T&S, 52 
RUDBECKL\, F, 120 
Rue Family, F, 64 
RUMEX, F, 26. 27 
RUPPIA, F, 4 
RUPPIACEAE, F, 4 
Rush, GL, 15 
Rushpea, T&S, 52 
Russian Olive, T&S, 
Russian Thistle, F, 
RUTACEAE, F, 64 



158 



: I, F, 117 

d lyKUa. F, 57 
G. S 



\S, 3 

:, 10 
F. 107 
and F, 92 
T&S. 1U4 

<1A, F, 4 

I . 62 
KIA, T&S, 92 
i AE, T&S, 20 
■;\IA, F, 29 
I J.S, 20 
I . 124 
\, F, 30 



rScS, 28 



78 



lA, F and T&S, 92 

[NIA, F, 2 

INLA.CEAE, F, 2 

JCUS, T&S, 101 

LUS, F, 79 

lire, F, 29 

Iwood Family, F, 22 

■, F, 11 

ler plant, F. 69 
irry, F. 34 
bena, F. 30 
rt, F, 32 
JISORBA, F, 52 
e, F. 77 
:ULA, F, 77 
ALACEAE, F, 22 
n, F, 65 

TaRIA, F, 34. 35 
la, F, 93 
OBATUS, T&S, 30 
lODES, F, 78 
OSTEMMA, F, 81 
ail, G, 12 
lURACEAE, F, 20 
tana , G. 11 
■RAGA, F, 48 
FRAGACEAE, F, 46 
[age, F, 48 
sroom, T&S, 118 
DONNARDUS, G, 11 
MCHZERIA, F, 4 
iUCHZERIACEAE, F, 4 
'MUS, G, 9 
ichyrium , G. 12 
iltzia, T&S. 65 
nocrambe, F. 45 
ENUS, GL, 15 
US, GL, 14, 15 
acactus , T&S. 69 
ROCHLOA, G, 7 
ROPOGON, G, 7 
OCHLOA, G, 7 
JLOPHILA. G, 34 
onella, F . 119 
ingrush. F. 2 
:hgrass, G. 10 
PHULARIA, F, 99 
PHULARL^CEAE, F, 93 
:>ea, F, 62 
ELLARLA, F, 93 

Ucwort. F, 78 
rslane, F, 31 
LE, G, 8 



Sedge, GL. 12 
SEDUM, F. 46 
Seedbox, F. 70 
Seepwecd. F. 30 
Sego Lily, F. 17 
SELAGINELLA, F, 2 
SELAGINELLACEAE, 
Sclfheal, F. 92 
SELINOCARPUS, I-, 31 
St'linum, F. 77 
SENECIO. F, 120, 122 
Senna, T&S. 52 
Serapias , F . 19 
Sericotheca . T&S, 
Serviceberry . T&S, 
SESUVIUM, F, 31 
SETARIA, G, 12 
Shadscale. T&S. 28 
Sheep Sorrel. F. 27 
SHEPHERDIA, T&S, 
Shepherds [\irse. F. 
Shinleaf. F. 77 
Shooting Star. F. 78 
SIBARA. F, 44 
SIBBALDLA, F, 52 
SIDA. F, 66 
SIDALCEA, F, 
Sideranthus 
australe. F 



F, 2 



50 
, 49 



67 



116 

gooddingii , F. 115 
gracilis, F. 115 
grindelioides, F, 119 
puberulus, F. 116 
turbinellus, F. 116 
Sieversia . T&S. 49 
SILENE, F, 34 
Silktassel, T&S. 77 
Silverbush, F. 64 
SILYBUM, F, 122 
Simsia , T&S. Ill 
Sinapis. F. 40 
Siphonella , F. 84 
SISYMBRIUM, F, ,39-45 
SISYRINCHIUM. F, 18 
SITANION, G, 7. 8 
SIUM, F, 74. 77 
Skeletonplant. F. 118 
Skeletonweed, F, 118 
Skullcap. F. 92 
Sloughgrass, G. J 1 
Smartwced, F. 26 
SMELOWSKIA, F, 44. 45 
SMILACINA, F, 17. 18 
Snakeweed, T&S. 1 15 
Snapdragon, F. 93 
Sneezeweed, F. 1 16 
Snowberry. T&S, 101 
Snow Plant. F. 78 
Soapwort, F. ,i4, 35 
SOLANACEAE, F, 93 
SOLANUM, F, 93 
SOLIDAGO, F, 116, 120, 
Solomon Plume, F, 17 
Solomonseal, F, 17 
SONCHUS, F, 123 
Sonnea, F, 91 
Sophia, F, 40 
SOPHORA, T&S, 62 
SORBUS, T&S, .52 
SORGHASTRUM, G, 12 
Sorghum, G. 12 
Sorrel. F, 26. 27 
Sowthistle, F. 123 
SPARGANIACEAE, GL. 3 
SPARGANIUM, GL. 3 
SPARTINA, G, 1 I 
Spatularia , F, 48 
Spectaclepod. F. 41 



22 



PULVINATUS. G. 1( 
ramulosus. G. 10 
strictus, G, 10 
TEXANUS, G, 10 
thurberi . G. 10 
trlcholepis , C. 9 
utilis. G. 10 
wolfii , C. 10 
wrighiii . G, 10 
SPRAGUEA, F. ,i2 
Spring Beauty. F. 31 
Spruce. T&S. 2 
Spurge. F. 64 
Spurry, F. 34 
Squawapple. T&S. 5(1 
Squirreltail. G. 8 
STACHYS. F, 93 
Staff -tree Family. T&S 
STANLEY A, F, 45 
STANLEYELLA. F, 45 
Starlily. F. 17 
Star of Bethlehem. j~, 1 
Slarwort, F, 34 
Stegnocarpus. F. 88 
STEIRONEMA, F, 79 
STBLLARIA, F. 34 
Stenuphyllus. GL. 12 
Stenotopsi.s . T&S. 116 
Stenotus 

acaulis. I-'. 115 
kennedvi . F 



armerioides, F. 



1 15 
I 15 

caespitosa , F . 115 
falcatus. F. 115 
interior . T&S. I 16 
latifolius, 1". 1 15 
lincarifolius . T&S, 1 
interior. T&S. 1 1( 



Specul.ina. [', 102 


rudis. 1- . 115 


Speedwell. 1- . 94 


scalx-r, 1' , IIS 


SPI'RCHILA. I', 34 


sieno|)livllus, [■ . 1 Id 


SPERGULARIA, I', .14 


STFPIIANOMFRIA. 1-. 118, 123 


SPERMAT(.)PIIYTA, I&S, 2 


sri-;RcuLiAc:i-:Ai-:. t&s. 67 


SPHAERALCI-;A. F, Wi. tw 


Slevia. I-. 120 


Sphaeromen.i, h . 12, > 


Slicksced. 1-, 9(1 


Sphaerophys.i. I''. o,i 


STIl.LINGIA, I-, (i5 


Sphaerusligm.i. |- , 7 1. 72 


Siinkur.iss. G, 5 


SPHENOPHOI.IS, G, 9 


sriPA, G, 10 


SPHENOSCIADIUM, !■, 77 


Si ipory/opsis. G. 10 


Sphondylium, ]■' . 75 


Si . luhn'.s Won . F, 67 


Spiderling, [■ . 31 


StDnecrop, l\ 4(i 


Spiderwort, 1-', 15 


Stoneseed, 1-, 9(1 


Spike Fescue, G. 6 


Srorksbill. F. (i,i 


Spikemoss. 1'. 2 


Sirawberrv, I-, 49 


Spikepnmrose. F. 70 


Sireptanthell.i. 1-', 40. 45 


Spikerush, GL, 14 


STREPTANTIHJS. F. 40. 45 


SPIRAEA, T&S, 49. 50. 52 


STRFPTOPUS. F. 18 


SPIRANTHES. F, 19 


Strobu.s. T&S, ,i 


SPIRODELA, F, 15 


Strumbocarpa. 1 &S. 52 


Spleen wort. F. 1 


STYLOCLINF. I-. 12, i 


Sprangletop. G. 1 1 


SUAEDA, F, .50 


SPOROBOLUS. G. 10 


SUBULAKIA, I-. 45 


AIROIDES. G. 10 


Sudan Gr.iss. G 12 


WRICHTII. G, 10 


SUKSDORIIA. 1'. 48 


aristulata. G. 10 


Sumac. I&S, 6 5 


ASPER, G, 10 


Summercvpress. 1- , 29 


asperilolia, C. 10 


Sumpweed. I- , 118 


CONTRACTUS, G. 10 


Sundew, !■, 46 


CRYPTANDRUS. G. 10 


Sunfli.wer. F. 1 16 


filiformis, G. 10 


Sunflower Family. I&S. 10'' 


FLEXUOSUS, G, 10 


Svida, T&S, 77 


GIGANTEUS, G. 10 


SWAINSONIA. F. 6,i 


INTERRUPTUS. G. 10 


Swainsonpea. F, (i i 


jonesii. G, 10 


Swallow-wort, F, ,s 1 


microspermus. G. 10 


Sweetanise. F. 76 


minutissima. G. 10 


Sweet - - 


NEALLEYI. G, 10 


clover. F, 62 


NEGLECTUS, G, 10 


grass. G. 1 1 



pea. Iv 59 

root, I-. 76 

vetch, F, 59 
SWERTIA. F. 79, ,s() 
SYMPHORICARPGS. l&S. 10 1 
Syntherisma . G , II 
SYNTHYRIS. I'. 9,i. U9 
Syringa. T&S. 47 



SYNTRICHOPAPPUS. 
Syrmatium. F, 59 



I-. 123 



TAENIATHERUM. G. 8 
TALINUM. F. ,il, 32 
Tamarisk, T&S, 67 
TAMARIX, T&S. (>7 
TAMARICACEAF, T&S, 



TA.\'ACF4UM. 


F. 


123 


Tangklu-.id. G 


12 




Tansy. !■. 12,i 






Tansvmusiard, 


1-, 


40 


TARAXACUM. 


}■'. 


2,i 


Taraxia. 1-. 7 1 






Tarragon. I-'. 


(),i 




Tarweed. I-. 1 19 




Teasel, !■', 101 






TIU.ESONIX, 1 


. 49 




Tellima. I-. 47 






Tessaranlliium 


F, 

r& 


79 


TETRADYMIA. 


S. 123 


Tetraneuris. 1' 


. 1 1 





TEUGRIUM. F. 9.) 
ThalesKi. I- . 94 
Thaspium. I-, 75 
TIIALR: I'RUM. 1-, ,i8 
TIIAMNGSMA. I&S. 64 
TIIELI-SPFRMA. I-, 12,! 
Tlielypodiopsis. F. 45 
TIIELYPOniUM. I-. 40. 42. 
44. 45 



Thelypody, F. 45 
Thelypteris, F. 1 
THERMOPSIS, F, 63 
Therofon , F, 49 
Thistle, F, 109 
Russian. F, 30 
Scotch cotton-, F, 120 
sow, F, 123 
Thlaspi, F, 40, 45 
Three -a\m, G, 9 
Thymophylla. F, HI 
THYSANOCARPUS, F, 45 
TIARELLA, F, 49 
Tlckseed, F, 29, 110 
TIDESTROMIA, F, 30 
Tidytips, F. 118 
Tiedemannia, F, 77 
TILLAEA, F, 46 
Tillaeastrum, F, 46 
Timothy, G. 10 
Tiniaria, F, 27 
Tintinabulum, F. 83 
Tissa . F,~34 
Tithymalus, F. 64 
Tiquilia , F", 88 
Tiquiliopsis, F. 88 
Tium 

alpinum, F, 53 
arrectum , F, 53 
arthuri, F, 53 
atratiformium, F, 58 
atratum, F, 53 
conjunctum, F, 58 
desperatum, F, 54 
drummondii, F, 54 
eremiticum, F, 55 
humistratum, F. 55 
inyoensis, F, 55 
malheurenum, F, 55 
naturitenium, F, 57 
obscurum, F, 57 
owyheensis, F, 53 
racemosum, F, 57 



recurvum, F, 57 
rusbyi , F. 58 
salmonsis, F, 58 
scopulorum, F, 58 
subcompressum, F, 58 



terminalium, F, 


58 


ursinum, F, 56 




Toadflax, F, 95 




Tobacco, F, 93 




Tobacco Weed, F, 


106 


TOFIELDIA, F, 18 




Tonestus, F, 116 





G, 7 



123 



Torresia. G. 11 
TORREYOCHLOA, 
Touterea , F, 68 
TOWNSENDIA, F, 
Toxicodendron , T&S. 65 
Toxicoscordion, F, 18 
TRADESCANTIA, F, 15 
TRAGIA, F, 65 
TRAGOPOGON, F, 124 
TRAGUS, G, 11 
Trail Plant, F, 102 
TRAUTVETTERIA, F, 38 
Trefoil, F, 59 
TRIANTHEMA, F, 31 
TRIBULUS, F, 64 
TRICARDIA, F, 88 
TRICHACHNE, G, 12 
TRICHOPTILIUM, F, 124 
TRICHOSTEMA, F, 92 
Tricuspis, G, 7 
TRIDENS, G, 7 
TRIFOLIUM, F, 63 
TRIGLOCHIN, F, 4 



160 



TRILLIUM, F, 18 
TRIODANIS, F, 102 
Triodia, G, 7 
Triphysaria, F, 94 
Tripolium, F, 106 
TRIPSACEAE, G, 12 
Tripterocalyx, F. 30 
TRISETUM, G, 9 
Triteleia, F, 16 
TRITICUM, G, 8 
TRIXIS, F, 124 
TROLLIUS, F, 38 
Troximon . F, 102, 119 
TSUGA, T&S, 3 
Tumblegrass, G. 11 
Tumblemustard, F, 44 
Tumbleweed, F, 30 
Turritis. F, 39 
Twinf lower, F. 100 
Twinpod, F. 44 
Twisted Stalk, F, 18 
Twistf lower, F, 45 
TYPHA, GL. 3 
TYPHACEAE, F, 3 

ULMACEAE, T&S, 21 
ULMUS, T&S, 21 
UMBELLIFERAE, F, 73 
Uraspermum, F. 76 
URTICA, F, 21 
URTICACEAE, F, 21 
Utahia. T&S, 69 
UTRICULARIA, F, 99 
Uva-ursi , T&S, 78 

VACCARIA, F, 35 
VACCINIUM, T&S, 78 
Vagnera, F, 18 
VALERIANA, F, 101 
VALERIANACEAE, F, 101 
Valerian, F, 101 
VALERIANELLA, F, 101 
Valota. G, 12 
VANCLEVEA, F, 124 
VERATRUM, F, 18 
VERBASCUM, F, 99 
VERBENA, F, 91 
VERBENACEAE, F, 91 
VERBESINA, F, 111, 124 
VERONICA, F, 99 
Vesicaria. F, 43 
Vetch, F, 63 
VICL\, F, 63 
VIGUIERA, F, 124 
Vilfa , G, 9 
Villanova , F, 106 
Vine-mesquite, G, 12 
VIOLA, F, 68 
VIOLACEAE, F, 68 
Violet, F, 68 

Dogtooth, F. 17 
Viorna . T&S, 36 
Virgin's Bower, T&S. ,36 
Virginia Creeper, T&S. 66 
VITACEAE, T&S, 66 
Viticella , F, 86 
VITIS, T&S, 66 
Vulpia, G, 5 

Wahlbergellia , F, 34 
Wallflower, F, 42 
Wall Rocket, F, 41 
Walnut, T&S, 21 
Washingtonia, F, 76 
Water -- 

cress, F, 43 

hemlock, F, 74 

hyssop, F, 93 



leaf, F, 86 

lily. F, 35 

milfoil, F. 73 

nymph. F. 4 

parsnip, F. 77 

pimpernel, F. 79 

plantain, F, 4 

starwort, F. 65 

weed , F . 4 

wort . F . 67 
Wedelia , F. 31 
Wedeliella , F, 31 
Wedgegrass, G. 9 
Weed-- 

butter, F, 120 

carpet, F. 31 

chick. F. 33, 35 

clammy, F. 46 

cud, F. 114 

duck, F, 15 

golden, F, 115 

gum, F. 114 

hawk, F. 117 

knot. F, 26 

may. F. 119 

pepper. F. 40. 42 

pickle, F. 29 

pig, F, 29 

pigmy , F . 46 

pineapple. F. 119 

pond, F. 3 

quick, F, 114 

resin, F, 114 

seep, F, 30 

skeleton, F, 118, 123 

smart, F, 26 

snake, T&S, 115 

sneeze, F, 116 

sump, F, 118 

tar, F, 119 

water, F. 4 

widgeon, F. 4 

wire, F. 120 
Welwitschia , F, 82 
Wheat, G, 8 
Wheatgrass, G. 7 
Whipplea , T&S. 46 
Whisperingbells. F. 86 
White Brittlebush, T&S. HI 
Whitetop, F. 40 
Whortleberry. T&S. 78 
Widgeonweed, F. 4 
Wilde abbage. F. 40 
Wild onion, F. 16 
Wildrye, G, 7 
Willow, T&S, 20 
Willow Weed, F. 70 
Winter -- 

cress, F, 40 

fat, T&S. 29 

green, T&S. 77. 78 
Wire-- 

grass. GL. 15 

lettuce, F, 123 

weed, F, 120 
Wishbone Plant, F, 31 
WISLIZENIA, F, 46 
Woad, F, 42 
Wolfberry, T&S. 93 
WOLFFIA, F, 15 
Wolftail, G, 10 
Wood-- 

fern, F, 1 

grease, T&S, 30 

reed, G, 9 

rush, GL, 15 

sage, F, 93 
Woodland Star, F, 47 
Woodrush, GL, 16 



WOODSL«L, F, 2 
Woodsorrel, F, 64 ' 
WOODWARDIA, F, 2 
Wormwood, T&S. 104 
Wort - - 

moon. F. 1 

pepper, F. 2 

quill, F. 2 

spleen, F. 1 

spider, F. 15 

St. John's, F. 67 

water. F. 67 
WYETHIA, F, 124 
Wyomingia , F, 112 

XANTHIUM, F, 124 
Xanthocephalum . T&S, 
Xanthoxalis. F. 64 
Xerocassia . T&S 52 
XEROPHYLLUM. F, If 
Ximenesia, F. 124 
Xylophacos 

amphioxys, F. 53 
aragalloides, F. 53 
argentinus. F. 57 
argophyllus . F. 53 
brachylobus. F. 58 
candelarius, F. 57 
casei, F. 54 
castanaeformis, F, ; 
chloridae, F. 58 
cibarms. F. 54 



coccineus. F, 54 
cymboides, F. 54 
eurekensis. F. 55 
glareosus, F. 57 
mcurvus. F, 57 
inflexus. F, 55 
iodanthus, F, 55 
iodopetalus, F, 55 
lagopinus. F, 57 
lectulus, F. 57 
marianus. F, 56 
medius, F. 55 
melanocalyx. F. 5,' 
mulfordiae, F. 57 
newberryi. F. 57 
nudisiliquus. F, 5'/ 
pephragmenus. F, 
purshii, F. 57 
pygmaeus, F. 54 
stipularis. F, 55, 
subvillosus, F, 57 
tidestromii, F. 58 
uintensis, F, 53 
utahensis, F. 58 
ventosus. F. 57 
vespertinus, F, 5;- 
zionis, F, 58 



Xylorhiza. F, 119 
Xylosteon , T&S, 100 

Yampa, F, 77 
Yarrow, F, 102 
Yellowcress. F. 43, 
Yerba Mansa, F. 20 
Yerbasanta, T&S, 86 
Youngia, F, 111 
YUCCA, T&S, 18 

ZANNICHELLIA, F, I 
ZANNICHELLIACEA ,1 
ZAUSCHNERIA, F, ' )[ 
ZEA, G, 12 
ZIGADENUS, F, 18 
ZINNIA, F, 124 
ZIZIA, F, 77 
ZOYSIEAE, G, 11 
ZUCKIA, F, 30 
ZYGOPHYLLACEAE, " 
ZYGOPHYLLUM, F, 



NOTES 



NOTES 



II 



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Headquarters for the Intermountain 
Forest and Range Experiment Station 
are in Ogden, Utah. Project headquar- 
ters are also at: 
Boise, Idaho 
Bozeman, Montana (in cooperation 

with Montana State University) 
Logan, Utah (in cooperation with 

Utah State University) 
Missoula, Montana (in cooperation 

with University of Montana) 
Moscow, Idaho (in cooperation with 

the University of Idaho) 
Provo, Utah (in cooperation with 
Brigham Young University) 



FOREST SERVICE CREED 

The Forest Service of the U.S. Department of Agriculture is 
dedicated to the principle of multiple use management of the 
Nation's Forest Resources for sustained yields of wood, water, 
forage, wildlife, and recreation. Through forestiy research, co- 
operation with the States and private owners, and management 
of the National Forests and National Grasslands, it strives — as 
directed by Congress — to provide increasingly greater service 
to a growing Nation. 



I 



*M 



RESEARCH PAPER INT-33 
1967 



SEED COLLECTION AND STORAGE FOR 



ARCEUTHOBIUM SPP. 




/ 



ED F. WICKER 





INTERMOUNTAIN FOREST & RANGE EXPERIMENT STATION 

FOREST SERVICE 
U. S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE 

OGDEN, UTAH 



THE AUTHOR 

ED F. WICKER, Plant Patiiologist, is responsible 
for research investigations on the biology and 
control of dwarf mistletoes and biological con- 
trol of forest tree diseases. He is assigned to 
project INT -2303, Forestry Sciences Labora- 
tory, Moscow, Idaho. Dr. Wicker received the 
Bachelor of Science degree in forestry (1959) 
and the Doctor of Philosophy degree in plant 
pathology (1965) from Washington State Univer- 
sity. He joined the Intermountain Station staff 
in 1956. 



i 



.S. Forest Service 
esearch Paper INT -33 
967 



SEED COLLECTION AND STORAGE FOR ARCEUTHOBIUM SPP. 



Ed F. Wicker 



INTERMOUNTAIN FOREST AND RANGE EXPERIMENT STATION 

Forest Service 
U.S. Department of Agriculture 
Ogden, Utah 
Joseph F. Pechanec, Director 



SEED COLLECTION AND STORAGE FOR ARCEUTHOBIUM SPP.^ 



Ed F. Wicker 



INTRODUCTION 

Seeds of the six species and host forms of Arceuthobium used in these investi- 
gations mature in September and October, the exact time varying from year to year for 
any given location. Dissemination is via an explosive -fruit mechanism which is not 
completely understood (Johnson 1888; Heinricher 1915b; Hinds et al. 1963). If seeds 
jare to be used to propagate the species, they should be mature when collected. This 
means "trapping" the seeds as they are forcibly ejected from the fruits. Previous in- 
vestigations involving dwarf mistletoe seeds (Peirce 1905; Heinricher 1915a, 1915b, 
:i917; Hedgecock and Hunt 1917; Weir 1918; Palhinha 1942; Kuijt 1960) do not mention 
methods of seed collection and hence leave doubt as to seed maturity. 

Frequently seeds cannot be sown immediately after collection; thus seed storage 
becomes necessary to insure a ready supply of suitable seeds. 

LITERATURE REVIEW 

When these investigations began, there were no documented techniques for col- 
lecting seeds of dwarf mistletoes. One report (Weir 1918) mentioned general conditions 
of seed storage. After these investigations were started, Scharpf and Parmeter (1962) 
reported on techniques that are advantageous in the collection, storage, and germination 
of seeds of A. campylopodum Engelm. 



I "^This study is based on a portion of a thesis submitted in partial fulfillment of 

the requirements for the Ph.D. degree, Washington State University, by the author. 
(Scientific Paper 2827, College of Agriculture, Washington State University, Pullman, 
Project 1490.) This work was supported in part by funds provided for biological and 
piedical research by the State of Washington Initiative No. 171, and the Intermountain 
Forest and Range Experiment Station, Forest Service, Ogden, Utah. 



SEED COLLECTION 

Seeds of Arceuthobium were collected in September and October during the norma 
period of seed expulsion. Collections were made in dwarf mistletoe -infected coniferous 
stands in Washington and Idaho. Seed -producing female plants were bagged prior to set 
expulsion. The expelled seeds adhered to the inner surface of the bags. Paper, cheese 
clotli, plastic, or sausage -casing bags were used depending upon the specific time of 
seed collection and the accessibility of the collection area. 

The paper bag technique (Scharpf and Parmeter 1962) was used when seeds were 
actively being expelled. A paper bag was placed over the seed -bearing plant and the 
host branch was shaken to trigger seed expulsion. Some mature seeds were dischargee 
when I placed the bags over the seed -producing plants. 

Cheesecloth, plastic, or sausage -casing bags were used when seed collection wai 
started before the period of maximum seed expulsion. Cheesecloth was wrapped aroun 
the seed -bearing plant and tied to the host branch. With plastic or sausage -casing bag: , 
the seed -bearing plant and a portion of the host branch were enclosed in a bag and the 
bag was tied around the host branch with a piece of brightly colored plastic flagging, 
which also served as a locating marker. After the seed expulsion period, the host 
branch bearing the enclosed dwarf mistletoe plant was clipped and brought into the 
laboratory. 

Because of the distances and time involved, it was possible to visit some of the 
seed collection areas only once. At some sites, if seeds were not yet expelled, infect(t' 
host branches bearing seed -producing female dwarf mistletoe plants were clipped and 
brought to the laboratory. The cut ends of the branches were recut and placed in wate 
The flasks and branches were enclosed in bags and held until seeds were expelled. 



SEED STORAGE 

The principal goal of seed storage is to maintain the highest possible seed via- 
bility for prolonged periods. Starting with the meager data reported by Weir (1918), 
four seed storage methods were tested in the laboratory: (1) stratification, (2) dry 
cold storage, (3) moist cold storage, and (4) storage at room temperature (Anon. 194 
Storage in the field was at ambient air temperatures. 



1 



LABORATORY STORAGE 

MATERIALS AND METHODS 

Storage by stratification. --Sand obtained from the Snake River was washed in 
iZ percent HCl, rinsed twice with distilled water, and then sterilized with dry heat at 
j[85° C. for 72 hours. The sterilized sand was moistened with sterile, de -ionized water 
jmd placed in sterilized petri dishes (65 X 100 mm.) to a depth of 30 mm. A sterile 
cheesecloth disc, cut to the diameter of the petri dish, was placed over the surface of 
!he sand. Freshly collected, untreated, air -dried, dwarf mistletoe seeds were divided 
Into lots of 100 seeds and placed upon the cheesecloth discs, one lot of seeds per dish, 
rhe seeds were scattered to avoid aggregation which would be conducive to the spread 
)f molds. The seeds were then covered by another sterile cheesecloth disc which in 
urn was covered by 30 mm. of moist sand. The petri dishes were not covered. The 
itratified seeds were then refrigerated in the dark at 4-5° C. The relative humidity 
■anged from 30-45 percent as determined by a hygrothermograph placed in the room, 
leeds of Arceuthobium douglasii Engelm. (1300),^ A. campylopodum Engelm. f. 
aricis (Piper) Gill (4200), A. c_. f. abietinum (Engelm.) Gill (400), and A. c_. f. 
sugensis (Rosend.) Gill (400) were stored by this method. 

Dry cold storage. --Naturally expelled seeds (307) of A. douglasii were individu- 
ally collected from the branches of Douglas -fir trees in the Thatuna Mountain Range, 
i miles east of Viola, Idaho, during December 1959. These seeds were placed dry and 
yithout any medium in an open petri dish and stored in a dark refrigerator at 5° C . 
')ther use of the refrigerator exposed the seeds to some light during storage. 



^ Freshly collected, untreated seeds of Arceuthobium douglasii (1000), A. ameri - 

ianum Nutt. ex. Engelm. (2400), A. campylopodum f. laricis (6000), A. c. f. campy - 
opodum (Engelm.) Gill (400), A. c. f. abietinum (1400), and A. c. f. tsugensis (1200) 
vere air dried (0-25° C.) for 1-4 days, counted into lots of 100 and scattered in open 
)etri plates (15 X 90 mm.). No storage medium was used. The seeds were refrigerated 
n the dark at 4-5° C. and 35-45 percent relative humidity. The air in the refrigerator 
oom was recycled at 5 -minute intervals. 

! 

Moist cold storage . --Untreated seeds of Arceuthobium campylopodum f . campy - 

opodum (1000) and A. c. f. laricis (1000) were air dried for 24-48 hours and then 

livided into lots of 100 seeds. Five lots of seeds of each host form were scattered in 

3 

iterUized petri plates containing three discs of sterile Whatman #4 filter paper (9.0 
m.) saturated with sterile distilled water. The plates were covered and stored in a 
lark refrigerator set at 5° C. 



2 

Number of seeds. 

3 



Use of trade names in this paper does not necessarily imply endorsement by the 
J.S. Forest Service. 



The other five seed lots of each host form were placed in sterile distilled water 
for 2 hours and then placed in sterilized, open petri plates. The external viscin had 
absorbed considerable water and the seeds were very slimy. These seeds were stored 
in the same refrigerator as the other lots . 

Storage at room temperature . --Untreated seeds of Arceuthobium americanum 
(1700), A. douglasii (500), A. campylopodum f. campylopodum (1200), A. c. f. laricis 
(2000), A. c_. f. abietinum (300), and A. c^. f . tsugensis (700) were left in the bags. Tli 
seeds were not counted into lots. The tops of the bags were propped open and the bags 
were stored in the laboratory. The room temperature was 22-23° C; the relative 
humidity, 8-30 percent. No attempt was made to exclude light. 



l\ 



RESULTS 

Storage by stratification. --Seeds were first examined after 45 days in storage. 
All seeds were moldy and shriveled. Examination of cut seeds under a dissecting scop;^ 
indicated that deterioration was well advanced and that the seeds were no longer viable 
The embryo and endosperm were withered and shrunken to less than one -third their 
normal size and were dark brown to black in contrast to their normal green color. 

i 

After 60 days' storage, seed deterioration and development of molds were further 
advanced. The experiment was abandoned. Samples of the molded seeds were kept f O] | 
isolation of the molds . 

Dry cold storage . - -The naturally expelled seeds collected from the branches of 
Douglas -fir during December 1959, were observed to be germinating on March 3, 196C)^ 
By March 20, 257 or 83.7 percent of these seeds were germinating. These seeds wernj 
later used in artificial inoculations in the greenhouse. | 

Examination after 30 days of the other lots of seeds stored in this manner re- j 
vealed little change in external appearance except that the external viscin was dried an J 
appressed to the seeds. Cut seeds showed only a slight shrinkage of the embryo and | 
endosperm. The color of these tissues remained a normal green. Only an occasional 
seed (ca. 2 percent of the sample) was molded, but no seeds had germinated. 

After 60 days there was little change in physical appearance. The embryo and 
endosperm retained their normal green color. One lot (100 seeds) of each species anc 
host form was tested for viability using 2, 3, 5-triphenyl tetrazolium chloride (Flemion 
and Poole 1948; Lakon 1949, 1954; Smith 1951) at a concentration of 100 mg./lOO ml. 
of water. The test lasted 3 days in darkness at room temperature. Results are showi 
in table 1 . 



Table 1 . - -Seed viability as determined by 2, 3, 5-triphenyl tetra 
zolium chloride after 60 days of dry storage at 5° C. 

Dwarf mistletoe * Viability 

Percent 

A. americanum 76 

A. campylopodum f . abietinum 90 

A^. c_. f. campylopodum 92 

A. c_. f. laricis 94 

A_. c_. f. tsugensis 87 

A_. douglasii 91 



The remainder of the dwarf mistletoe seeds from dry cold storage were subse- 
jently used successfully to inoculate coniferous seedlings in the greenhouse and for 
^rmination tests. 

Moist cold storage. --After 30 days' storage, the sample lots of seeds were sup- 
Drting luxuriant mold growth. Cut seeds exhibited deterioration of the embryo and 
adosperm. The experiment was abandoned, but the molded seeds were kept for 
iolation of the molds. 

Storage at room temperature . --In physical appearance, seeds examined after 30 
) 60 days* storage were comparable to seeds in dry cold storage. After 30 days, the 
'Tibryo and endosperm showed some shrinkage but were normal color. After 60 days, 
lie color was a paler green. Some mold was present but no more than in seeds in dry 
old storage . 

I Viability tests on samples after 60 days' storage gave surprising results. All 
seds reacted negatively to tests using the TTC technique, A second sample was tested 
:»r viability after 67 days of storage and again the results were negative. The experi- 
;.ent was abandoned. 



FIELD STORAGE 

MATERIALS AND METHODS 

Freshly collected seeds, seeds air dried for 24-48 hours in the field, and seeds 
r dried in the laboratory for 15 days at 22-23° C. were used in field storage experi- 
lents. All air -dried seeds were soaked in distilled water for 1-2 hours prior to field 
4orage so they would adhere to the storage substrate. The storage substrates were 
-inch squares of cheesecloth several layers thick, glass bell jars, a wooden box, 
.iusage -casing bags, and plastic bags. 



Freshly collected seeds for field storage were obtained by bagging seed -bearing 
female dwarf mistletoe plants with sausage -casing and plastic bags. The plants were 
bagged in September and October. The bags were left until April when they were col- 
lected and brought into the laboratory for examination. Variable numbers of seeds of 
A. americanum, A. campylopodum f. campylopodum, A. c. f. laricis, and A. 
douglasii were stored by this method. 

Two lots of 100 seeds each of A. douglasii, A. campylopodum f . campylopodun 
and A. c. f. laricis were prepared for field storage on cheesecloth squares. These 
seeds were dried for 24-48 hours after collection and before field storage. They were 
then moistened to rehydrate the viscin so they would adhere to the cheesecloth. The 
seeds were stored during October in a mugo pine (Pinus mugo Turra) near the plant 
pathology greenhouses on the Washington State University campus. They were not 
examined until April. A laboratory check was conducted concurrently with this field- 
storage method, storing 100 seeds of each dwarf mistletoe by the dry cold storage 
method. 

Three lots of 100 seeds each of A. douglasii, A. campylopodum f . laricis, A. > 
f. abietinum, and A. c. f. tsugensis were air dried for 15 days at 22-23° C. and then 
affixed to cheesecloth by rehydration of the viscin. The cheesecloth squares were fas 
tened to the bole of Douglas -fir trees at a storage site in the Thatuna Mountain Range 
(R. 5W., T. 40 N., Sec. 5 - Boise Meridian). 

Following 15 days' drying at 22-23° C. , lots of 100 seeds each of A. douglasii, 
A. campylopodum f. campylopodum, and A. c. f. laricis were attached to the inner 
surfaces of glass bell jars. Comparable lots were attached to the inner surfaces of a 
wooden box. The glass jars and wooden box were hung over branch stubs in Douglas - 
fir trees in the Thatima Mountain Range. The storage period was late October to late 
April. A hygrothermograph and weather instrument shelter were installed at the site 
in November to provide a continuous record of the temperature and relative humidity. 

j 
RESULTS I 

1 

The germinability of all field -stored seeds was tested in April by the hydrogen 
peroxide (H^O^) technique (Wicker 1962). Germination was at 10° C. in the dark. P.' 
seeds that had been air dried in the laboratory for 15 days before field storage failed i: 
germinate, regardless of the storage substrate employed. Seeds stored on cheesecloM 
squares and in the wooden box had molded, but there was no mold development on thof i 
in glass jars. Of interest, naturally expelled seeds of A. douglasii on the branches i: 
foliage of Douglas -fir trees at the storage site were germinating in April. 

Of the seeds which were air dried for 24-48 hours and then stored in the field or 
cheesecloth, 55-82 percent had germinated by April (table 2). Although none of the 
laboratory check seeds had germinated, the HgO^ test demonstrated their germinabUi 
(table 2, lots #3). There was no visible evidence of molds on seeds which had germi 
nated but some could be seen on seeds which did not germinate . Seeds which had not 



Table 2 . - - Germination of air -dried dwarf mistletoe seeds (100 seeds/lot) after field 

storage for 6 months on cheesecloth 



Dwarf mistletoe 



Lot no, 



Germination [ Av, germination 



A. c. f. campylopodum 



^'ercent- 



77 
82 

^84 



79.5 




"'"24-48 hours at "field temperatures." 
Laboratory storage, 5° C. and 35-45 percent relative humidity. 
Determined by HgOg treatment . 



germinated by the end of the field -storage period were treated with H2O2 and an 
additional 2 percent of A. douglasii , and 5 percent of A. c_. f. laricis and A. c_. f. 
campylopodum subsequently germinated. 

All seeds stored over winter in the plastic bags had deteriorated by the end of 
the storage period. All the bags had collected water from the winter rains and snows, 
transpiration, and condensation. Consequently, most of the seeds had rotted. Even 
the few seeds which remained above the water in the bags were molded. No seeds 
were suitable for viability or germination tests. 

Seeds overwintered in the sausage -casing bags were in much better condition than 
the seeds stored in plastic bags. While some seeds had molded, the majority appeared 
to be in good condition. Only seeds of A. c. f. laricis showed any germination at the 
end of the storage period and those germinating were intermingled with dead host needles 
which had been cast in the bags. Seeds remaining stuck to the inner surfaces of the 
I bags were not germinating. Germinability (H2O2 treatment) of seeds stored by this 
method is shown in table 3 . 



Table 3 . - - Germination of dwarf mistletoe seeds after 6 months' field storage 

in sausage -casing bags 



1 



Dwarf mistletoe 



A. c. f. laricis 
A . douglasii 



No. seeds 
stored 



476 
237 



No. seeds 
germinated 



Germ inability 



'281 
97 



No. 
bags 









Percent 




A. americanum 


571 


468 


82 


5 


A. campylopodum f. 
campylopodum 


143 


93 


65 


2 



Includes seeds naturally germinating. 



DISCUSSION 

The systemic nature of the infections and the distribution of the shoots produced 
by A. douglasii make collection of large seed lots difficult. This was the limiting factoi 
in the investigations reported for the species. The localized infections of the other five 
taxa are much more conducive to collection of large quantities of seed. 

The most satisfactory traps for collecting seeds are sausage -casing bags. The 
bags are porous and permit gaseous and aqueous exchange with the atmosphere . Femalo 
infections can be bagged several months prior to seed maturity and the seeds can be left 
in the bags several months after expulsion without appreciable damage. Seeds may be 
stored in the laboratory or in the field in these bags with a minimum of molding. The 
bags are costly compared with paper bags, plastic bags, or cheesecloth. But they are 
durable. Some have been used for 3 consecutive years and are still serviceable. Be- 
cause of their durability, 1 have used sausage -casing bags almost exclusively for seed 
collection. 

Use of paper and plastic bags for seed collection had not been reported prior to 
the present investigations, although Scharpf and Parmeter (1962) later reported on the 
use of paper bags. While at the collection site, I used paper bags to collect seeds then 
being expelled. After these had been collected, each infection was enclosed In a plastic 
bag to trap the remaining seeds . The plastic bag was retrieved on the next visit . Thes^ 
"traps"' are low in cost and the seeds can be stored in the paper bags in the laboratory. 



There are serious limitations to paper bags, however. They cannot be used when 
the host's foliage is wet. Yet, wet periods are ideal for seed collecting because tur- 
gidity is a factor in the explosive -fruit mechanism. Even during dry weather, the paper 
bags absorb moisture from the seeds. They also are easily torn by tree branches and 
shrubs. Considerable seed loss may result because all seeds do not stick to the inner 
surface of the bag. 

The major disadvantage of plastic bags is their nonporous nature. Free water 
accumulates inside the bags and provides conditions highly conducive to seed deter iora- 
ition and molding. Plastic bags are unsatisfactory for storing seeds because of these 
factors. 

Cheesecloth is less convenient to use than either paper or plastic bags, but it does 
eliminate serious moisture and mold problems. Seeds can be stored on the cheesecloth 
in the laboratory or the field. The major disadvantage is getting the seeds off the 
cheesecloth. Some can be washed off with water. The remainder must be picked off 
with forceps . 

My interpretation of the conditions reported by Weir (1918) as suitable for dwarf 
mistletoe seed storage resulted in failure. Stratification at low temperatures would 
jseem a practical way to maintain desirable storage conditions, but seeds stored by this 
method deteriorated as a result of luxuriant growth of mold fungi. Perhaps this method 
of seed storage would be satisfactory if completely aseptic conditions could be estab- 
lished and maintained. This proved impossible by any of the techniques tried. The old 
adage "one rotten apple will spoil the entire barrel" seems appropriate here. 

Successful seed storage was achieved under dry, cold conditions. The first indi- 
cations that dwarf mistletoe seeds could be stored by this method were obtained with 
seeds of A. douglasii collected from branches of Douglas -fir in December 1959. They 
not only remained viable when stored by this method, but 83.7 percent of the seeds be- 
gan germinating while still in artificial storage and without supplemental treatment. 
This was the only time that naturally disseminated seeds germinated while in laboratory 
storage without supplemental treatment. However, this was also the only time that 
seeds were collected 3 months after dissemination and then stored in the laboratory. In 
subsequent experiments an extract of Douglas -fir bark did not stimulate germination of 
freshly collected seeds. Seeds overwintered in the field on cheesecloth or in sausage - 
casing bags (tables 2 and 3) germinated without stimulation. Therefore, no special 
stimulus seems necessary for seed germination. Satisfactory germination after storage 
is dependent on moisture content, oxygen, and temperature conditions prior to and dur- 
ing storage. Extreme variation may exist for these requirements between plant species 
(Owen 1956; Crocker and Barton 1957; Kramer and Kozlowski 1960; Mayer and Polja- 
koff -Maybe r 1963). 



Dry, cold storage of freshly collected seeds, air dried for not more than 48 hours 
was equally successful. Viability (TTC test) was high after 60 days in storage (table 1) 
Other tests of seeds stored by this method indicated high viability and germinability 
(Wicker 1962, 1965). Some seeds remained viable for more than 12 months. Molds aiu 
not a problem although some mold growth does occur. 

Cold storage under moist conditions without stratification was unsuccessful. I 

Molds destroyed the seeds. This method of storage might prove satisfactory under I 

completely aseptic conditions but it is obviously impractical, particularly if large P 

amounts of seeds need to be stored. Cool, moist conditions are suitable for seed ii 
germination, when used aseptically, as reported by Scharpf and Parmeter (1962). 

But these conditions are most difficult to maintain for prolonged storage periods. jl 

it 

Seed storage at room temperatures was not successful. Molds and high relative 
humidities were not the detrimental factors. The relative humidity was low (8-30 per- 
cent) and mold was very sparse. The detrimental factor of this method of storage was 
definitely shown to be high temperatures (Wicker 1965). 

Dry, cold (5° C, 35-45 percent relative humidity, dark) laboratory storage mor 
closely simulates the environmental conditions to which seeds are exposed during the 
fall and winter months in nature than do the other laboratory storage methods employedi 
Dry, cold storage provided adequate moisture conditions for retention of seed viability,y 
but not enough moisture for luxuriant development of mold fungi. Moist cold storage ! 
and stratification provided a surplus of moisture and created conditions favorable for [ 
fungal development. Percentage germination of seeds following 6 months of dry, cold j 
laboratory storage (Wicker 1965) and 6 months of field storage (tables 2 and 3) are i 
comparable . j 

The efficacy of storage under partial vacuum (Anon. 1948), or at subfreezing 
temperatures (Isaac 1934; Curtis 1955; Jones 1962) was not evaluated for dwarf 
mistletoe seeds, although dry storage for 32 days at -3° C. followed by 145 days at 
10° C. gave as good germination as storage at 10° C. continuously for 177 days (Wickti 
1965). Thus, freezing does not kill the seeds within this period and at the temperature 
tested. 

Cheesecloth and sausage -casing bags are both satisfactory for storing seeds in j 
the field (tables 2 and 3). There was only minor mold development on freshly dissemij 
nated seeds. The sausage -casing bags are more convenient to use in the field and re- 
quire less seed handling. Natural seed germination is low with this method. In only 
one of four taxa did natural germination occur during field storage in sausage -casing 
bags (table 3). Thus, storage in these bags provides more physiologically uniform 
seeds. With cheesecloth, natural germination is rather high (table 2). Both substrate; 
are currently being used, but because of the resulting uniformity and the rapid germi- 
nation obtained with H^Og (Wicker 1962), the sausage -casing bag method is preferred. 



10 



Successful storage of dwarf mistletoe seeds depends on seed treatment prior to 
torage as well as on the method of storage. The effect of prolonged high temperature 
as obvious from comparing seeds air dried for 24-48 hours (table 2) vs. air dried 
)r 15 days at 22-23° C. before field storage on cheesecloth. 

Storage methods which prevent a gaseous exchange with the atmosphere and which 
ermit free water to accumulate in tlie presence of fungal and bacterial contaminants are 
jnsatisfactory . The use of nonporous plastic bags was the only completely unsatisfactory 
i.eld storage method employed. The suitability of wood as a field storage substrate was 
lot adequately tested. That wood can be a satisfactory substrate for field storage is 
upported by the observed germination of naturally implaced seed on weathered fence 
osts (Peirce 1905; personal observations). The glass bell jars did not absorb or re- 
ain moisture, and very little fungal development occurred on seeds affixed thereto. 



11 

L 



LITERATURE CITED 

Anonymous . 

1948. Woody-plant seed manual. U.S. Dep. Agr. Misc. Pub. 654, 416 pp. 

Crocker, W., and L, V. Barton. 

1957. Physiology of seeds . 267 pp. 2d ed. Waltham, Mass.: Chronica Botanioaj 
Co. 

Curtis, J. D. 

1955. Effects of origin and storage method on the germinative capacity of pon- 
der osa pine seeds. Intermountain Forest and Range Exp. Sta. Res. No:^! 
26, 5 pp. 

Flemion, F., andH. Poole. 

1948. Seed viability tests with 2, 3, 5-triphenyl-tetrazolium chloride. Boyce 
Thompson Inst. Contrib. 15: 243-258. 

Hedgecock, CO., and N. R. Hunt. 

1917. Notes on Razoumofskya campylopoda. Phytopathology 7(4): 315-316. j 

Heinricher, E. 

1915a. Ueber besondere Keimungsbedingungen welche die Samen der Zwerg- 

mistel, Arceuthobium oxycedri (DC.) M. Bieb. beanspruchen . Centra 
f. Bakteriol., Abt. 2, 42: 705-711. 



1915b. Beitrage zur Biologie der Zwergmistel, Arceuthobium oxycedri, besonddf 
zur Kenntniss des anatomischen Baues und der Mechanik ihrer explosiv; 
Beeren. Sitzungsber. Akad. Wiss. Wien, Abt. 1, 124: 181-230. 



1917. Berichtende Mitteilung uber die Keimungsbedingungen der Samen von 
Arceuthobium oxycedri (DC.) M. Bieb. Ber. Deuts. Bot. Ges. 35(3): 
204-212. 

Hinds, T. E., F. G. Hawksworth, andW. J. McGinnis. 

1963. Seed discharge in Arceuthobium: a photographic study. Science 140(357 
1236-1238. 

Isaac, L. A. 

1934. Cold storage prolongs the life of noble fir seed and apparently increases 
germinative power. Ecology 15(2): 216-217. 

Johnson, T. 

1888. Arceuthobium oxycedri . Ann. Bot. 2: 137-160. 

Jones, L. 

1962. Recommendations for successful storage of tree seeds. Tree Planters 
Notes 55: 9-20. 

Kramer, P. J., andT. T. Kozlowski. 

1960. Physiology of trees . 642 pp. New York: McGraw-Hill Co. , Inc. 

12 



Kuijt, Job. 

1960. Morphological aspects of parasitism in the dwarf mistletoes (Arceuthobium). 
Univ. Calif. Pubs, in Bot. 30(5): 337-436. 

Lakon, G. 

1949. The topographical tetrazolium method for determining the germinating 
capacity of seeds. Plant Physiol. 24(3): 389-394. 



1954. Neure Beitrage zur topographischen Tetrazolium -Methode. Ber. Deut. 
Bot. Gesell. 67: 146-157. 

Mayer, A. N,, and A. Poljakoff -Mayber . 

1963. The germination of seeds . 236 pp. New York: McMillan Co. 

Owen, E. B. 

1956. The storage of seeds for maintenance of viability. Commonwealth Bur. 
Pastures and Field Crops Bull. 43, 81 pp. 

Palhinha, R. T. 

1942. Algumas consideraceoes sobre a distribuicao geografica e a ecologia do 
Arceuthobium oxycedri. Bol. Sci. Broteriana, II. 16(2): 137-143. 

Peirce, G.J. 

1905. The dissemination and germination of Arceuthobium occidentale Eng. Ann, 
Bot. 19(73): 99-113. 

Scharpf, R. F., and J. R. Parmeter. 

1962. Collection, storage, and germination of seeds of a dwarfmistletoe. 
J. Forest. 60(8): 551-552. 

Smith, F. E. 

1951. Tetrazolium salt. Science 113(2948): 751-754. 

Weir, J. R. 

1918. Experimental investigations on the genus Razoumofskya. Bot. Gaz. 66(1): 
1-31. 

Wicker, Ed F. 

1962. Rapid germination as a viability test for seeds of Arceuthobium spp. 
(Abstr.). Phytopathology 52(8): 757. 



1965. Biology and control of dwarf mistletoes on Douglas fir and western larch, 
178 pp. Ph. D. Thesis in Plant Pathology, Washington State Univ., 
Pullman . 



13 



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Headquarters for the Intermountain Forest and Range 
Experiment Station are in Ogden, Utah. Project 
headquarters are also at: 

Boise, Idaho 

Bozeman, Montana (in cooperation with Montana 

State University) 
Logan, Utah (in cooperation with Utah State 

University) 
Missoula, Montana (in cooperation with University 

of Montana) 
Moscow, Idaho (in cooperation with the University 

of Idaho) 
Provo, Utah (in cooperation with Brigham Young 

University) 



AFPS, Ogden, Utah 



FOREST SERVICE CREED 

The Forest SeTvice of the U. S. Department of Agriculture is 
dedicated to the principle of multiple use management of the 
Nation's forest resources for sustained yields of wood, water, 
forage, wildlife, and recreation. Through forestry research, 
cooperation with the States and private forest owners, and 
management of the National Forests and National Grasslands, 
it strives — as directed by Congress — to provide increasingly 
greater service to a growing nation. 



f 



u 



i 



TRENDS and OPPORTUNITIES 
in the WESTERN STATES 




economic development administration 

't^echnical 
^ Assistance 

^^^ PROJECT 

II C r\CDADT(l«rMT AT r>nuiirn^r 




INTERMOUNTAIN FOREST 

AND RANGE EXPERIMENT STATION 

OGDEN, UTAH 



5anta Fe Ski Basin, banta he 
5ierra Blanca Ski Resort, Ruidoso 
Sipapu, Taos 
Taos Ski Valley, Taos 

EGON 

Anthony Lakes, Baker 
Arbuckel Mountain, Lexington 
Cooper Spur, Hood River 
Dixie Mountain, John Day 
Hoodoo Ski Bowl, Eugene 
Mt. Ashland, Ashland 
Mt. Bachelor, Bend 
Multorpor, Government Camp 
Red Devil, Government Camp 
Ski Bow^l, Government Camp 
Spout Springs, Weston 
Summit, Government Camp 
Taft Mountain, Roseburg 
Timberline, Government Camp 
Tomahawk, Klamath Falls 
Warner Canyon, Lakeview 
Willamette, Oakridge 

iH 

Alta, Salt Lake City 
Beaver Mountain, Logan 
Blue Mountain, Monticello 
Brian Head. Cedar City 
Brighton, Salt Lake City 
Cedar Canyon, Cedar City 
Gooseberry, Salina 
Grizzly Ridge, Vernal 
Little Mount.im, Salt Lake City 
Snow Basin, Ogden 
Snow Park, Park City 
Solitude, Salt Lake City 
Timp Haven, Provo 
Treasure Mountain, Park City 

SHINGTON 

Chewelah Peak, Spokane 
Crystal Mountain, Enumclaw 
Entiat Valley, Entiat 
Hurricane Ridge, Port Angeles 
Hyak Ski Area, Seattle 
Leavenworth, Leavenworth 
Loup Loup Ski Bowl, Okanogan 
Mt. Baker, Glacier 
Mt. Spokane, Spokane 
Mt. St. Helens, Longview 
Paradise, Tacoma 
Pilchuck, Everett 
Satus Pass, Goldendale 
Sitzmark, Tonasket 
Ski Acres, Seattle 
Snoqualmie Summit, Seattle 
Squilchuck, Wenatchee 
Stevens Pass, Seattle 
White Pass, Yakima 

OMING 

Antelope Butte, Sheridan 
Eagle Rock, Evanston 
Fortification Mountain, Pmedale 
Hagadon Basin, Casper 
Happy Jack, Laramie 
Meadowlark, Worland 
Medicine Bow, Centennial 
Sinks Canyon, Lander 
Sleeping Giant, Cody 
Snow King Mountain, Jackson 
Snowy Range, Saratoga 



SKI AREAS 
IN THE 
WESTERN STATE! 




^I^Mt 



NEW MEXICO 



SKIING 

TRENDS AND OPPORTUNITIES 

IN THE WESTERN STATES 



Roscoe B. Herrington 
Recreation Resource Analyst 
Intermountain Forest and Range Experiment Station, Ogden, Utah 

Forest Service 
U.S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE 

in cooperation with 

Economic Development Administration 
U.S. DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE 



This technical assistance study was accomplished 
by professional consultants under contract with tlie 
Economic Development Administration. The state- 
ments, findings, conclusions, recommendations, 
and other data in this report are solely those of tlie 
contractor and do not necessarily reflect the views 
of the Economic Development Administration. 



1967 



U.S. Forest Service Research Paper INT-34 



FOREWORD 

This report is concerned with describing the ski industry 
and skiers in the Western States . It traces the growth pattern of 
skier attendance at ski areas in the West since 1955, estimates the 
probable attendance for 1976, and presents an analysis of factors 
that affect present and could influence future attendance. 

A survey was made at all western ski areas that operated 
during the 1964-65 season. It was conducted by the Intermountain 
Forest and Range Experiment Station at the request of the Economic 
Development Administration. All ski area operators and a sample 
of nearly 6,000 skiers were questioned. This represents the most 
comprehensive study of western skiing made to date . 

Virtually all of the operators took the time necessary to 
complete rather lengthy questionnaires . Over 80 percent of the 
skiers who were contacted completed and returned questionnaires. 

The value of the combined contributions in time and money 
by the western Regions of the U.S. Forest Service is roughly equiv- 
alent to the funds provided by the Economic Development Adminis- 
tration for this study. These six Regions have a vital interest in 
this study because nearly 80 percent of the ski areas in the West 
are on National Forest land. 

No attempt was made to explore the financial profitability of 
successful ski area operation. However, such investigation would 
be valuable. 



Includes Arizona, Alaska, California, Colorado, Idaho, 
Montana, New Mexico, Nevada, Oregon, Utah, Washington, and 
Wyoming. 



11 



CONTENTS 

Page 

OREWORD , ii 

HE WESTERN SKI INDUSTRY AND SKIER TODAY 1 

HE FUTURE OF SKIING IN THE WEST II 

12.1 million visits anticipated in 1976 II 

Physical demands of skiing discourage many 12 

Cost of skiing deters many people 13 

Travel time is a problem <, 15 

Many skiers do not participate every year 16 

Participation can be increased: better lifts, tows, and slopes one approach . . 17 

Safer skiing is needed „ 18 

Areas needed closer to markets 19 

Overnight accommodations facilitate skiing for many 20 

Lift and tow capacity probably will not need to increase as rapidly as 

attendance . . . . o « o 23 

Sites for new ski areas are plentiful „ 24 

Skiing is an important economic consideration in many communities . . » . . 26 

Promotion efforts will need to be intensified ... ..o ....<.... . 27 

Greater public motivation- -the key to expansion 28 

PPENDIX „ o . « 29 

Western States Ski Area Operator Questionnaire 30 

How survey of ski area operators was conducted 38 

Procedure for determining capacity of lifts and tows 38 

Procedure for collecting attendance data , 40 

Estimating lift and tow utilization » 45 

Relating past attendance to the future » 47 

How the survey of skiers was conducted <. 48 

Skier Questionnaire „ „ . „ . 49 

Adjustment for sampling bias . . . . » » 53 

How the skier population estimate was derived „ 55 

Reliability of skier data „ » . . 56 

How inventory of potential new sites was conducted . „ » 60 

ABLES 

1 Percent of skier expenditure by item and by type of trip ....<,.... 14 

2 Average (mean) number of days skied per skier and the standard error of 

that average (mean) during the 1963-64 season, by State and residency 

class o . . . o 58 

3 Average (mean) daily expenditure per skier and the standard error of that 

average (mean) during the 1963-64 season by State and residency class . 58 

4 Confidence limits for percentages of the entire skier population estimated 

to have certain characteristics during the 1964-65 season 59 

5 Confidence limits for percentages of the skier population 19 years and old- 

er estimated to have certain characteristics during the 1964-65 season . 59 

iii 



TABLES (con.) Paj 

6 Number of visits to western ski areas, by State and ski season, 1955-64 . 6! 

7 Number of skier visits during 1963-64 season by size class of ski area 

and by State „ . 61 

8 Total capacity of both cable and rope tow areas in the Western States, by 

State, and by ski season, 1955-65 6i 

9 Cable capacity of western ski areas, by State and ski season, 1955-65 . . 6; 

10 Number of ski areas in the 12 Western States equipped with both rope and 

cable tows and those with rope tows only, 1955-64 6- 

1 1 Number and total cable capacity of cable areas operating in the Western 

States during the 1963-64 season by size class and by State ...... 6- 

12 Proportion of western ski areas that provided night skiing during the 

1963-64 season . . . 6 

13 Percentage increase and average annual compound rate of increase in 

skier attendance by States, 1955-64 . . . . . . 6 

14 Projected number of visits to western ski areas in 1976, based upon past 

attendance and past and projected changes in population, per capita 
disposable income, and leisure time 6i 

15 Capacity of additional lifts and tows planned for construction in the West- 

ern States during the years 1966 through 1970 » 6i 

16 Comparison between actual visits and maximum potential visits to western 

ski areas for 1963-64 season during weekend-holiday period and other 
weekday period of use » .<,..... , . . 6 

17 Employment and wages by size class of western ski area, 1963-64 .... 6 

18 Number and theoretical capacity of undeveloped sites that have been 

identified as potential ski areas by State, 1965 6 

19 Factors tending to inhibit growth in attendance by size class of ski area . 6 

20 Profile of western ski areas by capacity size classes showing average 

values of selected characteristics, 1964-65. ...... ..... . 7 

21 Percent of total visits made to ski areas in each Western State during the 

1963-64 season by residency class of skiers 7 

22 Distribution of skier visits by age class and State of residence, 1964-65 

season 7 

23 Distribution of resident skiers of 12 Western States who visited ski areas 

in these States during the 1964-65 season, according to distance trav- 
eled by auto and type of trip 7 

24 Distribution of nonwestern skiers who visited western ski areas during 

the 1964-65 season, according to distance traveled by auto and type of 
trip . 7 

25 Average distance of auto travel by residents of 12 Western States, who 

skied in western ski areas during the 1964-65 season 7 

26 Average daily expenditures for specified items by skiers visiting western 

ski areas during the 1964-65 season according to type of trip I'- 
ll Itemized expenditures on ski trips during 1963-64 season in western ski 

areas by State in which expenditure was made 7 

iv 



^BLES (con.) Page 

28 Average daily expenditure of skiers on single -day trips to western ski 

areas during the 1964-65 season by State and residency class 74 

29 Average daily expenditures of skiers on weekend trips to western ski 

areas during the 1964-65 season by State and residency class 75 

30 Average daily expenditures of skiers on vacation trips to western ski 

areas during the 1964-65 season by State and residency class 75 

31 Average daily expenditures of skiers who visited western ski areas dur- 

ing the 1964-65 season by State and residency class 76 

32 Total trip expenditures of skiers who visited western ski areas during the 

1963-64 season by family income class and by type of trip 76 

33 Annual expenditures on clothes and equipment by skiers who are residents 

of the 12 Western States, 1963-64 season 77 

34 Number of skiers, by State, who visited western ski areas during the 

1963-64 season, grouped into three residency classes . , 77 

35 Proportion of total population that skied during the 1963-64 season for each 

of the 12 Western States , , . 78 

36 Educational background of skiers who visited western ski areas during the 

1964-65 season, by State of residence o . , 78 

37 Age classification of skiers who visited western ski areas during the 

1964-65 season, by State of residence . „ 79 

38 Family income class of skiers who visited western ski areas during the 

1964-65 season, by State of residence 79 

39 Average number of visits to western ski areas per skier during the 1964- 

65 season, by State and by residency class « . . o . . . 80 

40 Percent of married skiers, 19 years or older, who visited western ski 

areas during the 1964-65 season, whose spouse was classed as a 

"skier"- -by family income class and sex . . . „ 80 

41 Distribution within family income classes of those (19 years or older) who 

skied during the 1964-65 season, according to type of ski trip 81 

42 Average number of days skied during the 1964-65 season per skier on each 

of three types of trips and for all trips combined, by family income 

class .0 , . o . . o . o . . . . , 81 

43 Occupational backgrounds of skiers who visited western ski areas during 

the 1964-65 season, by State of residence . . <, « . 82 

44 Marital status and sex of skiers 19 years or older who visited western 

areas during the 1964-65 season, by State of residence 82 

45 Percent of skiers taking various types of trips or combinations of such 

trips to western ski areas during the 1964-65 season by State of 

residence . . , , , . o . . . . . « . . . 83 

46 Average daily expenditure per skier on trips, by family income class and 

type of trip, 1964-65 o .o ,,...,. . 84 

47 Percent of skier population that started to ski in each year since 1950 . . 84 

ST OF POSSIBLE SITES ,,,,,,,, o o « .»<.., o .o oo o .. . 85 




SKIER VISITS HAVE TRIPLED 
SINCE 1956 



(MILLION VISITS) 



1956 1964 



VI 



THE WESTERN SKI INDUSTRY AND SKIER TODAY 

Skiing as a form of recreation got its impetus in the West when the first ski runs 
^re constructed in 1936 at Sun Valley, Idaho. During the 1963-64 ski season, more 
an 415,000 skiers were coursing the snowclad mountains of the 12 Western States 
id their expenditures --more than $115 million --made a significant contribution to the 
;onomy of the West. 

The surge in number of skiers during the 50's developed into a nationwide 
lenomenon. It captured the attention of those sports enthusiasts who are always 
jeking new ways to test their physical capabilities. It also challenged the imagination 
private entrepreneurs and public land managers --particularly those interested in 
:quainting more and more people with year -long experiences of the outdoor recreation 
iportunities . 

This is reflected by what occurred during the 9-year period 1955-63. Skier 
sits tripled --from 1.4 million in 1955 to 4.3 million in 1963. And the number of 



In this report, a visit was considered as one person visiting a ski area to ski 
1 or part of a day. 







CABLE CAPACITY 








INCREASING RAPIDLY 




200- 










c 
o 










= 50- 










on 

§ 100- 










> 


^r^ 


—-^^^^^ BJ^W 






50- 


m 








ROPE 


19 


1 1 1 1 I i I I 

55 1956 1957 1958 1959 1960 1961 1962 1963 19 


64 




YEAR 





ski areas catering to this new breed of fun seekers increased from 152 to \^)7 . The 
Lift and tow capacity of these western ski areas kept pace with demand. It also 
tripled- -from 66 million in 1955 to 215 million Vertical Transport Feet per hour 
(VTF/hr.f in 1964. 

In 1964 the average daily capacity per ski area in the West was 682 skiers as com 
pared to an average of 270 in 1955. The 10 largest areas, in fact, had an average ca- 
pacity of 3,000 per day during die 1964-65 season. These 10, furthermore, accounted 
for nearly 25 percent of the total lift and tow capacity in the 12 Western States. 

The change in character and quality of these lift and tow facilities was apparent. 
In 1955, more than half of the ski areas in the West only had rope tows. Today, three- 
fourths of western areas have cable facilities of one kind or another --gondolas, aerial 
trams, T-bars, J -bars, or platter pulls. As a result, the uphill journey has become 
much less strenuous. 

Large areas are most popular. The 36 largest- -which constituted 18 percent 
3f all the ski areas in the West --accounted for nearly 60 percent of the total visits. 
VIedium -sized areas that offered cable service accounted for 23 percent of the visits 
and small areas with cable service only for 14 percent. The remaining 3 percent of 
±ie visits during the 1963-64 season were handled by those areas that offered only 
rope tow service. 

Only a very small fraction of the total population of die 12 Western States are 
skiers. Of the 415,000 skiers who in die 1963-64 season visited western ski areas, 
395,000 were residents of the West. This is slightly more than 1 percent of the total 
population in the Western States. 

The majority (61 percent) of the western skiers live in the heavily populated 
Pacific Coast States. California alone accounts for 37 percent of the total number 
who skied during the 1964-65 season in the 12 Western States (see chart next page). 



3 

Capacity of lifts and tows has been expressed in Vertical Transport Feet per 
hour (VTF/hr.) to provide a uniform and comparable measure for all lifts and tows. 
It was calculated by multiplying the actual number of skiers the lift or tow can carry 
per hour by the vertical rise of the lift or tow in feet. See page 38. 

Areas equipped with cable facilities were grouped in three size classes: those 
having a capacity of 1,500,000 VTF/hr. or more were classed as large; those iiaving 
a capacity of 700,000 to 1,500,000 VTF/hr. were classed as medium; and those having 
less than 700,000 VTF/hr. were classed as small. 



CALIFORNIA 

WASHINGTON 

COLORADO 

UTAH 

OREGON 

IDAHO 
MONTANA 

WYOMING 

NEW MEXICO 

ALASKA 

NEVADA 

ARIZONA 

OTHER 



i 7% 
i 7% 



■i 5% 
3% 
2% 
2% 

a Less than 1 % 
M Less than 1 % 
■ Less than 1 % 
tf 5% 



17% 



14% 



37% 



WHERE THE SKIERS LIVE 



25 MILES 




24% 



75 MILES 




32% 



HOW FAR PEOPLE 



125 MILES 



^^, 



14% 



WILL DRIVE TO SKI 



175 MILES 



^^, 



10% 



225 MILES 



6% 



275 MILES 



4% 



325 MILES 



3% 



375 MILES 



2% 



450 MILES 



2% 



750 MILES 



2% 



1500 MILES 



1% 



The average skier must travel a long way. Although a few skiers are fortunate 
lOUgh to live witliin 25 miles of a ski area, western skiers travel an average of 139 
iles one way to reach their ski areas. The average one-way distance increases to 
!0 miles when skiers take vacation ski trips, that is, trips on which they stay away 
om home four or more nights. Naturally, the nonwestern skier travels much furthcr- 
)0 miles is the one-way average --when he comes to the Western States for a ski 
Lcation. 

The California skier travels nearly twice as far on a ski trip as does the skier 
om the other Western States. Nor does he stop at the State line. The ubiquitous 
alifornia skiers comprised 60 percent of all the western nonresident skiers who 
sited Colorado, Nevada, and Utah during 1965. 



Twenty percent of those who visited western ski areas during the 1964-65 season 
sre participating in their first year of skiing. This followed the same pattern found 
a similar study made earlier of attendance at ski areas in the eastern United States. 
;tually 31 percent of those skiing in the Western States during the 1964-65 season 
)uld be classed as "novices" inasmuch as they had only been skiing for 1 or 2 years. 

Another pattern became evident from the results of this survey of western ski 
"eas; namely, participation isn't on a continuing year -in -year -out basis. On die 
^erage, 10 percent of all tliose who ski one year don't ski the following year. 

Regularity of participation declines, 
rthermore, over the long haul. Among 
ose who reported they had learned to 
:i 3 to 4 years ago, 96 percent skied 
rery year since. The proportion dropped 
78 percent among those who reported 
ey had learned to ski 5 to 8 years ago 
id to 61 percent among those who re- 
)rted they had learned to ski 9 or more 
jars ago. 



U.S. Dep. of Commerce. The 
:ier market in northeastern United 
ates. Wash. D.C.: Govt. Printing 
ffice.- 1965. 



MANY SKIERS 
ARE NOVICES 



J 



31% 
1-2 YEARS 




48% 
3-14 YEARS 



< 



21% 
15* YEARS 



Two -thirds of t±ie skiers visiting western ski areas were in the 30 -or -younger 
age groups.^ Those older than 40 represented only 7 percent of the skiing population 
but accounted for 13 percent of the visits made to western ski areas during the 1964-65 
season. 



During the 1964-65 season, male skiers outnumbered female skiers nearly 2 to 1. 
This ratio, however, was not constant throughout all age levels. Among skiers of col- 
lege age and younger, the proportion was nearly equal. In the over -40 age group, male'! 
outnumbered the females nearly 5 to 1 , Although 70 percent of the married male skiers J 
reported that their wives also skied, less than 50 percent of their wives actually skied 
during the 1964-65 season. 



^Questionnaires could not be mailed to skiers younger than 13 years old. Thus, 
age distribution of skiers described in this report is only for those 13 years or older. 




The income level of the skiers is higher 
lan that of the population as a whole. The median 
.mily income of skiers contacted during the 
)64-65 season was nearly $2,000 higher than 
lat for the 12 Western States as a region. Inas- 
luch as skiers generally have higher incomes, 
ley probably have more discretionary money to 
Dend on recreation such as skiing. However, 
ciers do not come exclusively from the high 
icome brackets --in fact, 7 percent have incomes 
: less than $4,000 a year. 

In total, skiers spent $88.4 million in 1964. 
I addition, they spent $26.7 million for equipment 
id clothing in their hometowns. In short, skiing 
; big business, benefiting hometown merchants 
3 well as skiing communities. However, the 
lagnitude of skier spending varies widely among 
'estern States. California and Colorado --with 
le largest number of skier visits - -naturally 
cperienced the biggest volume of spending. 



SKIER INCOME IS 
RELATIVELY HIGH 

S9,500 



$7,600 






Lit uu; 




MEDIAN MEDIAN 

SKIING V^ESTERN 

FAMILIES FAMILIES 



45.3 



^ 




WHAT DO SKIERS SPEND 
IN EACH STATE 



(IN MILLIONS OF DOLLARS) 



12.7 



7.1 



^^ ^^ zf— B 6.0 



^ rO ^ _vO vL.^ o^ A^ 



Average daily expenditure per skier 
was $20.54 during 1965. Although it is 
possible to ski on a more limited budget 
(and many people do), most skiers appear 
not to skimp on expenses for their ski 
trips. 



SKIER EXPENDITURES 
BY TYPE OF TRIP 




WEEKEND 
$25,800,000 



This overall average, however, is 
somewhat misleading because the daily 
expenditure per skier differs substantially 
among kinds of trips taken. The average 
daily cost of the popular single -day trip, 
which requires no overnight accommoda- 
tion, was $11.04 during the 1964-65 sea- 
son. Many skiers (46 percent) never 
skied except on a single -day trip basis. 
As soon as the skier elects to ski on 
overnight trips, his average daily cost 
climbs rapidly. Weekend ski trips (one 
to three nights away from home) cost 

$24.84 per day per skier --more than twice that for single -day trips. At $52.44 per 
day, vacation ski trips (four or more nights away from home) cost nearly five times 
as much as single -day ski trips on the average. 

In spite of the increased daily cost incurred, 54 percent of western skiers took 
at least one overnight ski trip in 1965. In fact, one skier in five reported that he 
always stayed overnight whenever going on a ski trip. 

Overnight trips are a necessity for some if they are to ski at all. The alternative 
to a 4 -or -more hour driving ordeal at the end of a hard day of skiing is an overnight 
trip for those who live more than 200 miles from a ski area. For others, however, the 
conviviality of apres skiing is an integral part of the sport and well worth the extra 
expense. 



Whatever their motivation, skiers who stay overnight tend to spend more for 
practically everything on their weekend and vacation trips, including lift tickets, than 
they do on single -day trips. The big change, of course, is in their expenditures for 
lodgings and meals. Average daily cost of transportation is also higher because the 
distance traveled to ski areas is generally greater. And their expenditures for after - 
skiing activities such as dancing and nightclubbing, which cost only 82 cents a day on 
single -day trips, run over $6 per day on vacation trips. 

Regardless of kinds of trips taken, skiers spend relatively little on skiing instruc 
tion or ski rental and repair. Apparently most skiers own their equipment; nearly 80 
percent reported purchasing equipment and clothing during 1965, at an average cost of 
$85.42 per person. 

8 



THE AVERAGE 
SKIER SPENDS PER DAY... 




skiing has created a new mode in outdoor wear for both men and women 

9 




Willingness of westerners to travel is another characteristic revealed by this 
study. Nearly 70 percent of the skiers reported visiting two or more areas in 1965; 
45 percent visited three or more areas. Ski area operators in five of the 12 Western 
States derived at least 20 percent of their total business from nonresidents in 1965. 
In Nevada and New Mexico, the proportion of total income derived from nonresidents 
is much greater. 

A large portion of the out -of -State skiers are from the Midwest and East on 
vacation in the West. Their expenditures have made a significant addition to the 
western tourist industry. Although they accounted for only 6 percent of the western 
skiing, their total expenditure amounted to $12 million. 

There is every reason to expect continued growth for the western ski industry 
in the near future. Statistics describing the change in the western ski industry during 
the last decade give considerable basis for optimism that the opportunity for develop- 
ment is a long way from being fully exploited. The following section describes some 
of the important problems associated with the opportunity for future expansion. 



10 



THE FUTURE OF SKIING IN THE WEST 

Available evidence indicates that western skiing will grow rapidly during the next 
decade. There is, however, considerable doubt that it can continue to expand at a rate 
equal to that of the past few years . 

Ski area attendance data assembled for this study confirm what many have sur- 
mised: participation has grown rapidly since 1955. Except for the winter of 1962-63 
when insufficient snow drastically curtailed the length of the season, total ski area 
attendance has increased every year. Annual attendance has grown at an average an- 
nual compound rate of 15.4 percent--from 1.4 million visits in 1956 to 4.3 million 
visits in 1964. Moreover, the growth rate, wliich averaged 12.8 percent between 1955 
and 1960, accelerated to 19.9 percent after 1960. 

Besides sketching a historical profile of the western ski industry, these data yield 
meaningful clues concerning the dimensions of its future. The use of these data, how- 
ever, is appropriately limited to projecting the trend for the short-term future because 
the data are based on a relatively short period. 

By assuming that past attendance growth rates will prevail during the years im- 
mediately ahead, the following estimates for 1976 may be made: (1) 20.4 million visits 
based upon the 12.8 percent rate; (2) 45.1 million visits based on the 19.9 percent rate; 
and (3) 27.5 million visits based on the 15.4 percent rate. 

This broad range in estimated future visits --20 to 45 million- -emphasizes that a 
simple extension of past trends involves fundamental hazards. Such extensions of num- 
bers alone do not take into account the underlying factors responsible for past growth. 
Since 1955 the annual increase in number of visits to western ski areas has been close- 
ly related to annual increases in population size, per capita income, and amount of 
leisure time. Although these three factors don't explain why people ski, their asso- 
ciation with increased ski area attendance seems logical; specifically, a greater pro- 
portion of an increasing population will have both the money and the time to go skiing 
if they so choose. 

12. 1 million visits ^^ -. • j .u . .u ..u r . -n ..• .. u 
r-. — If It is assumed that these three factors will continue to have 

,^^, about the same relationship with attendance in the future, 12.1 

1976 

million visits can be anticipated in 1976. This would mean that 

the 4.3 million visits recorded for 1964 will increase at an aver- 
age annual rate of 8.3 percent. This rate is lower than those experienced in the past. 
There already is some evidence that construction of new lifts is slowing down. Ski 
Magazine has reported that sharp cutbacks in such construction of lift facilities have 
occurred since 1964.® 



See page 47 for details. 
® Ski Magazine, November 20, 1966, p. 27 



11 



13 



12 



1 1 



10 



00 8 

> 

O 

I 



1956 



PROJECTION OF VISITS 
TO WESTERN SKI AREAS BY 1976 



12.1 MILLION 
VISITS 



4.3 MILLION VISITS 



1.4 MILLION VISITS 



1964 



1976 



YEARS 



This is not to preclude the possibility that attendance might increase at a faster 
rate in the future. The ski industry, however, will need to find ways to overcome or 
modify a number of factors that tend to limit more widespread and sustained participa- 
tion. (In 1964, only 2.2 percent of the population of the 12 Western States between ages 
13 and 60 skied.) These factors are discussed in the following pages. 



Physical demands of skimg _, .. . ^ , i • i, j ^- ^ f 

-j:^ Skimg IS one of the most physically demanding forms of 

discourage many ^ , ,...,, 

recreation. Learning to ski is especially strenuous. 

While this is not a deterrent to those in their twenties or 

younger, especially teenagers, only those of the older persons who are young-in- spirit 

are even inclined to take up the sport. 



12 



This is reflected by the fact that less than one -half of 1 percent of those who skied 
1 the West during 1965 were over 50, while nearly one-third were 19 or younger. A 
reakdown of the age distribution of those who skied in the West during the 1964-65 
eason follows: 

Age class Percent of skiers 

13-18 29 

19-22 8 

23-30 30 

31-40 26 

41-50 7 

Over 50 <0.5 

Another deterrent is the fear of injury and possible loss of income resulting from 
uch incapacitation. This has prompted many to conclude they can't afford to indulge 
yearning to test the slopes. 

'■ , Skiers spent an average of $20.54 each per day of skiing during 

eters many people , ,^., .^ f jj. . . ,. 

the 1964-65 season. In addition to trip expenditures, western 

skiers each spent an average of $67.65 on equipment and cloth- 

ig. Total expenditure per skier for the season averaged $278.60. 

Average figures are somewhat misleading because they compress the wide differ- 
nces that do exist. For example, the amount spent per day of skiing depends on the 
ind of ski trip taken. On a vacation trip (four or more niglits away from home), the 
verage daily expenditure per skier is $52.44. On a single-day trip (skier does not 
tay away from home overnight), the average daily expenditure is $11.04. On weekend 
rips (one to three nights away from home), the average daily expenditure is $24.84. 

Differences in costs incurred for lodging, meals, and transportation account for 
lost of the variations in average daily expenditures among these three types of trips. 
Lfter-ski activities, such as drinking and dancing, also contribute significantly to the 
igher daily expenditures on weekend and vacation trips. (See table, next page.) 

Spending patterns also differ greatly, depending upon where the skiers live. The 
verage daily expenditures for single-day trips range from $7.51 in Idaho to $15.89 
1 Alaska. On vacation trips, these range from $23.88 per day for Washington skiers 
3 $63.95 per day for Wyoming skiers. 

Expenditures of such magnitude undoubtedly prevent many people with moderate 
ricomes from taking up the sport. This might also be a reason why many people quit 
kiing within a relatively short time. It is not surprising to find that the median annual 
amily income of skiers is $2,000 greater than that of the public at large. In fact, 
early one out of five skiers reported a family income in excess of $15,000 a year in 
965, as shown in the following tabulation: 

13 



Table 1. --Percent of skier 


expenditure by 


item and 


by type of trip 


Item ] 


Single day- 


• W 


eekend— [ 


3/ 
Vacation- 


Lodging and meals 


is. 4 






33.7 


35.7 


Lift tickets 


35.9 






20.5 


16.1 


Rental or repair 


7.4 






4.3 


2.1 


Ski school 


4.9 






2.0 


2.6 


After ski activities 


7.4 






14.0 


11.7 


Equipment 


7.1 






4.2 


6.7 


Transportation 


22.5 






15.9 


17.5 


Miscellaneous , , 
"Package plan" trips— 


.7 






.4 


-- 


.7 






5.0 


7.6 


— , Returned home at enc 
— Were away from home 


i of each 


day 








at least 


one 


ni 


ght but not more than 


three nights. 

T/ Were away from home 
— Some skiers, especif 












four nights or 


more. 




illy those 


takin 


g vacation trips, used 


the "package plan." They were not as 


ked 


to 


separate 


; the various 


items included in the price. 













Family income Percent of skiers 

Under $4,000 7 

$4,000 to $6,499 16 

$6,500 to $9,999 29 

$10,000 to $14,999 25 

$15,000 to $24,999 14 

$25,000 and over 6 

No answer 3 

As might be expected, skiers with high family incomes are more prone to take 
vacation and weekend trips and to spend more freely on such trips. Eighty percent of 
skiers with family incomes of $25,000 and over a year take overnight ski trips. On 
the other hand, only about 50 percent of those with an annual family income of less 
than $6,500 take such trips. Moreover, the skiers from moderate income families 
spend less than $40 a day on vacation trips- -about one-half the expenditures of those 
with incomes of $25,000 and over. 

The total number of days a person skies each year, oddly enough, is not strongly 
influenced by income, as shown in the following tabulation: 

14 



Annual family Average number of days 

income class skied per person 

Less than $4,000 9.65 

$4,000 to $6,499 9.63 

$6,500 to $9,999 9.69 

$10,000 to $14,999 10.38 

$15,000 to $24,999 10.59 

$25,000 and over 13.82 



fravel time 
s a problem 



Some people are fortunate enough to live near the slopes , but the skiers 
living in the West face a 2- to 3 -hour drive to reach a ski area. More- 
over, much of this driving must be done under winter conditions. As 
I result, many people find they must schedule overnight trips to enjoy skiing. On the 
iverage, California skiers drove 198 miles to ski, and 40 percent of them reported they 
ilways stayed overnight whenever they went on ski trips. At the other extreme, Utah 
skiers drove an average of only 74 miles to ski and less than 1 percent of them always 
:ook overnight trips . 

In general, the closer people live to ski areas the more likely they are to ski. The 
)ercentages of resident skiers in terms of the total populations of each of the 12 West- 
ern States range from a low of 0.1 percent in Arizona (skiers drove an average of 
learly 240 miles to ski areas) to a high of 3. 1 percent in Colorado (skiers drove an 
iverage of 96 miles to a ski area). The chart on the next page shows the relationship 
between proximity of ski areas and participation. 

It might be possible to increase the skier proportion of the population in some 
states by reducing distance to ski areas. The opportunities would appear to be greater 
n California and Arizona but more limited in Colorado and Utah. In Utah, for example, 
10 percent of the population lives within an hour's drive of excellent ski areas. In 
spite of this, only 2.9 percent of Utah's population skied during the 1963-64 season. In 
some States, therefore, travel distance is not among the more important factors 
Limiting increased participation. 

It seems unlikely that even a minimal single-day trip can be done in much less 
:han 6 to 8 hours with driving included. Skiing is not a spur-of-the-moment activity. 
Jnlike many other forms of recreation, a ski trip usually must be planned in advance 
3ecause of the time factor. 

Car ownership (or at least availability) is virtually a prerequisite. This poses 
iifficulties for precisely that segment of the population to which skiing has tlie greatest 



^ Based on the mathematical relationship Y = 3.64 — 0.0152X where X is equal to 
driving distance. The correlation coefficient (r) is 0.72. Alaska was not evaluated 
because of its unique travel conditions . 

15 

































4.0 
1/) 

S 3 5 

ro 

2 3.0 

00 

_c 

3 

-° 2.5 

0) 
l/l 

« 2.0 

c 
o 

1 1.5 

3 

a. 
i 

£ 1.0 

2 0.5 
o 

c 

0) 

u 


ACCESSIBILITY OF SKI AREAS 
iMciiirivirPQ PARTiriDATinivi 


1 


~«> 


























i; 


\ 








O Colorado 




















^ ^ GU 


tah 
Idaho 
























^ 




\ 


©Washington 
Q Wyoming 






















O Montana 


























gull 




X^ 




















O New Mexico 


\ 


V G 


California 
















"c nevd 


j<i 








\sG 


Arizona 


^ 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 220 240 260 j 

Average distance traveled to ski areas (miles) 



appeal- -youngsters in the 13-18 age bracket. Cost of automobile ownership and age re.j 
strictions for obtaining drivers' licenses are obstacles for many. Although commerciaa 
transportation (bus, train) is a solution for some and may become more generally avail 
able in time, the additional costs again eliminate part of the potential skier population.1 

Many skiers do not _ , ., , , , . , , , , ,. 

r-^ Factors described above- -physical demands, cost, and dis- 

participate every year ,,. .,,. 

^-^^ tance--not only discourage potential skiers from taking up 

the sport, but also contribute to the failure of many skiers 

to participate actively year after year. 



Among those interviewed, 26 percent who had learned to ski 8 years ago reporteff 
missing at least a full season since learning to ski. In addition, the ranks were furthet 
depleted by those who quit the sport. It is difficult to estimate the combined total numrt| 
ber of permanent and temporary skier dropouts, but such dropouts may have as much 
as a 10-percent negative effect on annual attendance in the West. In his ski study for 
the northeastern States, Farwell found that 13.2 percent of those who skied during the 
1962-63 season did not ski the following season, and that 1.3 percent of the skiers con 
tacted said they had given up the sport permanently. "^^ 



10 



U.S. Dep. of Commerce. The skier market in northeast North America, 11^ 
pp., illus. U.S. Govt. Printing Office . 1965. 



16 



Skiing habits of tiie fairer sex contribute to this dropout pattern. Among skiers 
10 or under, the population is about equally divided between men and women. By age 
10, about one out of every four skiers is a woman and by age 40, one out of every eight 
s a woman. Marriage and the demands of family responsibilities help explain tlie rel- 
Ltively rapid depletion in the ranks of women skiers. This is also emphasized by the 
act that although 70 percent of married male skiers reported that their wives were 
ikiers, less than one-half of these wives actually skied during the 1964-65 season. 
Moreover, among married skiers, husbands are more prone than wives to ski without 
heir spouses, as shown by the following tabulation based on participation during the 
964-65 season. 

Marital status Percent 

Married 62 

Not married 38 
Married males whose 

wives ski 70 
Married females whose 

husbands ski 84 

'articipation can be increased: 



»etter lifts, tows, and slopes 
•ne approach 



The ski industry can minimize the influence of these 
deterrents and entice more people to the slopes by 
continuing to improve facilities for moving people up 
the slopes and to develop more and a greater variety 
»f slopes. A trend to replace rope tows with safer and more comfortable lifts is al- 
•eady evident. As a result, skiers are able to make more runs per day because they 
lo not become fatigued from clinging to a rope on the uphill journey. The greater avail- 
.bility of the less taxing cable lifts and tows, moreover, has brought skiing within the 
indurance limits of more people, particularly women. 

Cable lifts and tows, furthermore, in general are longer, which makes more of 
he mountain accessible. For example, the average rope tow ski area in the West has 
L 383 -foot vertical rise in comparison to the more than 1,000-foot vertical rise pro- 
ided by the average ski area offering cable lift and tow facilities. Although vertical 
ise in itself doesn't necessarily improve the quality of skiing, it provides greater 
lexibility in locating ski runs and trails, which in turn provides the skier more choice 
n selecting alternative downhill routes . Skiers at rope tow areas have an average of 
hree runs from which to choose; large cable areas provide an average of 17 ruiis. This 
greater variety makes skiing more interesting and appealing. 

The longer runs are spread over more skiable acres, which offer other forms of 
'ariety- -terrain, challenge, snow conditions, and scenery. The average rope tow area 
n the West makes available 29 acres of skiable terrain; the larger cable areas make 
ivailable almost 600 acres of skiable terrain. 



17 



*%;5fe 





All in all, ski areas in the West now 
offer a wider spectrum of skiing experi- 
ences than they did a few years ago. As 
a result, skiing has become more fun for 
more people. Moreover, the trend is to- 
ward still larger ski areas with still more 
variety. These new opportunities also are 
apt to induce people to ski more, not only 
each season, but to extend their years as 
active participants. 

The construction of additional ski 
areas in new locations where need exists 
also could do much to strengthen the ap- 
peal of the sport . Nearly 70 percent of 
the skiers reported they had visited two 
or more areas during the 1964-65 skiing 
season. Although they were not asked 
why, search for variety was undoubtedly 
a strong motivation. This also may be 
the reason that very few skiers (4.4 per- 
cent) purchased season tickets. Althoughi 
season tickets offer savings on lift ex- 
penditures, they also tend to tie a skier- 
to an individual area. 

Special attention must be given to 
provide slopes for beginners. Even todayv 
a substantial portion (3 1 percent) of activee| 
skiers have been skiing only 2 years oil 
less. The neophyte is apt to feel moree 
competent and derive a greater sense off 
achievement on moderately steep slopes 
and consequently is less likely to becomes 
an early dropout. 









Avalanches threaten skier safety at steeper 
slopes of many ski areas. Improved equip- 
ment and techniques in recent years have 
greatly reduced this hazard. Here a Forest 
Service avalanche control team uses a com- 
pressed air cannon to hurl an explosive 
charge into a chronic avalanche breeding 
ground at Snow Basin Ski Area in Utah. 



: ; — 7—^ Undeniably, the threat off 

is needed 

broken bones or other in 

juries is a concern tobot 

prospective and active skiers. Whether 

justified or not, the cartoon caricatures c 

the skier in a cast, straddling a tree, or 

being carried away by an avalanche is an 

image widely held by the public that the 

ski industry must overcome. 



: 



18 



Better lift designs and construction have helped to reassure the public. So have 
improved avalanche detection and control techaiques. Even more directly reassuring 
has been the development of the safety binding, which releases the ski from the foot 
when a fall occurs. 

Continued efforts are being made to improve safety features of lift and tow facili- 
ties as well as personal equipment. Perhaps more important is the need for better 
training and education of skiers. The most perfectly designed safety binding has little 
value if the skier doesn't know how (or won't take the time) to adjust it. 

Whatever the industry can do to make skiing less hazardous and to dispel any 
misconceptions the public may have of the hazards will help increase participation. The 
study financed by the U.S. Public Health Service and conducted by National Ski Safety 
Research to determine the cause of skier injuries is a step in the right direction. 



Areas needed 
closer to 
markets 



Wherever possible, ski areas should be developed closer to where 
people live. The advantage and importance of minimizing travel 
time is pointed up by the following tabulation: 



Capacity Distance to 

class Attendance metropolitan area 



(VTF/hr.) (No. of visits) (Miles) 

Rope only ^ 146,402 157 

Less than 300,000 187,021 132 

300,000 to 699,999 401,317 141 

700,000 to 1,499,999 1,000,598 119 

1 , 500, 000 and up 2 , 529, 845 96 



Rope areas not rated in VTF/hr. 

The obvious advantages of proximity to markets need not be belabored and are 
in some respects academic. The point is that ski area developers must carefully weigh 
the advantages of constructing new areas closer to population centers even though initial 
costs may be considerably greater than for more distant sites. 

Artificial snowmaking is a technique that some ski areas have adopted to offset 
inadequate snowfall and has permitted the development of ski areas near larger cities 
on sites otherwise suitable for skiing. It also has helped to insure continuous opera- 
tion during the traditional peak holiday periods even during years of low snowfall. 

Snowmaking is fairly expensive. Some large eastern ski areas spend $50,000 or 
more to produce snow during a season. They have found it profitable, however, because 
of the increased attendance. Snowmaking is feasible only in locations where the niglit 
temperature range is from 20 to 25 degrees. In 1964-65, only 11 western ski areas had 

19 




The skier's day does not end with the closing of lifts and tows. The availability of after-skiing 
sociability is an important consideration for many in choosing where to spend their vacations. 

installed snowniaking equipment. Six of these areas are in California, two in Colorado, 
two in New Mexico, and one in Montana. 



Overnight accommodations 
facilitate skiing for many 



Obviously if a skier must face a drive of more than abouuj 
4 hours to reach a ski area, he probably will have to stay 
away from home overnight. Although accommodations 
are generally available within less than an hour's drive from virtually all ski areas, 
there are certain advantages to staying at ski resort lodges. On-site lodging not only 
eliminates daily commuting, but provides the opportunity to enjoy the convivial after- sk 
atmosphere and exchange tales of derring-do. 

Vacation and weekend trips provide a definite advantage over single -day trips 
from the standpoint of time spent skiing in comparison to time spent traveling. The 
chart below shows the average distance traveled by automobile on each of the three 

AVERAGE DISTANCE TRAVELED TO SKI AREAS 



SINGLE DAY TRIP 



65 MILES 



WEEKEND TRIP 



154 MILES 



VACATION TRIP 



319 MILES 




20 



types of trips during the 1964-65 season. Using the average distances shown in the 
chart, along with certain assumptions as to driving speed, hours of skiing per day, 
and nights away from home, we can make the comparisons shown below: 

Hours of skiing per 
Kind of trip hour of travel ^ 

Single -day 1.89 

Weekend 2.42 

Vacation 2.73 



Assumptions are: (1) an average driving speed 
of 50 miles per hour on all types of trips, (2) 5 hours 
skiing per day, (3) two nights away from home on 
weekend trips, and eight nights on vacation trips. 

Inadequate base service facilities was the single factor most frequently mentioned 
by operators of bigger ski areas as inhibiting growth. Apparently many operators rec- 
ognize that more lodges and restaurants would minimize the time -distance factor, which 
tends to hold down attendance. Unfortunately, however, ski season business alone sel- 
dom provides an adequate return on investments in overnight accommodations because 
they are occupied only about 4 months of the year. For this reason, many ski areas 
that cater to the overnight trade provide summer activities, such as golf, swimming, 
horseback riding, scenic lifts, and so forth. 

Few small ski areas provide extensive lodging and restaurant accommodations. 
This is reflected in the following tabulation, which shows average facilities per ski area 
of such accommodations for the various size ski areas. 



Capacity class 


Lodging 
(No. of beds) 


Re 
(No. 


staurant 


(VTF/hr.) 


of seats) 


Rope tow 


2 




29 


Less than 300,000 


6 




38 


300,000 to 699,999 


9 




71 


700,000 to 1,499,999 


81 




171 


1,500,000 and up 


209 




426 



Accommodations are especially important to attract nonwestern skiers. The 
heavily populated Midwestern States represent a potentially large vacation -skier 
market primarily for ski areas in Montana, Wyoming, Colorado, and New Mexico. 
At present, a substantial part of the skiing done in Colorado and New Mexico is done 
by nonwestern skiers. So far, neither Montana nor Wyoming has apparently attracted 
significant numbers of skiers from this market. 

21 



Many ski areas have developed into 
year-around recreation centers to 
realize an adequate return on their 
capital investment in lodges and 
lifts. Summer use of lifts, such 
as is shown here at Alyeska near 
Anchorage, Alaska, enables non- 
skiers, too, to enjoy the alpine 
country. Many ski areas are be- 
coming focal points for develop- 
ments of recreation homes- -such 
as those near the Cloudcroft Ski 
Area in Nevv- Mexico. The skier 
can have a home of his own near the 
slopes during the winter months, as 
well as a summer vacation retreat. 





22 



The potential of the midwestern ski market is one of the biggest "sleepers" in any 
rediction of the pattern of ski area growth in the Western States. The midwestern ski 
opulation is growing and the conveniences of jet age air travel arc bringing western 
ki vacations within the reach of these skiers. Colorado played host to approximately 
0,000 nonwestern skiers--many from the Midwest- -during the 1963-64 season. 



ift and tow capacity 
robably will not need 
3 increase as rapidly 
s attendance 



U attendance increases threefold by 1976, lift capacity will 
only have lo expand 2.5 times because of the trend towards 
increased midweek use. Such an increase is roughly 
equivalent to 250 modern high-speed cable lifts. 



Most ski areas reported proportionately more midweek attendance during the 
963-64 ski season than during the 1955-56 season. During the 1955-56 season, ap- 
roximately 20 percent of the annual attendance was recorded on weekdays. During the 
963-64 season, 30 percent of total attendance was recorded on weekdays. We may 
ssume that by 1976 as much as 40 percent of the total attendance will occur during the 
weekdays. If 40 percent of the 12.1 million skier visits projected for 1976 do occur 
uring the midweek period, future ski areas will need to provide for approximately 7. 29 
lillion visits during the weekends and holidays. Assuming that the lift and tow require - 
lents per skier visit will remain approximately the same as during the 1963-64 season, 
apacity will need to increase proportionately as shown below: 



3 million weekend visits in 1963-64 
193.3 million VTF/hr. in 1963-64 



7.29 million weekend visits in 1976-77 
469.7 million VTF/hr. in 1976-77 



There are two factors which may reduce at least slightly the needed increase in 
ki lift facilities. They are: (1) the increasing number of areas that are offering "night 
kiing." (During the 1964-65 season, 37 areas had electrically lighted runs); and (2) 
he availability of snowinobiles and helicopters at a few areas for those who want to 
pioneer" beyond the slopes served by cable facilities. 



Use of helicopters as an 
"extra" lift facility, es- 
pecially to transport 
skiers beyond developed 
trails, may increase 
and could influence the 
amount of lift construc- 
tion needed in the future. 
(Sun Valley Photo.) 




Sites for new 
ski areas 



Lack of skiing terrain is not likely to inhibit growth of skiing in the 
Western States. A survey of State and Federal land management agen- 



^^^ P — cies identified 166 sites as having potential for future development 



as ski areas. '^'^ 



"^ 



These sites certainly do not represent the entire available supply; rather they are 
those located in vicinities where demand is most likely to develop in the near future. 
We can reasonably assume that Wyoming and Alaska, for example, have many more 
potential sites than are shown on the map (opposite page). The present demand for ski- 
ing in both States is not sufficient to stimulate very much "prospecting" for potential 
sites. Nevertheless, the map does give some idea regarding the relative abundance of 
potential new ski sites. There are more undeveloped potential sites than developed 
sites in every State in the West, except for California and Colorado. We might con- 
clude that new ski sites are somewhat more difficult to locate in both California and 
Colorado. This is understandable, for together these States already account for nearly 
50 percent of the existing ski area lift and tow capacity in the Western States . 

The survey of potential sites was conducted merely to locate areas , not to ap- 
praise their individual economic feasibility. They are, for the most part, areas that 
appear to offer adequate snow conditions and terrain for skiing. More critical exami- 
nation could reveal physical drawbacks or economic conditions that would limit or even 
preclude successful operation of some sites. Nevertheless, the total number of sites 
that apparently could be developed is large. The capacity of the 166 potential sites that 
have been identified probably amounts to about 236 million VTF/hr. - -about equal to 
the capacity already developed in the 12 Western States. 

Some idea of the relative importance of problems that must be considered in de- 
veloping new ski areas is provided by the following tabulation, which is based on prob- 
lems noted by operators in answer to question 15:^- 

Problems Percent 



Inadequate base service facilities 42 

Climate, lack of snow 27 

Poor roads, maintenance 18 

Inadequate lift capacity 18 

Inadequate skiing terrain or area 17 

Distance from skier residence 14 

Competition from other ski areas 11 

Lack of capital for expansion or improvement 6 

Inadequate advertising budget 2 

Miscellaneous 14 



"^"'" See p, 60 for detailed data collection procedures, and pp„ 85-90 for site listing, 
The operators were asked to give a general appraisal of problems; they were 
not given a list of suggested problems to check. 



24 



LOCATION AND 
ESTIMATED CAPACITY 
OF POSSIBLE 
NEW SKI SITES 




COLORADO 
(26.0) 



Capacity is shown in parentheses expressed in millions 
f VTF/hr., a unit of measurement defined in appendix. 



NEW MEXICO 
(8.1) 



As might be expected, relative importance of these factors varies somewhat with 
the size of areas. Small areas tend to emphasize climate, roads, and lift capacity as 
being more important than base service facilities. Although lack of capital is indicated 
as being relatively low in priority, financing problems were undoubtedly basic reasons 
involved in the reasoning of those who noted base service facilities and lift capacity 
as problems. 

New lifts totaling 96.8 million VTF/hr. are scheduled for construction by 1970 at 
existing ski areas. This is more than one-third of the 255 million VTF/hr. estimated 
as needed by 1976. However, development plans for some of the potential sites 
shown on the map are far enough along that 11.5 million VTF/hr. are scheduled to be 
in operation by 1970. How rapidly other new sites are developed depends in large 
measure on how much additional capacity is added to existing ski areas. 



Skiing is an important ... i,.- • .i.-r^ -^i. 

—, Although skimg is not a big factor m the western economy 

economic consideration f , . j , • , i 

r^ as a whole, when compared to the agricultural or manu- 

m many commumties . . , , . , . . , . , , . 

facturing segments, the ski business is highly important to 

individual communities. In some locations such as Aspen, 
Colorado; Ketchum, Idaho; and Park City, Utah, skiing has been the catalyst that has 
stimulated other businesses and other economic activities. The infusion of skier spend- 
ing influences the economic tempo by providing additional wages and income to a com- 
munity. Part of this additional revenue is circulated within the community, and suc- 
cessive rounds of respending of the initial skiers' expenditures are multiplied several 
times. In some cases, the multiplier may be as high as three, but probably it is less 
than two for smaller communities. "^^ 

More than 15,000 man-days per week were required for operating lifts and tows, 
and for slope maintenance, as well as for managerial and clerical work at western ski 
areas during the 1963-64 season. Wages paid to these employees totaled $6 milllon-- 
an average of $167,361 per ski area. This total includes only that employment 
directly connected with the operation and maintenance of Lifts and slopes; it does not in- 
clude the wages paid to employees at lodges, restaurants, motels, gas stations, etc. 
No data were collected during this survey regarding the latter employees. 

Skiers spend a considerable sum on trips each year- -totaling about $88.4 million. 
Not all of this sum benefits the skiing communities, because it includes $16.5 million 
for transportation (gasoline, car services, public transportation, etc.), most of which 
is spent outside the skiing community. Part of the money spent for lodgings, meals, 
ski rental, and ski repair is also made outside of the skiing community. None of the 
money spent by local residents for skiing can be regarded as addition to the economic 
base. 



I 



Edminster, Robert R., and Osmond L. Harline. An economic study of the 
proposed Canyonlands National Park and related recreation resources. Bur. Econ. 
and Bus. Res., Univ. Utah, Salt Lake City, Utah. 1962. 

26 



About $26.7 million was spent on skiing equipment by western skiers during the 
1963-64 season- -mostly at department stores, ski shops, and sporting goods stores in 
the skier's hometown. Together with trip expenditures, this adds up to a $1 15.1 
million industry for the West. 

Promotion efforts will ,^ . , ,^^. ^^ , , 

: — : —■ — T' During the 1964-6d season, average annual advertising 

rj^ppr^ t-Q Kg intGnSlIlGQ <J o 

budgets per ski area varied from less than $200 a year for 

small ski areas to over $14,000 for larger areas, as re- 
flected in the following tabulation: 

Size class Average 

Rope only $ 158 
Less than 300,000 VTF/hr. 727 

300,000 to 699,999 VTF/lir. 718 

700,000 to 1,499,999 VTF/hr. 4,337 

1,500,000 VTF/hr. and over $14,179 

Larger ski areas budget about 4 percent of gross revenues from lift ticket sales 
for advertising. This compares favorably with the advertising expenditures of the 
resort business. 

In addition to direct advertising by ski areas and their associations, there is a 
trend towards greater promotion of skiing by State tourist and travel bureaus. Skiing 
also gets free promotion from newspaper and TV coverage of competitive events. 

Both skiers and potential skiers are influenced by their exposure to this promo- 
tion. Potential skiers may be encouraged to try the sport. Curiosity about skiing 
conditions, promise of new terrain, and more challenging slopes may motivate the 
experienced skier to test newly advertised ski areas. Most skiers are intrigued by the 
idea of visiting new areas. Nearly 70 percent of the skiers sampled reported that they 
had skied at two or more ski areas during the 1964-65 skiing season, as shown by the 
tabulation below: 

Percent of skiers No. of areas skied 

31 1 

24 2 

19 3 

12 4 

7 5 

3 6 

2 7 

2 8 or more 



27 



It is entirely possible that a large part of the skiers who reported visiting only 
one ski area were first-year skiers who were concentrating more on learning basic 
skiing techniques than on searching for new challenges in ski terrain. Because 20 per- 
cent of the skier population was skiing for the first time in the 1964-65 season, it is 
also possible that as much as 90 percent of skiers who had skied for longer than 1 year 
actually had visited at least two different areas. The fact that 45 percent of skiers had 
skied at three or more areas suggests that skiers generally want to try their skills 
under different conditions. 

Nearly one out of five skiers took a ski vacation on which he stayed away from 
home four or more nights. These vacation trips almost always are to distant areas. 
Advertising undoubtedly plays a part in determining where the skier vacations. 

Greater public motivation-- ^, ... . , ^ , ^u ^ ^ ,-u -^ u 
; The skimg industry and those connected with it have 

the key to expansion _, i _> • • i ^ . j u- ^- ^- • 
developed an increasingly surefooted sophistication m 

lift design and installation, trail construction, parking 

lot snow removal, and other details of successful ski area operation. Knowledge of 

their customers, however, is far less complete. 

Dealing as they are with a luxury service rather than a necessity, ski areas are 
vulnerable to changing interests . Ski areas are more in competition with other recre- 
ation enterprises than they are with one another. With only minor exceptions, each 
family's recreation activities are constrained by funds available for that purpose. 
Neither the money available for recreation nor the motivation of those with a choice 
are constants. A decision made during one season affects what is done during another. 
For example, the family that elects to take a summer vacation may not have either the 
time or the money to ski during the following winter. Even an increase in family in- 
come may not result in more ski visits. The additional funds may be all that is needed 
to make possible a trip to the Virgin Islands or Hawaii. 

Despite the glamour of the sport, there are many alternatives competing for the 
public's leisure time. Many forms of recreation are less demanding and less expensive. 

If the ski industry is to become fully competitive, it must understand the motiva- 
tions of skiers and would-be skiers far better than it does now. What are skiers look- 
ing for? What does skiing offer that golfing or motorboating doesn't? Why do people 
really stop skiing? Is it because they can't afford skiing, or because they'd rather do 
something else with the money and time? 

These and many other relevant questions aren't easily answered. Nevertheless, 
improved insight would help the ski industry motivate people to become skiers and keep 
them from becoming dropouts . Well-focused market research programs could well 
prove our present vision of the future is too conservative. 



28 



APPENDIX 



29 



Bureau of Budget Number 40-6501 
Approval expires June 30, 1965 



WESTERN STATES SKI AREA OPERATOR QUESTIONNAIRE 



Name 
Mail 
Ski 

Name 


of 
ing 
arei 

of 


area 










Address 










1 is locatec 
miles 


on 
(direction) 

from 

(city) 

interviewed per; 


Highway 


No. 




manager or 


3on: 


(state) 


Date 


of 


interview 




Inters 


/iewer 









1. Give date (year) in which site was first developed for skiing: 

2. Site description 

a. Number of acres on this site considered "skiable" at 

present stage of development is: 

(Include all natural open slopes as well as cleared 
runs and trails served by ski lifts and/or tows.) 



b. Estimate the percent of the "skiable" area represented 
by trails and runs cut through dense timber, 

c. The maximum vertical rise of the "skiable" area is: 



acres 



percent 
feet 



d. General aspect of site is: (circle one) N, NE, E, SE, S, SW, W, NW 

e. Opening date 1963-64 season was: 



(month, day, year) 



Closing date 1963-64 season was: 
f. Do you use snow-making equipment? 



(month, day, year) 
Yes / 7 No / 7 



30 



g. Slope maintenance ; Check one of the following which most nearly 
describes the slope maintenance program employed at your ski area. 



(1) / / Brush regularly removed; larger rocks covered or 

removed; some erosion control. 



(2) l_ / Intensive annual grooming of slopes; rocks larger than 

3 inches removed; slopes planted to grass and maintained 
in good sod condition. 

3. Advertising budget 

Total expenditure for all advertising during 1963-64 skiing season 
was $ ; 1964-65 $ . 

4. General location and accessibility 

a. Road distance (in miles) from site to 
nearest town of 5,000 population or more; 

b. Road distance (in miles) from site to 
nearest paved all weather road: 

c. Road distance (in miles) from site to 
nearest U.S. interstate highway: 



5. Climate 



a. 



b. 



Number of days on which temperature did 
not get above degrees (Fahrenheit): 

Number of days for which shutdown was 
necessary for more than \ day for each 
of the following causes: 

Wind 

Fog 

Avalanche 

Storm 

Lack of snow 

Other (specify) 



c. Average packed snow depth at base of 
site in mid-February was: 



1963-64 
miles 


1964-65 
miles 


miles 


miles 


miles 


miles 





1963-64 


1964-65 


days 


days 


days 


days 


days 


days 


days 


days 


days 


days 


days 


days 


days 


days 


inches 


inches 







31 



6. Skier attendance . List the total number of skier visits for each 
season, 1955 through 1964-65. Estimate attendance from available 
ticket records or revenue records. Do not include nonskiers. A 
"skier visit" is one person visiting a ski area for all or any part 
of a day for the purpose of skiing. 

SKIER ATTENDANCE 



: -, r, : Total : Estimated percent 
Cost of , ^ . . , . 
Season : . . , : number : of visits during 

day ticket , . . . , , •, l -. • •, . 
: -^ : skier visits : weekends and holidays'" 


1964-65 


$ 






1963-64 


$ 






1962-63 


$ 






1961-62 


$ 






1960-61 


$ 






1959-60 


$ 






1958-59 


$ 






1957-58 


$ 






1956-57 


$ 






1955-56 


$ 







"'Holidays are December 25 through January 1, and February 22. 

7. Nonski season attendance . List the number of lift tickets sold to 
visitors during the 1964 spring, summer, and fall tourist season. 

No. of tickets sold 

Cost per ticket $ 

8. Skier attendance during "optimum" conditions 

From your memory and/or records, will you estimate the total number 
of visitors (skiers) on any single day during the 1963-64 and 1964-65 
skiing seasons when (1) all lifts were operating, and (2) the lift 
lines were for the most part about 10 to 12 minutes long. 

Total number of skiers during single day when "optimum" conditions 
prevailed was: 

(1963-64) 

(1964-65) 



32 



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CT> 



0) 1—1 


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4-J ,-< 


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01 I— 1 


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x: 


T3 U-l 


00 


c o 


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u-l r-l 



Number of weeks 

operated during 

1964-65 


en 

>, en ^ 

CO >-i en i-i 0) 

-O QJ 0) QJ 

r-l a 3 

CN4 


, — 1 






































en ^ 

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y-\ 

CO 






































S-I 01 en ^ 

O ^-1 >^ ^-1 01 

O CO 01 QJ 

vD S -O P- 3 


CN 

r— 1 






































Number of weeks 

operated during 

1963-64 


en 

CO en ^ 

TJ >-i tn !-i 0) 

O 01 0) QJ 

CN r-H a 3 


r-H 
1—1 






































en ^ 

en >, 5-j 0) 

1 CO QJ QJ 

CO T3 CI- 3 


o 

,— 1 






































i-4 01 en ^ 
O !-< >. )-i 01 

O to QJ QJ 

^o E "^ CI- ? 


CTn 






































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JO poTja<j 


00 


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CD 


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•r-l 


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CD 


4J 

-C 
00 


CD 


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T-l 


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P 


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X 

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to 


0£ 

T-l 


>, 00 

CD -H 


4-1 

>, 00 

CO T-l 

P !S 


CD T-l 


Day 
Night 


Lift or tow 

capacity in 

skiers per hour 


AqTDBdBO 

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UinUlTXBUI 

XBnroV 






















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pa:jBJ 

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Mori JO 'ijll JBa;^ 


in 




















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SBM Mo:j JO 
iigXX ^SM'^ -leax 


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asTJ XP3T3J3A 


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rto:) JO 5JTT; 


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'jTBqa axSuis) 

3JTX JO adAi 
























33 



10. Auxiliary services and/or facilities 
(Estimates will be sufficient) 

a. On-site (that area within walking 
distance of lifts and tows) 

1. (a) Seating capacity of on-site 

restaurants: (number of seats) . 

(b) Services provided: 

(Check those which apply) 

Breakfast 

Lunch 

Supper 

Snack bar 

Other (describe) 

2. Capacity of on-site lodging per night; 
(Number of beds) 

3. Number of automobile parking spaces 
available: (Number of spaces) .... 

4. Number of children enrolled in a free 
ski school sponsored by community or 
other organization: 

5. Number of certified ski instructors 
at the area 

b. Nonskiing activities: (Check those appli- 
cable and write in others not listed.) 

1. Ice-skating 

2. Sledding 

3. Tobogganing 

4. Dancing 

5. Swimming 

6. Summer tourist lift rides 



1963-64 1964-65 



34 



7. Other (specify) 1963-64 1964-65 



b. Off-site 

1, (a) Seating capacity of off-site 

restaurants within 15-minute drive 
(Number of chairs or seats) . . . 

(b) Services provided: 

(Check those which apply) 

Breakfast 

Lunch 

Supper 

Snack bar 

Other (describe) 



2. Capacity of off-site lodging within 
15-ininute drive: 

(Number of beds) 

3. Nonskiing activities available within 
15-minute drive: (Check those appli- 
cable and write in others not listed.) 

(a) Ice-skating 

(b) Sledding 

(c) Tobogganing 

(d) Dancing 

(e) Swimming 

(f) Summer tourist lift rides . . . 

(g) Other (specify) 



35 



11, Employment and wage data for lift and tow operation, 1963-64 and 1964-65 . 

a. Average man-days of employment by primary job per week, 1963-64, 
and 1964-65: 



Primary 
job 


Average man-days employment per week 


Year-long 
employees 


: Seasonal employees 


: Skiing : Nonskiing 
: season : season 


1963-64 


1964-65 


1963-64 


1964-65 


1963-64 


:1964-65 


Managerial 














Clerical 














Operating lifts 
and/or tows 
(Include equipment 
and slope mainte- 
nance) 














Paid ski patrol 


XXXX 


XXXX 






XXXX 


XXXX 


Other (specify) 














TOTAL 















b. Total wages paid to: 

Full-time yearlong employees 

Winter skiing season employees 
(Includes season-long and part- 
time employees) 

Nonskiing season employees 
(Includes season long 
and part-time employees) 

Total all employees 



1963-64 


1964-65 


$ 

$ 

$ 
$ 


$ 

$ 

$ 
$ 



12. Trails and runs 

The total number of basic trails and runs skiable 
from lifts and tows operated during the 1963-64 
and 1964-65 skiing seasons 



1963-64 



from lifts: 
from tows: 



1964-65 



36 



13, 



Expansion opportunity 

a. Is there opportunity to install and operate more lifts and/or tows 

(1) At your present site? (Check) Yes No 

(2) On adjacent land that has suitable topography and could 
be developed as part of your present ski area? (Check) 



Yes 



No 



b. If "No" in both (1) and (2) above, skip to question 14. 

c. If "Yes" in either or both (1) and (2) above, describe any lift 
facilities you definitely plan to install. 



: Manufacturer s : „ . ^ . 
, -c^ ^ ^1 • Vertical rise 
Lift type : rated capacity : ^ -, - <- 

/ 1 • I, \ of lifts 

: (skiers per hour) : 


: Planned 

installation 
date 



























d. How much additional "skiable" acreage would such 
expansion provide? 

14. Market area 



acres 



What are the principal cities, towns, or metropolitan areas from 
which your ski area draws its attendance? Limit to four. 



City 



State 



Approximate percentage 

of total annual attendance 

by each listed city 

Percent 

Percent 

Percent 

Percent 



15. What factors do you feel limit growth of skier attendance at your 
area? Why? 



37 



HOW SURVEY OF SKI AREA OPERATORS WAS CONDUCTED 

An attempt was made to visit every ski area that had been in operation during the 
period 1955 to 1964 as well as all areas that were operating during the 1964-65 season. 
Operators of ski areas operating under permit from the Forest Service were contacted 
by employees of the National Forests on which these areas were located. Operators of 
ski areas on private, State, and other Federal lands were contacted by employees of 
the Intermountain Forest and Range Experiment Station. 

Each was asked to fill out a Ski Operator Questionnaire (see page 30) while the 
interviewer was present. If this wasn't possible, the operator was asked to return his 
completed questionnaire by mail. 

A total of 223 ski areas were contacted, 197 of which were operating during the 
1963-64 season. Of these, 171 had kept the necessary records and were willing to fill 
out the questionnaire. Owners of 20 of 26 ski areas that had formerly been in operation 
also filled out questionnaires. 

In those situations where the operator was either unwilling or unable to complete 
the questionnaire, the interviewer was instructed to make the best estimate of both 
attendance and lift and tow capacity from whatever sources he could. Frequently, 
records maintained by National Forests were used. In the few cases of lost or missing 
records, attendance was estimated as similar to that of nearby ski areas with like 
facilities and capacity. For the most part, these were smaller ski areas with limited 
attendance and lift/ tow facilities. Combined attendance estimated for all such ski areas 
was less than 4 percent of the total skier visits recorded during the 1963-64 skiing 
season. Although no measurement of accuracy of attendance information is possible, 
the error is unlikely to exceed ±5 percent of the total. 

PROCEDURE FOR DETERMINING CAPACITY OF LIFTS AND TOWS 

Lift and tow capacity was expressed as the Vertical Transport Feet (VTF) gen- 
erated in 1 hour. The formula used to calculate VTF/hr. is given below: 

VTF/hr. = (VR) (NR), 

where 

VR = Vertical rise of a lift in feet 

NR = Number of rides per hour generated by the lift. (This is usually ex- 
pressed by ski lift manufacturers as "skiers per hour.") 

Total lift and tow capacity per hour was derived from question 9 (see question- 
naire). The VTF/hr. capacity was calculated by multiplying the vertical rise of the 
lift or tow (col. 3, question 9) by the reported skiers per hour capacity of the lift or 
tow (col. 7, question 9). 



38 



Manufacturers generally rate the capacity of lifts ajid tows in "skiers per hour" 
or "rides per hour." Such figures, however, are not additive because a "ride" at one 
area may be much shorter than a "ride" at another ski area. Because of the differences 
in length of lifts, the ride capacity figure is peculiar to each ski lilt or tow. In effect, 
lifts and tows have a machine capacity to haul skiers to the top of a certain ski hill at a 
certain rate of speed. However, the actual number of skiers the ski area can accommo- 
date during a given day depends on skier behavior. If each skier took only one ride a 
day, the manufacturer's rating in skiers per hour would be adequate. But skiers seldom, 
if ever, are willing to travel to a ski area for a single ride. Depending on dieir skill, 
the length and steepness of the hill, the number of other skiers, weather conditions, and 
other factors, they may take as many as 30 or 40 rides or as few as 5 or 6 rides during 
a day. The "average skier" probably takes a different number of rides at each area 
because of these variations. 

The noncomparability of capacity stated in skiers per hour is illustrated by the 
following example: Ski area X has a lift with a rated capacity of 1, 000 skiers per hour 
while ski area Y's lift is rated at only 500 skiers per hour. On the surface it appears 
that X has twice as much capacity as Y and should be able to serve twice as many skiers 
in a day. However, area X has a 500-foot vertical rise, and Y has a 1,000-foot vertical 
rise. Skiers at area X are transported a much shorter distance than skiers at area Y. 
The same skier will want more rides per day at X than at Y because he skies a shorter 
distance down after each ride and will be less tired after one run at X than he would at 
Y. It is possible that one skier might take twice as many runs at X as he would at Y, 
because the vertical rise is twice as great at Y. In either case, the skier would have 
traveled the same number of vertical feet. If the skier at area X takes 10 rides on the 
500-foot lift, he has traveled 5,000 vertical feet, the same as the skier at Y who took 
only 5 rides on a l,OOO^oot hill. 

By multiplying the rated capacity of skiers per hour by tlie vertical rise, we can 
express lift and tow capacity measure that is additive and allows comparison of dif- 
ferent lifts and areas. In the example above, both areas X and Y have equal capacity. 
(Area X: 1,000 skiers per hour X 500 vertical feet ~ 500,000 Vertical Transport Feet 
(VTF) per hour. Area Y: 500 skiers per hour X 1,000 vertical feet = 500,000 VTF 
per hour.) 

Lifts are run at less than optimum speed because the skiers can't move from the 
waiting line into the loading position quickly enough. This may be due to skier inexperi- 
ence, poor ramp design, or both. Weather problems of wind also force the operator to 
run the lift or tow at something less than maximum safe speed. For these reasons 
VTF/hr. capacity was calculated on the basis of the operators' estimated actual opera- 
ting rate of skiers per hour rather than the manufacturers' rated capacity of skiers per 
hour. 



39 



The capacity of rope tow facilities is difficult to determine because ropes are 
frequently homemade and do not have a manufacturers' rated capacity. Rope tows, 
unlike cable lifts and tows, do not have specified places for each skier as do chairs, 
platters, or T-bars. In general, operators are less certain about the vertical rise 
and the skiers -per -hour capacity of their rope tows. For these reasons, estimates 
of the rope tow capacity are more or less educated guesses. 

PROCEDURE FOR COLLECTING ATTENDANCE DATA 

Attendance was defined as the total number of daily visits by skiers who purchased 
and used lift or tow tickets for all or any part of a day for the purpose of skiing. Such a 
visit is called a "skier visit." 

Attendance data were obtained from the area operators' answers to question 6 
(see questionnaire), li complete records of ticket sales were available, attendance was 
calculated by determining the number of each kind of ticket sold, the number of visits 
each kind of ticket represented, and converting the number of tickets sold into total 
number of visits for each season. 

In most cases, the interviewer worked with the operator to prepare the estimate 
by using the worksheets shov/n on the following pages. Basically this involved: (1) com- 
puting the "average cost per visit" for the 1963-64 skiing season according to the in- 
structions for worksheet 1, (2) calculating the average cost per visit for the other skiing 
seasons back to 1955-56 as explained in worksheet 2, and (3) finally converting ticket 
sales revenue into the number of skier visits as explained in worksheet 3. 



.■^ 



If the area operator had only kept data on gross revenue from ticket sales, he was 
asked to estimate the average amount collected per skier visit (for the use of lifts or 
tows) during the 1963-64 skiing season and then calculate (1) the average cost per 
skier visit for the other seasons as explained on worksheet 2, and (2) the number of 
skier visits from the gross ticket sales revenue for each season as explained on work- 
sheet 3. 

If the operator didn't keep either ticket or revenue records, he was asked for his 
"best estimate" of total skier attendance. 

Using these procedures, we were able to obtain estimates of attendance for almost 
all western ski areas. Operators of only a few small ski areas were unable to provide 
such information. Estimates were made for these by assuming such areas had had at- 
tendances equal to similar -sized ski areas in their vicinities. For the most part, these 
were small rope tow areas . 

Although the questionnaire requested attendance figures for the 1964-65 season, 
most operators were unable to supply these figures because that ski season was still 
underway at the time they received the questionnaire. 

40 



Worksheet 1. --Calculating average cost per skier visit, J 963 -64 skiing season. 
Name of ski area: 



Type 

of 
ticket 

(1) 


Cost 
per 

ticket 
(2) 


Number of 

visits per 

ticket 

(3) 


Number of 

tickets 

sold 

(4) 


Gross 

ticket 

revenue 

(5) 


Total 

number of 

visits 

(6) 




$ 












$ 












$ 












$ 












$ 












$ 












$ 












$ 












$ 












$ 












$ 












$ 












$ 












$ 












$ 












$ 










Total 


xxxx 


XXX 


XXX 






Average cost per skier visit during 1963-64 (col. 5) -.- (col. 6) = $ 



Step 1, 



Step 2. 
Step 3. 



Enter in col. 1 all the various kinds or types of tickets sold during the 
1963-64 skiing season. (For example: Day pass, ^ -day pass, single ride on 
rope, season pass, 10-ride ticket, special group rate day pass, night pass, 
etc.) 

Enter in col. 2 the cost of each ticket type listed in col. 1. 

Enter in col. 3 the operator's estimate of the average number of "visits" 
made to his area to utilize a single ticket of each ticket type sold. A skier 
"visit" is one trip to the area by one skier for all or part of one day for the 
purpose of skiing. 

Most tickets are valid only during a specific day. Examples are the day 
pass or the ^ -day pass. Such tickets would have a value of "1" in col. 3. 

Other tickets are valid on several days. A 7 -day pass, for example, is 
good for 7 visits; a 3 -day pass is good for 3 visits, etc . A season pass is good 
for an unspecified number of visits. The operator must estimate the number of 



41 



visits made by the average season pass holder using his area. Few areas sell 
many season tickets. 

Single -ride tickets pose a different problem in that a skier will usually 
use more than one ticket during a visit. For example, the operator estimates 
that skiers who buy single -ride tickets usually purchase an average of 10 
tickets during the day. The number of visits per ticket must be calculated by 
dividing 10 into 1, or .1 visit per ticket. In this case enter . 1 in col. 3 for 
rope tow single -ride tickets. 

Note: IF operator has records showing the total number of each kind of ticket 
sold during the 1963-64 season, complete steps 4, 5, 6, 7, and 8. If such 
ticket records are not available, skip to step 9. 

Step 4. Enter in col. 4 the total number of tickets sold of each ticket type during 

the 1963-64 season from the operator's records. 

Step 5. Calculate total number of visits for each ticket type and enter in col. 6. 

Calculation procedure: (col. 3) X (col. 4) 

Step 6. Enter total gross revenue from ticket sales during the 1963-64 skiing 

season at bottom of col. 5. Get data (1) from operator's records or (2) cal- 
culate gross revenue for each ticket type (col. 2 X col. 4). Enter answer in 
col. 5, than add col. 5 to get total gross ticket revenue for the 1963-64 season. 

Step 7. Total col. 6. 

Step 8 . Calculate average cost per skier visit and enter in blank at bottom of 

table . 

Calculation procedure: (total col. 5) / (total col. 6) 

Alternate procedure: 

Enter in col. 5 the gross revenue received from ticket sales of each 
ticket type from operator's records. 

Calculate number tickets sold of each ticket type and enter in col. 4. 
Calculation procedure: (col. 5) / (col. 2) 

Calculate total number of visits for each ticket type. 
Calculation procedure: (col. 3) X (col. 4) 

Total col. 5 and enter at bottom. 

Total col. 6 and enter at bottom. 

Calculate average cost per skier and enter in blank at bottom of table. 
Calculation procedure: (total col. 5) / (total col. 6) 



tt 



Step 


9. 


Step 


10. 


Step 


11. 


Step 


12. 


Step 


13. 


Step 


14. 



42 



Worksheet 2. --Calculating average cost per skier visit for skiing seasons prior to 
1963-64 season. 

Step 1. Enter "cost of day pass during 1963-64" from col. 2, worksheet 1, 

here $ 

Step 2. Enter "average cost per skier visit during 1963-64" as computed on 

worksheet 1 $ 



Season 
(i) 


Cost of 

day pass 

(2) 


Day pass 

cost ratio 

(3) 


Average cost 
per skier visit 
(4) 


1964-65 


$ 




$ 


1963-64 


$ 




$ 


1962-63 


$ 




$ 


1961-62 


$ 




$ 


1960-61 


$ 




$ 


1959-60 


$ 




$ 


1958-59 


$ 




$ 


1957-58 


$ 




$ 


1956-57 


$ 




$ 


1955-56 


$ 




$ 



Step 3. 
Step 4, 

Step 5, 



Enter in col, 2 die cost of day pass for each season, 1964-65 through 
1955-56, supplied by the ski area operator. 

Calculate day pass cost ratio for each season and enter in col. 3. 

(Cost 1963-64 day pass) 



Calculation procedure: 



(Cost year-X day pass) 



Calculate average cost per skier visit for each season and enter in col. 4, 

Calculation procedure: (Average cost per skier visit, 1963-64) 

X (Day pass cost ratio for specific season) 

Note: The average cost per skier visit will change only when the cost of a day 
pass changes. These calculations are needed only for those seasons when the cost of 
the day ticket is different from that shown for the 1963-64 season. 

The process used in estimating the average cost per skier visit is represented 
by the following formula: 



Cost of day pass, 1963-64 

Cost of day pass, season in question 



Average cost per skier visit, 1963-64 
X 



where 



X = average cost per skier visit for any year. 

43 



Worksheet 3. --Calculation of number of skier visits for other skiing seasons, 



Skiing 

season 

(1) 


Gross ticket 

revenue 

(2) 


Average cost 
per visit 
(3) 


Total number 

of skier visits 

(4) 


1964-65 


$ 


$ 


$ 


1963-64 


$ 


$ * 


$ * 


1962-63 


$ 


$ 


$ 


1961-62 


$ 


$ 


$ 


1960-61 


$ 


$ 


$ 


1959-60 


$ 


$ 


$ 


1958-59 


$ 


$ 


$ 


1957-58 


$ 


$ 


$ 


1956-57 


$ 


$ 


$ 


1955-56 


$ 


$ 


$ 



*From worksheet 1 

Step 1. Enter in col. 2 the gross ticket revenue for each skiing season from 

operator's records. 

Step 2. Enter in col. 3 the average cost per skier visit for each skiing season 

from worksheet 2, col. 4. 



Step 3, 



Calculate total skier visits for each season and enter in col. 4. 

(col. 2) 



Calculation procedure: 



(col. 3) 



44 



ESTIMATING LIFT AND TOW UTILIZATION 

Ski area operators were asked to estimate the maximum number of skiers that 
could use tlieir 1964-65 tows and lifts on a single day without having them wait longer 
tlian 10 to 15 minutes. (See question 8.) Using this as a measure, the answers showed 
that about 19. 1 million skier visits a year would saturate the existing capacity. This 
is far more than the 4.3 million visits actually recorded. Even on weekends and holi- 
days, the operators indicated they could have handled 6.2 million visits, more than 
twice the number of skier visits actually recorded during weekends and holidays. Based 
on the operators' appraisal, nearly 50 percent of the available lift and tow capacity was 
not being used even during the generally crowded weekends and holidays. 

Another way of judging how fully existing facilities are being utilized is to con- 
vert the VTF ratings calculated for the lifts and tows into potential number of skier 
visits possible on any single day. It has been estimated that the average skier wants 
about 8,000 VTF per day of skiing. Tliis would be eight trips per day dowTi a hill 
with 1,000 feet of vertical drop or 16 trips per day down a hill with 500 feet of vertical 
drop. This 193, 299,839 VTF per hour of lift and tow capacity available in 1963-64 
meant that 966, 499, 195 VTF were available to skiers during a day. If each skier 
were to use 8,000 per visit, this capacity would satisfy 120,812 skier visits during 
any single day (966,499, 195 / 8,000 = 120,812). This would be available at cable 
and rope facilities as shown below: 

Type Total capacity Capacity 







(VTF/h 


r.) 


(Ski 


er visits/day) 


Cable 




155, 


939, 


799 




97, 


462 


Rope 




37, 


360, 


040 




23, 


350 




Total 


193, 


299, 


839 




120, 


812 



Applying this figure to an average 80 -day season indicates that western ski areas 
would theoretically have been able to handle 9.7 million skier visits during the 1963-64 
season (80 X 122,350 = 9,664,960). Because only 4.3 million visits were recorded 
during this season, western cable and rope capacity was apparently only 44 percent 
utilized that season. (4.3 million actual visits / 9.6 million visit capacity = 44^^) 



U.S. Dep. of Commerce. The skier market in northeast North America, p. 63. 
Wash. D.C.: U.S. Govt. Printing Office. 1963. 

15 

Assuming 5 hours of effective operation daily. Most ski areas operate 7 hours 
per day, starting at about 9 a.m. and stopping at 4 p.m., without any lunch break. 
However, all lists and tows are seldom fully operative during the entire day. Weather, 
mechanical diffictilties, and other problems reduce the amount of time the lifts actually 
run. For these reasons, the full 7 -hour day has been discounted to 5 hours. 

45 



However, as the tabulation below shows, the degree of utilization was signifi- 
cantly higher during the weekend -holiday portion of the season, particularly on the cable 
facilities. 

Type of Weekends, Overall 

facility holidays Weekdays season 

_________ Percent ---------- 



Cable 


92 


Rope 


43 


Combined 


82 



24 49 

11 23 

21 44 

These calculations, it should be emphasized, are based on the assumed rate of 
8,000 VTF per skier per day being a fairly true reflection of what the skiers want. If 
this assumption is incorrect, the results would be very different. Also, the lift and tow 
capacity discussed here includes the capacity of both the rope and cable lifts and tows 
available. Although it is difficult to do more than guess at the attendance on rope tows 
alone, we estimate that not more than 10 percent of the total annual skier attendance, 
or about 426,000 visits, was accounted for by skiers using rope tows. ® 

Although available cable capacity is slightly excessive even during heavy demand 
weekend -holiday periods, the apparent discrepancy does not seem too great. The ski 
area business has been growing very rapidly. In this growth situation, ski area man- 
agers have been forced to estimate additional lift and tow needs 2 to 3 years ahead. 
One can conclude that ski area managers have skillfully matched cable capacity and 
demand. 

The apparent overcapacity of rope tow facilities again emphasizes the preference 
of today's skier for the safer and easier -to -ride cable lifts and tows. It also suggests 
that ski area operators may overestimate the actual capacity of their rope tows. 

The excess capacity available during the midweek period is no surprise. For all 
practical purposes, the ski area business must relate itself to time that people are free 
to ski --generally on the weekends rather than on the weekdays. 



Available records did not separate skier attendance by cable or rope facilities 
However, ski areas that provided only rope tow facilities accounted for only 3.4 per- 
cent of total annual attendance during the 1963-64 ski season. We estimate that rope 
tows available at areas that provide both cable and rope facilities may receive double 
that use. Therefore, approximately 10 percent of total annual attendance may have 
been handled on rope tows . 

46 



RELATING PAST ATTENDANCE TO THE FUTURE 

Increases in population, disposable income, and leisure time between the 
1955-56 and 1963-64 skiing seasons have all been closely associated with increases 
of total annual skier attendance. This relation can be expressed mathematically as 
shown in die formula below: 



Y = 6045.603 + 347.35926X. + 5901.3576Xp - 534.634X 



2 



where 



Y = Skier attendance in thousands of visits 
X^ = Population of Western States in millions of persons 
X^ = Per capita income of U.S. in thousands of 1960 dollars 
X3 = Leisure hours per week per worker. 

These independent variables account for 95 percent of the variations of total 
annual skier attendance between the 1955-56 and 1963-64 seasons. 

Using the values for X^, Xg, and Xs estimated for 1976 by the Outdoor Recre 
ation Resources Review Commission, future skier attendance can be projected for 
that year. Regression analysis of the past relationship between skier attendance 
and these three factors indicates that 12. 1 million skier visits may be expected by 
1976. 

This is based on the assumption that today's conditions of peace and prosperity 
will continue. An economic recession, for example, would undoubtedly reduce the 
amount of skiing below the projected figure (see table 14) . 



17 

Outdoor Recreation Resources Review Commission. Prospective demand for 
outdoor recreation. Study Rep. 26, p. 6. Wash. D.C.: U.S. Govt. Printing Office. 
1962. 



47 



HOW THE SURVEY OF SKIERS WAS CONDUCTED 

Names and addresses of skiers were collected at all operating ski areas on week- 
ends in February, March, and April of 1965. Every tenth skier passing the investi- 
gators stationed at the various lift lines was asked to participate in the ski study, until 
approximately 10 percent of the skiers present that day had been contacted. At the same 
time, the investigators categorized the age of each sample skier as being a child (1-12), 
teenager (13-19), or adult (over 19). 

Altogether 5, 984 skier names and addresses were collected by the U.S. Forest 
Service Snow Rangers and employees of the Intermountain Forest and Range Experiment 
Station. Questionnaires were mailed in mid -May to all these skiers except 231 recorded 
as being children. (Bureau of the Budget restricted questioning persons younger than 
age 13.) Thus, 5,753 skier questionnaires were mailed (of which 93 were returned 
unopened because of incorrect addresses). 

By mid -June, 3, 512 completed questionnaires had been returned, so a second 
mailing was made to those who had not responded to the first. By mid -August, another 
1, 121 questionnaires had been received, which made a total of 4,633 answers out of 
a possible 5,660 valid names. Because of this excellent response, no further attempt 
was made to contact the remaining skiers who failed to return questionnaires. These 
nonrespondents were assumed to have the same characteristics as respondents. 

Twelve percent (565) of the returned questionnaires failed to show the number 
of times the skier had skied during the year; such questionnaires were rejected as 
unusable because no weighting factor could be assigned to the individual answers. 
Therefore, this report is based on 4,068 completed skier questionnaires. 

This skier survey had two basic shortcomings. First, the questionnaire could 
be mailed only to skiers 13 years old and older. Therefore, the results apply only to an 
incomplete sample of the active skier population. Second, skiers younger than 19 were 
not asked to answer questions 5 through 8 concerning family income and marital status 
because of restrictions by the Bureau of the Budget. Therefore, the data pertaining to 
marital and income status can be applied only to that part of the skier population 19 or 
older . 



48 



U.S. Forest Service 

Intermountain Forest & Range Experiment Station 

INT No. 



Bureau of Budget No. 40-6527 
Approval Expires Sept. 30, 1965 



WESTERN STATES SKI POTENTIAL STUDY 



SKIER QUESTIONNAIRE 



Please print your name and address in this space. 
Name: 


(Last) (First) 
Address: 




(Initial) 


(Street number) (City) 


(County) 


(State) 



1. In what year did you first ski on slopes or hills? 



19 



2. How many years have you gone skiing at least once since you started to ski? 



(Years) 



3. Do, or did either of your parents ski? Circle one: ONE BOTH NEITHER 

4. Indicate your age by checking appropriate space below. 

I I Under 13 years [^ 13-18 years 

[]] 23-30 years Q 31-40 years 

I [ Over 51 years 



n 19-22 years 
Q 41-50 years 



IF YOU ARE UNDER 19 YEARS OF AGE, SKIP TO QUESTION 9 BELOW, 



What is your approximate annual income before taxes and payroll deductions? 

NOTE: Married persons should indicate the joint income of both husband and wife. 
Students living at home, or away from home, and largely or completely 
dependent on family support, should indicate the combined income level of 
themselves and their parents. 

Check ( ) the appropriate income category below. 



( ) Less than $4,000 per year 
( ) $6,500 to $9,999 per year 
( ) $15,000 to $24,999 per year 



( ) $4,000 to $6,499 per year 
( ) $10,000 to $14,999 per year 
( ) $25,000 per year and over 



b. Number of persons largely or completely dependent on family support. 

6. Are you (circle one) married? single? divorced? widowed? 

7. If married, does your husband or wife ski? Circle one: YES NO 

8. If married, how many of your dependent sons and daughters ski? 



(Number) 



(Number who ski) 



49 



9. a. How many meiTLbers of your family living at home, or away at school (including your- 
self) are in your household? 

(Number) 

b. How many of these are skiers? 



(Number) 
10. Did you have a season lift ticket at a ski area for the 1964-65 ski season? 
Circle one: YES NO 
If "YES," about how many days did you use it during the season? 



(Number of days) 
11. Approximately how many different ski areas did you ski at during the 1964-65 ski season? 



(Number of areas) 

12. Estimate the total expenditure for ski equipment purchased for yourself during the 1964-65 

ski season. (Include skis, boots, clothing, etc.) $ 

13. a. Did you take one or more "SKI VACATION" trips during the 1964-65 ski season on each 

of which you were away from home FOUR OR MORE NIGHTS v^ath the primary purpose 
of participating in skiing? Circle one: YES NO 

If "NO," skip to question 14. If "YES," complete question 13. 

b. How many SKI VACATION TRIPS did you take during the 1964-65 ski season? 



c. In what States did you take these SKI VACATIONS and how many days did you ski 
on these trips? 

State in which you skied Number of days skied on vacation trip 



d. What was the total cost for yourself only of such SKI VACATION TRIPS during the 
1964-65 ski season? Estimate the approximate total cost for each of the items listed 
below. Include both the amount you personally spent and any amounts spent for you 
by someone else. (Do not include expenditures you made for friends or family 



members who accompanied you.) 



(1) 


Vacation "package plan" 
Lodging and meals 
Ski lift tickets 


$ 


(2) 


$ 


(3) 


$ 


(4) 


Ski equipment rental 






and/or repair 


$ 


(5) 


Ski school instruction 


$ 



(6) After-ski activities 
(entertainment, bar, etc.) 

(7) Ski equipment (skis, poles, 
boots, waxes, clothing, etc. 
purchased at your vacation 
destination) 

(8) Other major expenditures 
(specify) 



50 



e. If you traveled by commercial carrier, what was your share of the transportation cost 
on your SKI VACATION TRIPS? $ 

f. If you traveled by private auto, how many miles (round trip) did you travel on a 
TYPICAL SKI VACATION? How many persons were in the car? 



(Miles) (Number) 

14. a. Did you take any WEEKEND SKI TRIPS during the 1964-65 ski season on which you 
stayed at least one night away from home but less than four nights? 

Circle one: YES NO 

If "NO," skip to question 15. If "YES," complete question. 

b. How many such WEEKEND SKI TRIPS did you take during the 1964-65 ski season? 



(Number) 

c. Estimate the number of days you skied on WEEKEND SKI TRIPS by State in wliich you 
skied, during the 1964-65 skiing season. 

State in which you skied Number of days skied on weekend trip 



d. What was the cost for yourself only for a TYPICAL WEEKEND of skiing during the 
'964-65 ski season? Indicate the approximate expenditure for each of the items listed 
below. Include both amount you personally spent as well as the amount spent by some- 
one else for you. (Do not include expenditures you made for friends or family members 
who accompanied you.) 

(1) Weekend "package plan" $ (5) Ski school instruction $ 



(2) Lodging and meals $ 



(6) After-ski activities 

(entertainment, bar, etc.)$ 



(3) Ski lift tickets $ (7) Ski equipment or 

clothing purchases 



(4) Ski equipment rental 

and/or repair $ 



(8) Other major expenditures 
(specify) J 



e. If you traveled by commercial carrier, what was your share of transportation cost on 
a typical WEEKEND SKI TRIP? $ 

f. If you traveled by private auto, how many miles (round trip) did you travel on a typical 

WEEKEND TRIP? How many persons were in the car? 

(Miles) (Number) 



51 



15. a. Please indicate below the number of days you spent slciing during the 1964-65 ski 
season on SINGLE -DAY SKI TRIPS on which you returned to your home at the end 
of each day of skiing. 

State in which you skied Number of days skied on single -day trips 



b. What was the cost for yourself only, for a TYPICAL SINGLE -DAY SKI TRIP? Estimate 
the approximate cost for each item listed below. Include both the expenditure you per- 
sonally made for yourself as well as expenditure made for you by someone, else. (Do not 
include expenditures you made for friends or family members who accompanied you.) 

(1) Ski lift tickets $ (5) After-ski activities 

(entertainment, bar, etc.) $ 

(2) Meals or snacks $ 

(6) Ski equipment or ^M 

(3) Ski equipment rental clothing purchases $ ^Bp 

and/or repair $ ^y^ Commercial transportation $ 



(4) Ski school instruction $ (8) Other major expenditures 

(specify) $ 



c. If you traveled by private auto, approximately how many miles (round trip) did you 

travel on a TYPICAL SINGLE -DAY SKI TRIP? How many persons 

(Miles) 
were in the car? 

(Number) 

16. Indicate your sex. Circle one: MALE FEMALE 

17. Circle the highest year of school you have completed. 

12 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 

(Grade School) (High School) (University or (Graduate) 



Trade School) 



18. Are you a student? Circle one: YES NO 

If "YES," skip question 19. 
If "NO," answer question 19. 

19. a. What is yoyr occupation? 
b. Who is your employer? 



Thank you for completing this questionnaire. Please return in the addressed envelope which 
requires no stamp to: 

Intermountain Forest & Range Experiment Station 

Division of Forest Economics & Recreation Research 

U.S. Forest Service Ski Study 

ForeGt Service Building, 507 - 25th Street 

Ogden, Utah 84403 



52 



ADJUSTMENT FOR SAMPLING BIAS 

The design for sampling contained an inherent source of bias inasmuch as skiers 
^^il0 skied frequently during the season were more likely to be selected than skiers who 
skied only occasionally. To the extent that frequent skiers as a group had unique 
characteristics, the sample results would tend to exaggerate these characteristics and 
underestimate the characteristics of the less frequent skier. This bias can be elimi- 
nated by using the method proposed by Lucas."""® The method weights the number of 
skiers and the number of visits by the reciprocal of the number of visits per skier. 

The following examples show how this bias can influence estimates of population 
characteristics and how the bias is avoided when the weighting method is used. 

Example 1: 

A known population of 400 skiers has the following participation characteristics: 
100 skiers each visiting 30 times per season = 3, 000 skier visits 
300 skiers each visiting 5 times per season = 1,500 skier visits 

The average number of visits per skier is 11.25 (X= 4,500 / 400 =11.25). . 

It appears that there would be three times as many 5 -day skiers as 30 -day skiers on ' 

any given day. But the 30 -day skiers made twice as many visits as the 5 -day skiers 
(3,000 / 1,500). Therefore, theoretically there would be twice as many 30-day skiers 
as 5 -day skiers on any given day. If a 10 -percent sample were selected on a particular i 

day when 150 skiers were present, the sample would probably consist of 15 skiers with 
the following characteristics: ! 

10 skiers who ski 30 times per season 
5 skiers who ski 5 times per season I 

If the average number of visits per season were estimated from this sample, it 
would be biased upward as shown below: 

10 skiers visiting 30 times per season = 300 visits 
5 skiers visiting 5 times per season = 25 visits 
X = 325 / 15 =21.7 visits per skier per season 

The considerable difference between the known average days skied per season 
(11.25) and the average estimated from the sample (21.7) results from the inevitable 
biases. By applying Lucas' method, an unbiased estimate of the population mean rate 
of annual participation can be obtained from this sample as shown below: 

( 5 skiers) ( 5 visits) (7-) ~ ^ visits by ( 5) (-) or 1.000 skier 

1 1 

(10 skiers) (30 visits)( - ) = 10 visits by (10) (- ) or .333 skier 

X = 15 / 1.333 = 11.25 visits per skier 



"^®Lucas, Robert C. Bias Ln estimating recreationists' length of stay from sample 
interviews. J. Forest. 61(12): 912-914. 1963. 

53 



The sample estimate produces the true population mean (X = x = 11.25) when 
computed in this manner. The bias shown in the example above is due to the unequal 
probability of each member of the population to be selected for the sample. This bias 
also influences the estimated proportion of the population having a particular attribute. 
The example below illustrates this point. 

Example 2: 

A population of 4, 500 skiers has the characteristics shown below: 

1,500 male skiers visiting 20 times per season = 30,000 visits 

500 female skiers visiting 20 times per season = 10,000 visits 

1,000 female skiers visiting 5 times per season = 5,000 visits 

1,500 male skiers visiting 10 times per season = 15,000 visits 

The proportion of female skiers is: 

P = 1,500 / 4,500 =33.3 percent 

If a sample of 6 percent were randomly selected on a day when 400 were skiing, 

the sample would probably contain 24 skiers with the following characteristics: 

12 male skiers who each visit 20 times per season 

4 female skiers who each visit 20 times per season 

2 female skiers who each visit 5 times per season 

6 male skiers who each visit 10 times per season 

Estimating the population proportion of female skiers (P) in the usual manner 
provides the sample estimate: P = 6 / 24 = 25 percent. Thus, sample estimates of 
population proportions or attributes are also affected by the number of days of skiing 
a skier does during a season. By applying the method suggested, the bias is removed. 

(12 male skiers) (-) =0.6 male skiers 

( 4 female skiers) ( — ) = .2 female skiers 

( 2 female skiers) (-r) = -4 female skiers 

( 6 male skiers) (77.)= -6 male skiers 

Total 1.8 skiers (0.6 female skiers) 

The estimate, therefore, of the proportion of female skiers in the population as derived 
from the sample is 33.3 percent (0.6 / 1.8). 

The sample estimate is equal to the population parameter (P = p = 33.3 percent); 
therefore, it is unbiased. This weighting method was used to adjust estimates of skier 
responses. 



54 



HOW THE SKIER POPULATION ESTIMATE WAS DERIVED 

The skier population is composed of two groups --those who actively ski during 
any specific season and those who don't. Data in this report apply only to that part of 
tlie total skier population that was active during the 1964-65 skiing season. 

The procedure used to estimate the number of active skiers was to divide the 
total number of skier visits made to ski areas within each State during the season by 
the average number of visits (days) per skier reported by skiers contacted during tlie 
survey. 

Not all of the skier visits to a State, however, were made by residents of that 
State. For this reason, it was necessary to determine the proportion of total State 
visits made by residents of that State, residents of other Western States, and residents 
of non -Western States. These proportions were derived from the skier sample in 
which each skier reported the number of ski visits he made to each Western State during 
the season. For example: 

1. One million visits were reported by ski area operators in State A. 

2. Skiers questioned reported making a total of 1,000 visits to ski areas in 
State A in the following proportions: 

a. Residents made 80 percent of the visits to ski areas in State A. 

b. Nonresidents from other Western States made 15 percent of the visits in 
State A. 

c. Nonresidents from other non -Western States made 5 percent of the visits. 

3. The total 1 million skier visits to State A can then be attributed to the three 
skier resident classes as follows: 

a. Residents, 800, 000 visits 

b. Nonresidents from other Western States, 150, 000 visits 

c. Nonresidents from non -Western States, 50,000 visits 

4. If the average number of visits per skier during the season by skiers in each 
of these three residency classes were 10, 5, and 8 visits, respectively, the 
number of active skiers who used ski areas with the State can then be calcu- 
lated as follows: 



800,000 visits by residents 
10 visits/yr ./skier 

150,000 visits by nonresidents 
from other Western States 
5 visits/yr ./skier 

50,000 visits by nonresidents 
from non -Western States 
8 visits/yr. /skier 

55 



= 80,000 resident skiers 

= 30,000 skiers from other Western 
States 

6,250 skiers from non -Western States 



It was necessary to separate the resident from the nonresident skiers to avoid 
counting them more than once because many skiers had skied in several of the Western 
States. 

Total numbers of visits per State were available only for the 1963-64 season. 
On the other hand, the skiers questioned described their activities during the 1964-65 
season. Therefore, the proportion of resident and nonresident visits and average days 
skied per skier relating to the 1964-65 season were used to convert the 1963-64 attend- 
ance data. This created an opportunity for error in estimating the size of the skier 
population for a State if either the proportion of resident to nonresident skier visits or 
the average number of days skied per skier changed substantially between the two sea- 
sons. Although it seems unlikely, because both seasons had adequate snowfall, the size 
of the resident skier population could be either larger or smaller than that estimated. 

All references to numbers of skiers apply to the 1963-64 season. Proportions of 
the skier population's particular characteristics (age, sex, etc.) relate to the 1964-65 
skier population. 

RELIABILITY OF SKIER DATA 

Because all skier data are based on samples rather than on an inventory, the 
estimates are subject to some error dependent on the size and completeness of the 
sample. Reliable measures of the sample estimates for (1) the average number of 
days skied during the season per skier, (2) the average expenditure per skier, and 
(3) the percent of the skier population having specific attributes such as age, sex, 
income, and others are presented in the following tables: 

Table 2 shows the estimated average (mean) number of days skied per resident 
and nonresident skier during the 1964-65 season within each State and gives the standard 
error of each average (mean) as a plus or minus (±) figure. In Alaska, for example, 
we would expect to find the average (or mean) between 16.478 and 16.522 days per sea- 
son per skier. The true average of the entire population can generally be expected to 
be not more than ±0.1 of a day larger or smaller than that estimated from the sample. 

Table 3 shows the estimated average (mean) daily expenditure per skier during 
the 1964-65 season and shows the standard error of each average (mean) as a plus or 
minus dollar amount. In Alaska, for example, we should expect the true average daily 
expenditure per resident skier to be somewhere between $11.54 and $18.92. 

Table 4 shows the confidence limits (at the 95 -percent level ) for five different 
percentage groups for the skier population that may be estimated to have a certain 
characteristic --such as the percent of skiers that are males, females --or that faU in 
a particular income class, age group, etc. In Alaska, for example, the confidence 



19 

The 95 -percent confidence level indicates that the true proportion would fall 
within the plus or minus range indicated 95 out of 100 times sampled. 

56 



interval for the estimate that 90 percent of Alaskan skiers were male would be ±15.80 
percent. The true percentage of the male skiers would probably be between 74.2 percent 
and 100 percent. 

The confidence percentages for eitlier 90 percent or 10 percent, 80 percent or 20 
percent, 70 percent or 30 percent, 60 percent or 40 percent, and 50 percent or 50 per- 
cent, are listed in the same column to save space in this table. In the Alaskan example 
just given, the same confidence interval would apply to an estimate that 10 percent of 
the Alaskan skiers were male as to the estimate that 90 percent were male. 

The table does not give confidence intervals for percentages other than even 10 - 
percent increments. However, the reader can interpolate between one column and the 
next. For example, the confidence interval for the estimate that 85 percent of the 
Alaskan skiers were over 30 years old would fall approximately halfway between 15.80 
and 20.26 percent, or about 18 percent. 

Table 5 gives the confidence limits in the same fashion as table 3. Table 4 is to 
be used when the skier population question is limited to skiers 19 years old and older. 
Thus, table 4 can be used to determine the confidence limits for skier population esti- 
mates describing the percentage of the skiers in (1) particular income classes, (2) 
proportion of married male or female skiers, and (3) other percentages specifically 
identified as applying only to skiers above the 19 -year age limit. 



57 



Table 2. -- Average (mean) number of days skied per skier and the standard 
error of that average (mean) during the 1963-64 season, by 



State and residency classic 



State 



Residents of State 



Residents of other 
Western States 



Residents of 
non-Western States 



Alaska 

Arizona 

Cal if ornia 

Colorado 

Idaho 

Montana 

Nevada 

New Mexico 

Oregon 

Utah 

Washington 

Wyoming 



Av. 



Std, 



error 



16.5 + 0.022 



5.4 + 

7.7 + 

11.0 + 

11.2 + 

11.8 + 
9.9 + 

10.7 + 

10.3 + 

10.9 + 
9.4 + 
7.3 + 



.070 
.006 
.002 
.013 
.013 
.041 
.018 
.012 
.007 
.010 
.024 



Av. 



Std. error 



2/ 
2.0 + NA- 



1.5 + 
3.8 + 
5.5 + 
5.4 + 
3.2 + 
2.7 + 

3.2 + 

5.7 + 

4.8 + 

2.3 + 
2.7 + 



.04 
.02 
.02 
.01 
.02 
.04 
.02 
.03 
.02 
.02 
.02 



Av. 



Std. 



1.0 + 

3.3 + 
7o7 + 

3.4 + 
11.1 + 

+ 

4.1 + 
3.6 + 
5.8 + 
6.3 + 
2.1 + 



2.0 + NA 



NA 

.15 

.01 

.07 

.13 

.0 

.04 

.09 

.10 

.04 

.25 



— Although we should expect to find a different average if we 
sampled again, the true average can be expected to fall within the 
plus or minus (+) range of the standard error 66 out of 100 times the 
population is sampled. For a more complete discussion see "Statistical 
Methods" 5th Ed. by G. W. Snedecor, 1956, the Iowa State College Press, 
Ames, Iowa. 

2/ 

— Insufficient sample to calculate standard error. 



Table 3 . -- Average (mean) daily expenditure per skier and 

the standard error of that average (mean) during 
the 1963-64 season by State and residency class 



State 



Average daily expenditure per skier 
All skiers i Nonresidents.!:' 





Av. 




Std. error 


Av„ 


3tC 


1. error 


Alaska 


$15.23 


+ 


$3.69 


2/nA 






Arizona 


18.16 


+ 


1.10 


NA 






California 


27.44 


+ 


.39 


NA 






Colorado 


25.84 


+ 


.71 


$60,27 


+ 


$2.53 


Idaho 


18.92 


+ 


.75 


71.60 


+ 


17.29 


Montana 


11.75 


+ 


.32 


NA 






Nevada 


17„28 


+ 


.67 


NA 






New Mexico 


21.12 


+ 


.65 


39.20 


+ 


1.87 


Oregon 


13.58 


+ 


.55 


NA 






Utah 


11.98 


+ 


.37 


NA 






Washington 


11.22 


+ 


.15 


14.75 


+ 


.77 


Wyoming 


10.92 


+ 


.40 


NA 






All States 


$20.54 


+ 


.23 


-- 







— Residents of non-Western States. 

2/ 

— Sample size inadequate to calculate mean daily 

expenditure . 



58 



Table 4, -- Confidence limits for percentages of the entire skier 
population estimated to have certain characteristics 
during the 1964-65 seasog L/ 







90 


: 80 


70 


: 60 


50 


State 


Sample 
size 


or 


or 


or 


or 


or 






10 


20 


30 


40 


50 



Alaska 


Number 
21 


+15.80 


+20.26 


Percent 
+22.88 


+24.28 


+24.74 


Arizona 


30 


+12.81 


+16.53 


+18.69 


+19.87 


+20.23 


California 


1,204 


+1.76 


+2.34 


+2.68 


+2.86 


+2.92 


Colorado 


604 


+2.52 


+3.34 


+3.82 


+4.06 


+4.14 


Idaho 


416 


+3.06 


+4.04 


+4.62 


+4.92 


+5.02 


Montana 


127 


+5.73 


+7.51 


+8.55 


+9.11 


+9.29 


Nevada 


51 


+9.46 


+12.30 


+13.94 


+14.84 


+15.12 


New Mexico 


105 


+6.36 


+8.32 


+9.46 


+10.08 


+10.28 


Oregon 


229 


+4.18 


+5.52 


+6.28 


+6.70 


+6.84 


Utah 


233 


+4.15 


+5.45 


+6.23 


+6.65 


+6.77 


Washington 


636 


+2.46 


+3.24 


+3.72 


+3.96 


+4.04 


Wyoming 


102 


+6.45 


+8.45 


+9.61 


+10.23 


+10.43 


Other 


310 


+3.58 


+4.70 


+5.38 


+ 5.74 


+5.84 


Total 


4,068 


+ .95 


+1.25 


+1.43 


+1.55 


+1.57 



— Confidence levels given are at the 95-percent level. 

Table 5. -- Confidence limits for percentages of the skier population 
19 years and older estimated to have certain character - 
istics during the 1964-65 season !/ 







90 


: 80 


: 70 


: 60 


: 50 


State 


Sample 


or 


or 


: or 


: or 


or 




size 


10 


: 20 


: 30 


: 40 


50 



Alaska 


Number 
14 


+20.21 


+25.75 


- Percent 
+28.99 


+30.75 


+31.31 


Arizona 


26 


+13.92 


+ 17.92 


+20.26 


+21.52 


+21.92 


California 


965 


+1.97 


+2.61 


+2.99 


+3.19 


+3.27 


Colorado 


480 


+2.84 


+3.74 


+4.28 


+4.58 


+4.66 


Idaho 


298 


+3.65 


+4.81 


+5.49 


+5.85 


+5.97 


Montana 


93 


+6.80 


+8.88 


+10.10 


+10.76 


+10.96 


Nevada 


35 


+11.71 


+15.15 


+17.15 


+18.23 


+18.33 


New Mexico 


79 


+7.43 


+9.69 


+11.01 


+11.73 


+11.95 


Oregon 


151 


+5.23 


+6.85 


+ 7.81 


+8.33 


+8.49 


Utah 


137 


+5.50 


+7.22 


+8.22 


+8.76 


+8.94 


Washington 


451 


+2.93 


+3.87 


+4.43 


+4.73 


+4.83 


Wyoming 


59 


+8.73 


+11.35 


+12.89 


+13.71 


+13.99 


Other 


299 


+3.65 


+4.81 


+5.47 


+5.85 


+5.95 


Total 


3,087 


+1.10 


+1.44 


+1.66 


+1.78 


+1.82 



— Confidence levels given are at the 95-percent level. 



59 



HOW INVENTORY OF POTENTIAL NEW SITES WAS CONDUCTED 

The purpose of the inventory was to determuie the number, size, location, and pos- 
sible skier capacity of known potential ski sites. Federal and State agencies were asked 
to describe any potential ski sites with which they were familiar. Agencies contacted 
were the U.S. Forest Service, Bureau of Land Management, Bureau of Indian Affairs, 
and county representatives of the Economic Development Administration. Each agency 
was mailed a supply of forms, which asked for information about each site as follows: 

1. Name of potential site. This should refer to the drainage or range of moun- 
tains where the site is located if no name designation has been given the area. 

2. Location. 

a. Name of nearest city or town. This will provide a reference point in 
locating the area. 

b. Mileage to nearest city or town. Estimate distance from the tovvTi to the 
area. 

c. Direction from nearest city or town. Compass direction from nearest 
city or town; i.e., N., NE., S., etc. 

d. Highway nearest the site. The highway number designation of the high- 
way nearest to the site. 

e. State. State in which the area is located. 

3. Skiable acreage. Estimate the acreage of area at the site that will be served 
by lifts and/or tows and considered skiable. Exclude acreage needed for buildings and 
parking at the base of the site, extremely rocky areas, areas too steep for skiing, and 
areas with insufficient snow cover. 

4. Approximate vertical rise. The vertical distance in feet from the base of 
skiable area to top of skiable area. 

5. Approximate number of days in ski season. Indicate length of the possible 
skiing season in days. Use records or observations if available. 

6. Indicate if definite plans have been prepared for development. K plans have 
been prepared and area will be operating by the 1967-58 season, describe lifts and/or 
tows scheduled for installation as follows: 

a. Name of potential site. Give same name as shown on inventory form. 

b. Type of lift or tow planned. Indicate type as rope tow, double chair lift, 
single chair lift, poma, T-bar, J-bar, etc. 

c. Vertical rise of planned lifts or tows . The vertical distance (in feet) that 
the lift will move the skier up the slope . 

d. Rated capacity in "skiers per hour" for each planned lift . Indicate the 
approximate number of skiers the lift will be able to move up the slope in one hour. 

e. Estimated completion date . Give the year in which facility will be 
completed. 



60 



TABLES 6-47 



61 



1/ 



rn ski areas, by State and ski season, 1955-64 































Ski 


seasons 










State 


1955- : 


1956- : 


1957- : 


1958- : 


1959- : 


1960- : 


1961- : 


1962- : 


1963- 




1956 : 


1957 : 


1958 


1959 : 


1960 ; 


1961 : 


1962 : 


1963 : 


1964 


Alaska 


7,130 


7,140 


6,990 


9,870 


11,166 


26,651 


36,274 


49,751 


46,061 


Arizona 


2,000 


1,900 


1,900 


2,850 


2,950 


3,250 


3,700 


8,230 


10,021 


California 


498,197 


475,664 


630,599 


519,550 


670,243 


730,100 ] 


.,073,480 


576,441 


1,242,908 


Colorado 


243,066 


283,985 


324,630 


392,226 


476,832 


496,111 


604,302 


618,713 


883,828 


Idaho 


118,655 


118,183 


135,600 


129,080 


145,521 


168,723 


191,270 


152,802 


292,467 


Montana 


51,236 


54,000 


56,363 


64,595 


90,732 


108,189 


126,144 


132,118 


161,459 


Nevada 


12,500 


12,500 


13,000 


13,000 


13,500 


15,500 


14,500 


29,500 


31,500 


New Mexico 


13,000 


15,408 


22,690 


26,929 


45,010 


53,157 


76,558 


91,631 


109,944 


Oregon 


71,039 


72,461 


85,602 


92,914 


140,120 


142,514 


176,440 


152,835 


359,538 


Utah 


120,879 


147,280 


161,775 


189,407 


195,349 


235,570 


264,164 


210,206 


340,277 


Washington 


199,384 


255,028 


277,706 


365,885 


355,353 


455,503 


501,979 


536,766 


725,679 


Wyoming 


16,288 


16,734 


18,308 


19,614 


33,455 


41,749 


45,078 


42,808 


61,501 


Total 


1,353,374 


1,460,283 


1,735,163 


1,825,920 


2,180,231 


2,477,017 


3,113,889 


2,601,801 


4,265,183 



- A visit is one person visiting a ski area for all or any part of a day for the purpose of skiing. 



Table 7 .-- Number of skier visits during 1963-64 season by size class of ski area and by State 







Size class-' 






Rope tow 
only 




Cable tows (ratt 


5d in VTF/hr 


.) 




Total 


State 


: Less than 


: 300,000 to : 


700,000 to : 


1 


500,000 






: 300,000 


: 699,999 : 


1 


499,999 : 


and over 




Alaska 


14,139 




6,000 




25,922 






46,061 


Arizona 


-- 


1,700 


1,740 




6,581 




-- 


10,021 


California 


30,771 


63,816 


70,760 




325,296 




752,265 


1,242,908 


Colorado 


-- 


47,605 


48,210 




87,256 




700,757 


883,828 


Idaho 


2,600 


24,206 


52,198 




115,632 




97,831 


292,467 


Montana 


26,647 


20,125 


26,628 




35,235 




52,824 


161,459 


Nevada 


1,000 


2,500 


-- 




-- 




28,000 


31,500 


New Mexico 


-- 


2,547 


27,200 




26,427 




53,770 


109,944 


Oregon 


10,802 


10,985 


77,484 




260,267 




-- 


359,538 


Utah 


15,194 


3,000 


455 




61,446 




260,182 


340,277 


Washington 


38,621 


7,800 


55,056 




39,986 




584,216 


725,679 


Wyoming 


6,628 


2,737 


35,586 




16,550 




-- 


61,501 


Total 


146,402 


187,021 


401,317 


1 


,000,598 


2 


,529,845 


4,265,183 


Percent of 


















total 


3„43 


4.39 


9.41 




23.46 




59.31 


100 



— Ski areas with cable facilities are rated on the basis of vertical transport feet per hour 
(VTF/hr„), as defined on page 38. Rope tows are not so rated. 



62 



Table 8. -- Total capacity of both cable and rope Uow a reas in the Western Slates, by Stale, an d 

by ski season, lJ55-5'5 

(In million vertical transport feet per hour)— 



State 



Sk 



i Season 



1955- 
1956 



1956- 
1957 



1957- 
1958 



1958- 
1959 



1959- 
1960 



1960- 
1961 



1961- 
1962 



1962- 
1963 



1963- 
1964 



1964- 
1965 



Alaska 


0.57 


0.57 


0.57 


0.57 


1.05 


3.22 


3.22 


3.50 


3.15 


3.15 


Arizona 


.24 


.24 


.34 


.34 


.34 


.34 


.34 


1.49 


1.81 


1.85 


California 


24.63 


26.27 


29.47 


31.59 


34.02 


35.94 


41.87 


46.01 


50.19 


57.65 


Colorado 


7.10 


9.97 


13.75 


16.65 


18.10 


20.95 


24.90 


34.38 


38.37 


42 . 56 


Idaho 


6.04 


6.06 


8.84 


9.40 


11.14 


11.93 


13.70 


14.21 


15.78 


15.82 


Montana 


4.24 


4.86 


4.89 


5.27 


7.03 


8.25 


9.81 


12.22 


13.15 


13.99 


Nevada 


1.61 


1.09 


1.09 


1.19 


1.19 


1.09 


1.09 


1.26 


2.30 


2.22 


New Mexico 


1.42 


1.47 


1.93 


1.96 


2.85 


2.84 


6.17 


7.13 


8.32 


9.21 


Oregon 


5.18 


5.48 


6.10 


6.76 


7.46 


7.33 


9.43 


10.88 


11.89 


13.99 


Utah 


4.63 


4.87 


4.87 


7.74 


10.37 


11.61 


11.61 


11.82 


15.02 


18.25 


Washington 


9.14 


13.12 


14.07 


14.49 


18.94 


20.68 


22.05 


27.35 


29.19 


31.96 


Wyoming 


.76 


.76 


.81 


.81 


2.27 


3.30 


3.30 


3.22 


4.13 


4.43 


Total 


65.56 


74.76 


86.73 


96.77 


114.76 


127.48 


147.49 


173.47 


193.30 


215.08 



1/ 



See page 38 for definition. 



Table 9. -- Cable capacity of western ski areas, by State and ski season, 1955-65 
(In million vertical transport feet per liour)— 



State 



1955- 
1956 



1956- 
1957 



1957- 
1958 



1958- 
1959 



Ski season 



1959- 
1960 



1960- 
1961 



1961- 
1962 



1962- 
1963 



1963- 
1964 



1964- 
1965 



Alaska 


-- 


-- 


-- 


-- 


0.35 


2.29 


2.29 


2.29 


2 . 29 


2.29 


Arizona 


-- 


-- 


0.13 


0.13 


.13 


.13 


.13 


1.28 


1.72 


1.76 


California 


14.84 


16.19 


19.23 


21.47 


24.04 


25.68 


31.85 


36.38 


39.84 


47.12 


Colorado 


6.59 


9.46 


12.97 


15.87 


17.32 


19.91 


23.70 


33.35 


37.63 


41.48 


Idaho 


2.66 


2.66 


5.61 


5.86 


6.95 


7.80 


9.54 


10.06 


1 1.89 


12.33 


Montana 


1.19 


1.46 


1.46 


1.84 


3.51 


4.60 


5.99 


7.91 


8.84 


9.84 


Nevada 


1.17 


.80 


.80 


.80 


.80 


.80 


.80 


.80 


1.93 


2.05 


New Mexico 


1.02 


1.08 


1.46 


1.46 


2.39 


2.44 


5.77 


6.74 


7.93 


8.85 


Oregon 


2.14 


2.14 


2.55 


2.90 


4.11 


4.11 


5.73 


6.90 


7.73 


10.20 


Utah 


4.12 


4.19 


4,20 


7.04 


9.40 


10.32 


10.88 


11.24 


14.49 


17.72 


Washington 


4.00 


7.09 


7.09 


7.09 


10.45 


11.17 


12.23 


16.63 


18.42 


22. 18 


Wyoming 


.09 


.09 


.14 


.14 


1.60 


2.63 


2.63 


2.63 


3.23 


3.53 


Total 


37.82 


45.16 


55.64 


64.60 


81.05 


91.88 


111.54 


136.21 


155.94 


179.35 



1/ 



See pa,^;e 38 for definition. 



63 



Table 10.-- Number of ski areas in the 12 Western States 
equlpp e d with both rope and cable tows and 
t h ose wi th rope tows only, 1955-64 



Ski seasons 



Cable-' 



Rope only ' Total 



1955' 
1956. 
1957- 
1958' 
1959' 
I960' 
1961' 
1962 
1963 



•1956 
■1957 
■1958 
•1959 
•1960 
•1961 
•1962 
■1963 
•1964 



67 
72 

82 
90 
106 
114 
129 
131 
145 



85 


152 


84 


156 


78 


160 


79 


169 


77 


183 


74 


188 


70 


199 


64 


195 


52 


197 



—' All of these areas have cable facilities; some 
of these also have rope tow facilities. 



Table 11. -- Number and total cable capacity of cable areas operating in the Western States during the 













1963-64 season 


by 


size class 


and by 


State 






State 










Cable 


tows 


(rated in VTF/hr.)^' 










Less than 




300 


,000 to 




700,000 to 


: 1 


,500,000 




Total 






300,000 




699,999 


: 


1, 


499,999 


: and over 






No. 


of Total 


No. 


of 


Total 


No. 


of 


Total 


No. 


f Total 


No. 


f Total 




areas capacity 


areas 


capacity 


areas 


capacity 


areas 


capacity 


areas 


capacity 


Alaska 


__ 


__ 


2 




830,000 


1 




1,460,000 


__ 


-- 


3 


2,290,000 


Arizona 


1 


90,000 


1 




440,000 


1 




1,188,000 


-- 


-- 


3 


1,718,000 


Call fornia 


10 


1,428,200 


5 




2,622,300 


9 




9,099,200 


9 


26,690,100 


33 


39,839,800 


Colorado 


6 


1,236,000 


6 




2,652,520 


6 




5,475,100 


8 


28,269,235 


26 


37,632,855 


Idaho 


4 


904,000 


8 




3,207,950 


3 




3,451,600 


2 


4,328,372 


17 


11,891,922 


Montana 


8 


1,205,800 


2 




1,123,000 


3 




3,357,422 


2 


3,147,680 


15 


8,833,902 


Nevada 




120,000 


-- 




-- 


— 




— 


1 


1,813,500 


2 


1,933,500 


New Mexico 




104,880 


2 




904,400 


2 




1,734,650 


3 


5,181,800 


8 


7,925,730 


Oregon 




60,000 


5 




2,141,700 


5 




5,529,950 


— 


-- 


11 


7,731,650 


Utah 




280,000 


1 




600,000 


2 




2,259,500 


5 


11,352,250 


9 


14,491,750 


Washington 




270,000 


2 




887,500 


2 




1,898,400 


6 


15,364,500 


11 


18,420,400 


Wyoming 




143,840 


5 




2,222,400 


1 




864,050 


— 


-- 


7 


3,230,290 


Total 


35 


5,842,720 


39 




17,631,770 


35 




36,317.872 


36 


96,147,437 


145 


155,939,799 



1/ 



See page 38 for definition. 



64 



Table 12 . -- Proportion of western ski areas that provided ni^ht 





skil 


nR 


during 


the 


1963-64 


season 




State 


'Ski areas providing' 


Total 


Percent of 


n i gli t 


s'k 


iing 


; £ 


ki 


areas 


[ total areas 




















Alaska 













7 







Arizona 




1 








3 




33 


California 




3 








46 




7 


Colorado 




5 








28 




18 


Idaho 




4 








20 




20 


Montana 




5 








20 




25 


Nevada 




1 








4 




25 


New Mexico 




1 








8 




12 


Oregon 




5 








17 




29 


Utah 




5 








14 




36 


Washington 




7 








19 




37 


Wyoming 













11 







All States 




3 7 








l''7 




IM 



Table 13. -- Percentage increase and average annual 



compound rate 


of 


increase 


in 


skier 


attendance by 


States, 


1955 


-64 




















Increase 




Ave 


rage annual 


State : 


in skier 




compound rate 




attendance 




of 


increase 


Alaska 


546 








26 


26 


Arizona 


401 








22 


31 


California 


149 








12 


10 


Colorado 


264 








17 


51 


Idaho 


146 








12 


92 


Montana 


215 








15 


43 


Nevada 


152 








12 


25 


New Mexico 


746 








30 


59 


Oregon 


406 








22 


47 


Utah 


182 








13 


81 


Washington 


264 








17 


52 


Wyoming 


278 








18 


07 


All States 


215 








15 


43 



65 



Table 14 . - -Prol ected number of visits to western ski areas in 1976, based 
upon past attendance and past and projected changes in 
population, per capita disposable income, and leisure time 



Yea 



1/ 



Attendance : 
(western ski areas): 



Population 
(Western States) 



Thousands of 
visits 



Millions 



Per capita 
disposable 
income (U.S . ) 



Leisure time 
' per worker, 
(U.S.) 



Thousands of H ours per 
dollars2/ week 



1955 
1956 
1957 
1958 
1959 
1960 
1961 
1963 
1976 



1,353 
1,460 
1,735 
1,826 
2,180 
2,477 
3,114 
4,265 
12,144 



23.5 
24.4 
25.3 
26.1 
26.9 
27.6 
28.6 
30.4 
40.3 



1.84 


22.3 


1.89 


22.4 


1.90 


23.0 


1.89 


23.0 


1.94 


23.1 


1.96 


23.1 


1.97 


23.4 


2.06 


23.6 


3.12 


26.6 



- 1962 data were not used in this projection because that year was 
considered atypical because of abnormally low snowfall conditions. 

?/ 

- Constant 1960 dollars. 



1/ 



2/ 



Table 


15. 


--Capacity of additional lifts and tows planned 




for constructi 


on in the Western States during 




the years 1966 


through 1970 






(In 


Tiillions of VTF/hr.)- 


Year 




At existing ; 
areas2./ ' 


^^ "^" : Total 
are as 


19 66 




61.7 


5.1 66.8 


1967 




15.6 


4.7 20.3 


1968 




6.7 


.8 7.5 


1969 




6.7 


.9 7.6 


1970 




6.1 


6.1 


Total 




96.8 


11.5 108.3 



See page 38 for definition. 



~ Based upon answers given by operators to question 13 on 
questionnaire, copy of which is found beginning on page 30. 



66 



Tab 1 e 16.- - Comparison between actual visits and maximum potential visits 
to western ski areas for 1963-64 season during weekend-holiday 
period and other weekday period of use 



Period of use 



Actual no. 
of visitsi-' 



Potential no, 

. . ■>/ 
of visits— 



CABLE FACILITIES 



Weekends and 
holidays 

Other weekdays 

Total 

Weekends and 
holidays 

Other weekdays 

Total 
All facilities 



2,687,065 
1,151,600 



2,923,860 
4,873,100 



3,838,665 7,796,960 

ROPE FACILITIES 



298,563 
127,955 



700,500 
1,167,500 



426,518 



1,868,000 



4,265,183 



9,664.960 



Percent of 
capacity used 



92 
24 



43 
11 



44 



— Recorded total attendance (4,265,183) was proportioned between 
cable and rope as follows: 90 percent (3,838,665) using cable facilities 
and 10 percent (426,518) using rope facilities. The attendance for both 
cable and rope facilities was further proportioned as follows: 70 percent 
on weekends and holidays, 30 percent on other days. 

2/ 

- Maximum theoretical use per day was calculated by dividing VTF 

available per 5-hour day by an assumed average daily use of 8,000 VTF per 
skier. A 30-day weekend and holiday period and a 50-day midweek period 
were assumed for the season. 



I I' 



67 



Table 17 . -- Employment and wages by size class of western 

ski area, 1963-64 



Size class 



Employment 
(man-days per week) 



Annual wages 



Total = Average per 
: ski area 



Rope 



1,100 



$55,859 $1,117 



Less than 300,000 
VTF/hr.i' 



845 



222,726 6,363 



300,000 to 

699,999 VTF/hr. 



2.168 



344,008 9.053 



700,000 to 

1,499,999 VTF/hr. 



2.25 



1,070,535 30,587 



1,500,000 VTF/hr. 

and up 8,613 

Total, all areas 15,014 



4,328,677 120,241 



$6,021,805 $167,361 



— See page 38 for definition. 



Table 18. — Number 


and theoretical 


capacity of 


undeve 


oped sites 


that 


have been 


Identified as potential ski areas. 


by 


State, 1965 










Number of 






Estimated 


State 




potential 
areas 






theoretical 
capacity^:' 










2/ 
VTF/hr,- 


Alaska 




2 




3,250,000 


Arizona 




11 




16,725,000 


California 




12 




19,500,000 


Colorado 




16 




26,000,000 


Idaho 




21 




30,675,000 


Montana 




10 




16,250,000 


Nevada 




5 




8,125,000 


New Mexico 




5 




8,125,000 


Oregon 




41 




44,775,000 


Utah 




14 




20,450,000 


Washington 




24 




34,400,000 


Wyoming 




5 




8,125,000 


All States 


166 




236,400,000 



— Sites smaller than 100 acres were assumed 
capable of supporting 475,000 VTF/hr. Sites larger 
than 100 acres were assigned 1,625,000 VTF/hr. 



2/ 



See page 38 for definition. 



68 



Table 19. -- Factors tending to Inhibit growth in attendance by size class of ski area— 



1/ 



TT 



Factor 



Size class 



Rope tow 
only 



Cable tows Crated in VTF/nr.') 



Less than =300,000 toWOO.OOO toU.SOO.OOO 
300,000 : fSQQ.qqq n . ^99,999 :and nvpr 



Total 



1. Inadequate base service 

facilities 

2. Climate, lack of snow 

3. Poor roads, maintenance 

4. Inadequate lift capacity 

5. Inadequate skiing terrain 

or area 

6. Distance from skier 

residence 

7. Competition from other 

ski areas 

8. Lack of capital for 

expansion or Improvement 

9. Inadequate advertising 

budget 
10, Miscellaneous 



3/ 





12 




17 




7 


19 


27 


11 


13 


10 


10 


9 


12 


2 


4 


11 


6 


11 


7 


9 


3 


5 


5 


7 


13 


3 


5 


9 


5 


6 


3 


4 


7 


3 


4 


3 


5 


1 


1 


4 


5 


1 





2 


1 





1 


6 


6 


1 


5 


10 



82 
53 
35 
35 

33 

27 

22 

12 

4 
28 



— Factors are those noted by 159 ski operators in response to question 15 in the Ski Area 
Operator Questionnaire. Some operators did not identify any problem for their areas. 

2 / 

— Ski areas with cable facilities are rated on the basis of vertical transport feet per hour 

(VTF/hr.), as defined on page 38. Rope tow areas are not so rated. 

3/ 

— Number of operators who noted the factor. 



69 





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70 



Table 21. --p^ 


rcent 


of total 


visits 


made 


to 


ski 


arc 


as 


in 


eni. 


h W 


^■stern Slate 


during 


the 1963-64 season by 


residency 


class 


of 


ski 


ers 


■ 


— 








Nonresi 


denl 


s 











All 


State 




Residents 


















residency 
classes 


Other 
Western Stat 


es : 


Els 


ewh 


ere 




Alaska 




96 




2 






2 










100 


Arizona 




95 




5 






-- 










100 


California 




98 




2 






-- 










100 


Colorado 




75 




8 






17 










100 


Idaho 




71 




25 






4 










100 


Montana 




88 




8 






4 










100 


Nevada 




63 




37 

















100 


New Mexico 




70 




3 






27 










100 


Oregon 




79 




20 






1 










100 


Utah 




90 




9 






1 










100 


Washington 




93 




2 






5 










100 


Wyoming 






92 




5 






3 










100 


All States 




87 




7 






6 










100 



Table 22 . -- Distribution of skier visits by age class and State of residence, 

1964-65 season 



(In percent) 



State 



; At;e class : ., 

. : — : : Not 

■13-18"19-22'23-30'31-40'41-50'0ver 50' known- 



1/: 



To ta 1 



Alaska 


39 


4 


16 


34 


5 


2 





100 


Arizona 


39 


13 


27 


10 


9 


2 





100 


California 


18 


15 


29 


23 


13 


2 





100 


Colorado 


20 


17 


28 


23 


10 


2 


<0.5 


100 


Idaho 


31 


9 


26 


25 


7 


2 


<0.5 


100 


Montana 


18 


6 


34 


31 


9 


2 





100 


Nevada 


32 


6 


41 


14 


3 


4 





100 


New Mexico 


24 


4 


27 


33 


12 


<0,5 





100 


Oregon 


40 


10 


13 


14 


19 


3 


1 


100 


Utah 


48 


11 


15 


17 


8 


1 


<0.5 


100 


Washington 


27 


12 


23 


23 


11 


4 





100 


Wyoming 


38 


16 


21 


18 


2 


5 


<0.5 


100 


Other States 


6 


6 


33 


38 


15 


2 





100 


All States 


25 


13 


25 


23 


11 


2 


- 0.5 


100 



1/ 

Respondents failed to answer question 4 of questionnaire, copy 
of which is found beginning on page 49. 



71 



Table 23 . -- Dls tribution of resident skiers of 12 Western States who 

visited ski areas in these States during the 1964-65 season , 
according to distance traveled by auto and type of trip 

(In percent) 



Distance 
(miles) 



Single day— 



Type of trip 



2/ • 3/ 
Weekend— Vacation- 



All types 
of trips 



0-25 


19 




1 


1 


9 


26-50 


25 




7 


2 


15 


51-100 


42 




29 


10 


32 


101-150 


9 




22 


13 


14 


151-200 


4 




16 


14 


10 


201-250 


1 




10 


13 


6 


251-300 


<0. 


5 


6 


9 


4 


301-350 


<0 


5 


6 


8 


3 


351-400 


<0 


5 


2 


6 


2 


401-500 


<0. 


5 


1 


7 


2 


501-1,000 


-- 




<0.5 


13 


2 


1,001+ 


-- 




<0.5 


4 


1 



— Returned home each day. 

2/ 

— Stayed away from home at least one night but not more than 

three nights. 



3/ 



Stayed away from home four or more nights. 



Table 24 . --Distribution of nonwestern skiers who visited western ski 



areas 


during the 


1964 


-65 season. 


according to 


distance 


traveled 


by auto 


and 


type of tri 


£ 
















(In percent) 








Distance 






Type 


of trip 








All types 






y ■■ 


Weekend— \ 






•3 / . 


(miles) [ 


Single day- 


Vacation^' ' 


of trips 


0-25 




23 












7 


26-50 




27 




3 




<0. 


5 


9 


51-100 




28 




15 




3 




14 


101-150 




15 




13 




8 




12 


151-200 




5 




13 




3 




6 


201-250 




2 




22 




6 




9 


251-300 








16 




3 




6 


301-350 








4 




3 




2 


351-400 








6 




5 




4 


401-500 








4 




5 




3 


501-1,000 








4 




50 




22 


1,001+ 












14 




6 



— Returned home each day. 

2/ 

— SLayed away from home at least one but not more than three 

nights . 

3/ 

— Stayed away from home four or more nights. 



72 



Table 25. -- Average distance o£ auto travel by residents of 12 Western 



States, who skied in western ski areas during the 1964-65 
season 



State of 
residence 



Average distance 
to ski area 



Alaska 

Arizona 

California 

Colorado 

Idaho 

Montana 

Nevada 

New Mexico 

Oregon 

Utah 

Washington 

Wyoming 

All States 



Miles 

34 
238 
198 

96 

78 
106 
124 
118 
107 

74 
122 
133 

139 



Table 26. -- Average daily expenditures for specified items by 

skiers visiting western ski ;ir&as during the 1964-65 
season according to type of trip 



I tern 



'S inglt 



1/: 2/: 
day— Weekend- 



Vacation 



3/:All types 
:of trips 



Lodging and 

meals 
Lift tickets 
Rental or 

repair 
Ski lessons 
Other entertainment 
Equipment purchased 

at destination 
Transportation 
Package planz' 
Miscellaneous 

Total 



$1.48 


$8.37 


$18.72 


$5.73 


3.96 


5.09 


8.44 


4.89 


.82 


1.07 


1.10 


.90 


.54 


.50 


1.36 


.66 


.82 


3.48 


6.14 


2.26 


.78 


1.04 


3.51 


1.25 


2.48 


3.95 


9.18 


3.84 


.08 


1.24 


3.99 


.95 


.08 


.10 


-- 


.06 



11.04 



24.84 



52.44 



20.54 



— Returned home each day. 

2/ 

— Stayed away from home for at least one night but not 

more than three nights. 



3/ 



4/ 



Stayed away from home four or more nights. 



Many skiers, especially those on vacation trips, were 
not asked to itemize expenditures when they had paid for their 
trip on a "package plan" basis. 



73 



Table 27. -- Itemized expenditures on ski trips during 1963-64 season in western ski areas 

by State in which expenditure was made 

(Thousands of dollars) 



State 



I tern 



Lodeins: Lift :Rental or: Ski :After-ski : ^ . rTranspor-: Package , ,• , 

■, ■ , ■ 1.1 ^•-^- Equipment ^ ^. , ^ • 1/ Other 
& meals : tickets; repair : schools :activities : ; tation :plan trips— : 



Total 



Alaska 


203 


172 


32 


23 




80 




45 


135 




33 


2 


725 


Arizona 


52 


44 


8 


6 




20 




11 


35 




9 


1 


186 


California 


9,829 


8,348 


1,547 


1,096 


3 


,848 


2 


,153 


6,559 


1 


,609 


121 


35,110 


Colorado 


6,582 


5,590 


1,036 


734 


2 


,576 


1 


,441 


4,392 


1 


,077 


82 


23,510 


Idaho 


1,594 


1,354 


251 


178 




624 




349 


1,064 




261 


19 


5,694 


Montana 


547 


465 


86 


61 




214 




120 


365 




89 


7 


1,954 


Nevada 


156 


133 


24 


17 




61 




34 


104 




26 


2 


557 


New Mexico 


668 


568 


105 


75 




262 




146 


446 




109 


8 


2,387 


Oregon 


1,406 


1,194 


222 


157 




550 




308 


938 




230 


17 


5,022 


Utah 


1,176 


999 


185 


131 




460 




258 


785 




192 


14 


4,200 


Washington 


2,347 


1,993 


369 


262 




919 




514 


1,565 




384 


29 


8,382 


Wyoming 


193 


164 


31 


21 




76 




42 


129 




32 


2 


690 


All States 


24,753 


21,024 


3,896 


2,761 


9 


,690 


5 


,421 


16,517 


4 


,051 


304 


88,417 



— Some skiers, especially those taking vacation trips, used the "package plan" basis. They were 
not asked to separate the various items included in the price. 



Table 28. -- Average daily expenditure of skiers on single-day trips' 
t o wester n s ki ar e as during the 1964-65 season by State 
and residenc y class 

(In dollars) 



1/ 



State 



Resident 



Nonresident 



Western 



Other 



Averat 



Alaska 


15.89 


(2/) 


(2/) 


15.45 


Arizona 


12.02 


(2/) 


(2/) 


11.87 


California 


14.42 


11.00 


(2/) 


14.34 


Colorado 


13.18 


10.19 


(2/) 


13.12 


Idaho 


7.51 


12.49 


(2/) 


7.79 


Montana 


7.72 


(2/) 


(2/) 


7.74 


Nevada 


9.22 


12.79 


(2/) 


9.57 


New Mexico 


9.84 


(2/) 


(2/) 


10.12 


Oregon 


10.57 


10.23 


(2/) 


10.51 


Utah 


7.74 


11.63 


(2/) 


7.82 


Washington 


9.95 


12.28 


10.16 


9.98 


Wyoming 


8.18 


11.54 


(2/) 


8.47 


All States 


""" 


-- 


-- 


11.04 



— Returned home at the end of each day. 

2/ 

— No average given for a sample size of less than 15 skiers. 



74 



Table 29 . --Average daily e xpenditures of skiers on wee ken d t rips— 
t o western ski areas d uri ng the 19 64-65 season by Slate 
and re side n cy c lass 

(In do! lars) 





: Resident 


Nonresi 


dent : 


Avt*rage 




State 


Western ' 


Other ; 




Alaska 


(2/) 


(2/) 


(2/) 


(2/) 




Arizona 


27.36 


(2/) 


(2/) 


27.32 




California 


27.36 


31.60 


(2/) 


27.45 




Colorado 


19.99 


27.06 


46.47 


22.85 




Idaho 


23.14 


23.20 


(i/) 


24.82 




Montana 


20.00 


20.64 


(2/) 


20.04 




Nevada 


11.99 


31.29 


(2/) 


29.91 




New Mexico 


25.89 


(2/) 


39.88 


32.46 




Oregon 


16.03 


20.96 


(2/) 


17.23 




Utah 


29.31 


23.29 


(2/) 


26.73 




Washington 


13.76 


18.27 


18.29 


14.54 




Wyoming 


20.58 


38.02 


(2/) 


25.47 




All States 


- - 


— - 





24.84 





y 



stayed away from home one but not more than three nights. 
No average given for a sample size of less than 15 skiers. 



Table 30.--Av eraRe daily expenditures of skiers on vacation trips 
to western ski area s during the 1964-65 season by State 
and reside ncy class 

(In dollars) 



1/ 





Re s i d c n L 


Nonresident 




State : 






Average 






Western 


Other 




Alaska 


(2/) 


(2/) 


(2/) 


(2/) 


Arizona 


(2/) 


(2/) 


(2/) 


34.72 


California 


51.95 


33.55 


(2/) 


51.48 


Colorado 


30.10 


61.98 


62.72 


56.57 


Idaho 


35.36 


45.11 


(2/) 


50.48 


Montana 


46.58 


44.4 3 


(2/) 


41.85 


Nevada 


(2/) 


54.20 


(2/) 


54.00 


New Mexico 


28.23 


(2/) 


44.38 


42.55 


Oregon 


34.69 


42.16 


(2/) 


38.88 


Utah 


48.52 


52.53 


(2/) 


59.48 


Washington 


23.88 


39.54 


(2/) 


26.32 


Wyoming 


63.95 


(2/) 


(2/) 


55.77 


All States 








52.44 



~ stayed away from home at least four nights. 

2/ 

— No average given for a sample size of less than 15 skiers. 



75 



Table 31. -- Average dally expenditures of skiers who visited western skl ^ , 
areas during the 1964-65 season by State and residency class— 



(In dollars) 



State 



Resident 



Nonresident 



Western 



Other 



Average 



Alaska 


15.62 


(2/) 


(2/) 


15.23 


Arizona 


17.98 


(2/) 


(21) 


18.16 


California 


27.40 


25.75 


(in 


27.44 


Colorado 


15.42 


48.36 


60.27 


25.84 


Idaho 


9.14 


37.38 


71.60 


18.92 


Montana 


9.28 


32.93 


(2/) 


11.75 


Nevada 


9.48 


31.03 


(2/) 


17.28 


New Mexico 


13.67 


33.95 


39.20 


21.12 


Oregon 


12.23 


18.68 


(2/) 


13.58 


Utah 


8.66 


35.96 


(2/) 


11.98 


Washington 


10.86 


20.60 


14.75 


11.22 


Wyoming 


9.81 


27.39 


(2/) 


10.92 


All States 


-- 


-- 


— 


20.54 



— Based on total expenditures by skiers on all types of trips, 
similar averages, see tables 28, 29, and 30. 

2 / 

— No average given for a sample size of less than 15 skiers. 



For 



Table 32. -- Total trip expenditures of skiers who visited western ski 
areas during the 1963 64 season by family income class 
and by type of trip 



Family income class 



Single day- 



Weekend- 



2/ 



3/ 
Vacation- 



Total 



Under $4,000 

$4,000-$6,499 

$6,500-$9,999 

$10,000-$14,999 

$15,000-$24,999 

$25,000 and over 

Not knownit' 

Total 



Under $4,000 

$4,000-$6,499 

$6,500-$9,999 

$10,000-$14,999 

$15,000-$24,999 

$25,000 and over 

Not known—' 



Aver age 





MILLIONS OF DOLLARS 






1.6 


1.5 


1.3 


4.4 


3.4 


3.1 


1.8 


8.3 


5.6 


5.8 


5.4 


16.8 


4.8 


6.0 


7.3 


18.1 


2.4 


3.6 


6.1 


12.1 


1.1 


2.2 


8.2 


11.5 


9.5 


3.6 


4.1 


17.2 


8.4 


25.8 
PERCENT^ 


34.2 


88.4 


37 


33 


30 


100 


40 


38 


22 


100 


33 


35 


32 


100 


27 


33 


40 


100 


20 


30 


50 


100 


10 


19 


71 


100 


55 


21 


24 


100 



32 



29 



39 



100 



i' Returned home at end of each day. 

2 / 

— ' Stayed away from home at least one night but not more than three. 

3/ 

— ' Stayed away from home four or more nights. 

— ' Respondents did not answer or were not asked to answer question 5 

y in- 



3/ 

— ' Stayed away from home four or more nights. 

A/ 

of questionnaire, copy of which is found beginning on page 49. 

— ' Percent of spending on all types of trips within each famll 
come class. 



76 



Table 33. 



• Annual expenditures on clothes and equipment liy skiers who 
are residents of the 12 Western States, 1963-64 seasool' 



State 



Percent of 
skiers who 

made 
purchases 



Average 

expondl ture 

pel 



skier 



2/ 



Total 
expenditures 



Alaska 

Arizona 

California 

Colorado 

Idaho 

Montana 

Nevada 

New Mexico 

Oregon 

Utah 

Washington 

Wyoming 

All States 



91 
40 
78 
81 
77 
67 
92 
71 
86 
79 
82 
75 

79 



154.58 


$376,008 


102.71 


72,581 


84.26 


10,221,113 


78.19 


3,833,879 


98.05 


1,403,904 


113.22 


911,565 


120.50 


221,476 


104.56 


533,263 


103.64 


2,466,655 


80.32 


1,790,573 


74.07 


4,324,712 


100.99 


582,163 


$85.42 


$26,737,892 



~ Does not Include $5.4 million spent on clothing =ind equipment 
on ski trips Csee table 27) . 

9/ 

— Average calculated only for those skiers who made purchases. 



Table 34. -- Number of skiers, by State, who visited western ski areas 
d uring the 1963-64 season, grouped into three residency 
classes 



State 



Residents 



Nonresidents 



: Other : 
:Western States: 



Elsewhere 



All 

residency 

c lasses 



Alaska 


2,659 


545 


545 


3,749 


Arizona 


1,754 


333 


24 


2,111 


California 


155,904 


5,803 


1,827 


163,534 


Colorado 


60,391 


11,836 


19,847 


92,074 


Idaho 


18,530 


13,416 


3,351 


35,297 


Montana 


12,030 


4,072 


501 


16,603 


Nevada 


1,993 


4,284 





6,277 


New Mexico 


7,182 


949 


7,153 


15,284 


Oregon 


27,601 


12,523 


545 


40,669 


Utah 


28,080 


5,948 


753 


34,781 


Washington 


71,405 


5,546 


5,459 


82,410 


Wyoming 


7,727 


1,224 


718 


9,669 


Total 


395,256 


a/) 


a/) 


a/) 



— Totals are not presented because many skiers ski in several 
States and thus would be counted more than once. 



77 



Table 35 . -- Proportion of total population that skied during the 
1963-64 season for each of the 12 Western States 



State of 
residence 



Alaska 

Arizona 

California 

Colorado 

Idaho 

Montana 

Nevada 

New Mexico 

Oregon 

Utah 

Washington 

Wyoming 

Total 



Skier 
population 



Total 
population 



- - - - - -Null 


iber ------ 


2,659 


246,000 


1,754 


1,516,000 


155,904 


17,539,000 


60,391 


1,918,000 


18,530 


687,000 


12,030 


701,000 


1,993 


389,000 


7,182 


986,000 


27,601 


1,852,000 


28,080 


971,000 


71,405 


2,961,000 


7,727 


339,000 



Percent of 

total 
population 



395,256 



30,105,000 



1.3 



Table 36 .- - Educational background of skiers who visited western ski areas 
d uring th e 1964-65 season, by State of residence 

(In percent) 



State of : 






Years 




: known— : 


Total 


residence : 


1-8 


: 9-12 


: 13-16 : 


17+ 


Alaska 


4 


38 


20 


38 





100 


Arizona 


-- 


42 


28 


30 





100 


California 


2 


22 


54 


21 


1 


100 


Colorado 


3 


28 


50 


19 


<0.5 


100 


Idaho 


9 


42 


38 


11 


<0.5 


100 


Montana 


11 


23 


56 


8 


2 


100 


Nevada 


7 


31 


37 


25 





100 


New Mexico 


9 


20 


52 


19 





100 


Oregon 


8 


44 


37 


11 


<0.5 


100 


Utah 


12 


45 


33 


9 


1 


100 


Washington 


7 


32 


43 


18 


<0.5 


100 


Wyoming 


8 


45 


41 


6 


<0.5 


100 


All States 


5 


29 


47 


18 


1 


100 



— Respondents did not answer question 17 of questionnaire, 
copy of which is found beginning on page 49. 



78 



Table 37. -- Age classification of skiers who visited western ski areas during 
the 1964-65 season, by State of residence 

(In percent) 



State of : 
residence : 


13-1 


Alaska 


54 


Arizona 


30 


California 


16 


Colorado 


20 


Idaho 


52 


Montana 


21 


Nevada 


39 


New Mexico 


29 


Oregon 


59 


Utah 


70 


Washington 


36 


Wyoming 


61 


Other states 


1 


All States 


29 



19-22 • 23-30 • 31-40 ' 41-50 ' Over 50 



: Not 
: known 



1/' Total 



1 
13 
9 
15 
1 
2 
2 
1 
5 
4 
7 
6 
1 



11 
42 
39 
33 
19 
33 
50 
27 
9 
10 
25 
18 
34 

30 



31 
8 
27 
27 
24 
39 
8 
35 
14 
12 
26 
13 
54 

26 



2 
7 
9 
5 
4 
5 

8 

12 
4 
6 
1 

10 



1 





< 0.5 





< 0.5 





<0.5 





< 0.5 





. 0.5 





1 











1 


<0 


< . 5 





<0.5 





1 


■ 


<0.5 






0.5 <0.5 



100 
100 
100 
100 
100 
100 
100 
100 
100 
100 
100 
100 
100 

100 



— Respondents did not answer question 4 ot questionnaire, copy of which 
is found beginning on page 49 . 



Table 3ij.-- Family income class of skiers who visited western ski areas 
d uring the 1964-65 season, b y State of residence 

(In percent) 





Less 


$4,000 


$6,500 


$10,000 


$15,000 


$25,000 


Not ^/ 
known— 




State 


than 


to 


to 


to 


to 


and 


Total 




$4,000 


6,499 


9,999 


14,999 


24,999 


over 




Alaska 








14 


21 


56 


9 





100 


Arizona 


11 


10 


32 


44 





2 


1 


100 


California 


9 


13 


27 


26 


15 


7 


3 


100 


Colorado 


8 


20 


29 


24 


10 


5 


4 


100 


Idaho 


<0.5 


22 


49 


18 


7 


3 


1 


100 


Montana 


3 


28 


33 


16 


17 


3 


<0.5 


100 


Nevada 


23 


6 


18 


29 


20 


2 


2 


100 


New Mexico 


2 


11 


27 


28 


22 


10 


<0.5 


100 


Oregon 


10 


10 


31 


21 


22 


5 


1 


100 


Utah 


6 


17 


40 


21 


9 


3 


4 


100 


Washington 


7 


20 


23 


31 


12 


4 


3 


100 


Wyoming 


9 


18 


36 


15 


16 


6 


<0.5 


100 


All States 


7 


16 


29 


25 


14 


6 


3 


100 



— Respondents failed to answer question 5 on questionnaire, copy 
of which is found beginning on page 49. 



79 



Table 39. -- Average number of visits to western ski areas per skier 
during the 1964-65 season, by State and by residency class 



State 



Residents 



Nonresidents 



: Other : 
:Western States: 



Elsewhere 



All 

residency 

classes 



Alaska 


16.5 


2.0 


2.0 


12.2 


Arizona 


5.4 


1.5 


I.O 


4.7 


California 


7.7 


3.8 


3.3 


7.6 


Colorado 


11.0 


5.5 


7,7 


9.6 


Idaho 


11.2 


5.4 


3.4 


8.3 


Montana 


11.8 


3.2 


11.1 


9.7 


Nevada 


9.9 


2.7 





5.0 


New Mexico 


10.7 


3.2 


4.1 


7.2 


Oregon 


10.3 


5.7 


3.6 


8.8 


Utah 


10.9 


4.8 


5.8 


9.8 


Washington 


9.4 


2.3 


6.3 


8.8 


Wyoming 


7.3 


2.7 


2.1 


6.4 


All States 


10.27 


a/) 


(1/) 


a/) 



— Averages are not presented because many skiers ski in 
several States and thus would be counted more than once. 



Table 40. -- Percent of married skiers, 19 years or older . 
who visited western ski areas during the 1964-65 
season, whose spouse was classed as a "skier"-- 
by family income class and sex 



Family income class 



Under $4,000 
$4,000 to $6,499 
$6,500 to $9,999 
$10,000 to $14,999 
$15,000 to $24,999 
$25,000 and over 
Not knowni^ 

All income classes 



Sex 



Male 


: Female 


65 


100 


62 


87 


70 


81 


73 


93 


73 


77 


73 


57 


47 


81 



70 



84 



— Respondents did not answer question 5 of 
questionnaire, copy of which is found beginning on 
page 49 . 



80 



Table 41 .-- Pis tributi on within family Income classes of those (19 years or older) who skied during 

the 1964-65 season, according to type of ski trip 



Income class 



Single day 
only—' 



Weekend 
onlyll 



Vacation 
onlyi' 



Single day: Single day:Weekend : Single day, 
and : and : and : weekend, and 
weekend : vacation :vacatii)n: vacation 



Total 



Under $4,000 
S4,000 to $6,499 
$6,500 to $9,999 
$10,000 to $14,999 
$15,000 to $24,999 
$25,000 and over 



43.2 


24.4 


1.1 


17.9 


Percent - - - 
2.1 


3.8 


7.5 


100.0 


50.3 


14.9 


.8 


21.0 


2.3 


3.1 


7.6 


100.0 


47.4 


13.4 


1.0 


24.9 


4. 1 


2.8 


6.4 


100.0 


38.1 


14.7 


3.0 


24.8 


5.4 


5.8 


8.2 


100.0 


34.3 


16.5 


2.3 


22.4 


6.8 


7.2 


10.5 


100. 


19.9 


12.4 


8.0 


19.7 


7.1 


12. 1 


20.8 


100.0 



All income classes 



46.0 



12.8 



2.0 



22.8 



4.3 



4.5 



7.6 



100.0 



— Returned home each day 
2/ 



3/ 



Stayed away from home at least one night but not more than three nights. 



— Stayed away from home four or more nights. 



Table 42. -- Average number of days skied during the 1964-65 season per 
skier on each of three types of trips and for all trips 
combined, by family income classj .' 



Income class 



^c- 1 A 2/: „ , ,3/ 
Single day— _ weekend— 



Vacation— 



All types 
of trips 



Under $4,000 


8.02 


4.54 


7.76 


9.65 


$4,000-$6,499 


7.24 


5.16 


6.64 


9.63 


$6,500-$9,999 


6.70 


4.86 


7.05 


9.69 


$10,000-$14,999 


7.41 


4.95 


6.42 


10.38 


$15,000-$24,999 


6.72 


5.38 


7.55 


10.59 


$25,000 and over 

5 / 
Not knowni' 


6.44 


5.11 


8.51 


13.82 


8.47 


4.60 


7.07 


10.37 


All income classes 


7.45 


4.92 


7.16 


10.27 



— Averages based on the number of days spent skiing on each 

of the three types of trips by skiers who went on such trips. Not all 
skiers went on all three kinds of trips. 

2/ 

— Returned home each day. 

3/ 

— Stayed away from home at least one night, but not more than 

three nights. 

4/ 

— Stayed away from home four or more nights. 

— Respondents did not answer question 5 of questionnaire, copy of 
which is found beginning on page 49. 



81 



Table '3. -- Occupational backgrounds of skiers who visited western ski areas during the 1964-65 

season, by State of residence 

(In percent) 



State 



■_Studentj Professional] Clerical' Managerial] Housewife] 



All 
others 



Not ^/: 
known— ; 



Total 



Alaska 


45 


35 


Arizona 


59 


18 


California 


33 


25 


Colorado 


35 


25 


Idaho 


33 


18 


Montana 


28 


39 


Nevada 


54 


20 


New Mexico 


27 


35 


Oregon 


50 


15 


Utah 


57 


11 


Washington 


37 


19 


Wyoming 


48 


9 


All States 


37 


22 






8 


7 


5 





100 





9 


1 


13 





100 


5 


3 


8 


25 


1 


100 


3 


5 


10 


19 


3 


100 


2 


2 


6 


38 


1 


100 


3 


5 


4 


20 


1 


100 


1 


3 


3 


19 





100 


2 


3 


9 


24 





100 


1 


5 


13 


16 





100 


4 


2 


5 


19 


2 


100 


4 


6 


12 


22 


<0.5 


100 


3 


7 


13 


20 


<0.5 


100 



23 



100 



— Respondents failed to answer question 19 on questionnaire, copy of which is found 
bevjinning on pag^j 49 . 



Table 44. -- Marital status and sex of skiers 19 years or older who visited 
western areas during the 1964-65 season, by State of residence 

(In percent) 



State 



Married 



Male " Female 



Total 



Not married 



Male 



Female ' Total 



Total 



Alaska 


57 


14 


71 


22 


7 


29 


100 


Arizona 


35 


4 


39 


46 


15 


61 


100 


California 


45 


12 


57 


31 


12 


43 


100 


Colorado 


42 


15 


57 


27 


16 


43 


100 


Idaho 


52 


16 


68 


21 


11 


32 


100 


Montana 


52 


20 


72 


19 


9 


28 


100 


Nevada 


40 


12 


52 


45 


3 


48 


100 


New Mexico 


56 


15 


71 


18 


11 


29 


100 


Oregon 


50 


16 


66 


20 


14 


34 


100 


Utah 


49 


18 


67 


17 


16 


33 


100 


Washington 


47 


20 


67 


19 


14 


33 


100 


Wyoming 


48 


27 


75 


16 


9 


25 


100 


Others 


51 


11 


62 


27 


11 


38 


100 


All States 


47 


15 


62 


25 


13 


38 


100 



82 



Table 4 'i. -- Percent of skiers taking various types of trips or combinations of such trips t 



1/ 



2/ 



Returned home at the end of the dav. 



— Stayed away from home at least one but not more than thr-,e nights. 

3/ 

— Stayed away from houie four or more nights. 





western ski areas during 


the 1964-65 season by State of residence 






















State of 
residence 


Single^^ 
day only— 


Weekend 
onlyl' 


Vacat ion 
onlyl/ 


Single day 

and 

weekend 


Single day 
and 
vaca t i on 


Weekend 

and 
vacation 


Single day, 
weekend , 

and 
vacat i on 


Total 


Alaska 


78.8 








18.9 


1.3 





1.0 


100.0 


Arizona 


52.2 


3.7 


17.3 


13.0 


1.7 


1.5 


10.6 


100.0 


California 


23.1 


27.3 


2.3 


25.2 


3.3 


9.3 


9. 5 


100.0 


Colorado 


57.5 


.8 


.3 


29.4 


4.8 


.3 


6.9 


100.0 


Idaho 


62.4 


10.8 





22.4 


2.4 


.2 


1.8 


100.0 


Montana 


75.8 








13.0 


6.9 


.5 


3.8 


100.0 


Nevada 


53.7 


14.2 





20.1 


5.7 





6.3 


100.0 


New Mexico 


40.7 


9.2 





38.8 


3.2 


1.6 


6. 5 


100.0 


Oregon 


62.5 


3.5 





24.2 


3.1 


.5 


6.2 


100.0 


Utah 


88.5 


.2 





7.3 


2.1 


.2 


1. 7 


100.0 


Washington 


62.2 


1.8 


1.7 


21.7 


5.5 


. 5 


6.6 


100.0 


Wyoming 


62.6 


4.8 





23.1 


5.6 


1.1 


2.8 


100.0 


Other 


5.1 


20.7 


14.2 


10.7 


11.7 


16.4 


21.2 


100.0 


All States 


46.0 


12.8 


2.0 


22.8 


4.3 


4.5 


7.6 


100.0 



83 



Table 46. --A verage daily expenditure per skier on trips, by family income 

class and type of trip, 1964-65 



Income class 



Type of trip 



Single day— 



Weekend- 
overnight- 



2/ 



Vacation— 



Under $4,000 


11.76 


- - Dollars - 
23.79 


$4,000-$6,499 


11.29 


25.93 


$6,500-$9,999 


10.65 


26.18 


$10,000-$14,999 


10.17 


25.78 


$15,000-$24,999 


10.91 


25.95 


Over $25,000 


12.01 


28.03 


No answer^/ 


11.48 


19.54 


All income classes 


11.04 


24.84 



40.89 
36.14 
47.37 
50.39 
56.17 
80.77 
40.52 
52.44 



1/ 
2/ 



Returned to his home at end of each day of skiing. 



Stayed away from home on weekend ski trip for at least one night but 

less than four nights. 

3/ 

T, Stayed away from home four or more nights while on vacation ski trip. 

— Skiers who did not, or were not asked to, provide income information 

on Skier Questionnaire (question 5). 



Table 47. -- Percent of skier population that 
started to ski in each year sinc e 
1950 



Years 



Percent of skiers that 
started skiing in each year 



1950 
and earlier 
1951 
1952 
1953 
1954 
1955 
1956 
1957 
1958 
1959 
1960 
1961 
1962 
1963 
1964 



21 
1 
2 
2 
2 
3 
3 
4 
4 
5 
8 
6 
8 
11 
20 



84 



LIST OF POSSIBLE SITES 



The listing on the following pages gives the 
name, location, and other available infor- 
mation describing 166 areas that have been 
judged by someone as possible ski areas. 
Inclusion of any site does not in any way 
indicate that its development would be 
economically feasible. 



85 



LIST OF POSSIBLE SITES 

ALASKA 

Boot Hill, near Fairbanks, 100 acres 

Steep Creek, 12 mi. N Juneau on Mendenhall Loop Rd., 1,200 acres, 4,000 ft. vert. rise 

ARIZONA 

Alpine Bowl, 5 mi. SW Alpine on US Hwy 180, 750 acres, 1,000 ft. vert, rise 
Escudilla, 10 mi. N Alpine on St. Hwy 180, 700 acres, 1,100 ft. vert, rise 
Greer, 2 mi. S Greer on St. Hwy 373, 300 acres, 500 ft. vert, rise 
Hannagan, 25 mi. S Alpine on US Hwy 666, 2,000 acres, 1,000 ft. vert, rise 
Hawley Lake, 18 mi. SE McNary on St. Hwy 73, 500 acres, 600 ft. vert, rise 
Inner Basin, 18 mi. N Flagstaff on St. Hwy 89, 608 acres, 2,000 ft. vert, rise 
Mount Baldy, 30 mi. SE McNary on St. Hwy 73, 1,000 acres, 2,500 ft. vert, rise 
Mount Graham, 25 mi. SW Safford on St. Hwy 366, 800 acres, 1,500 ft. vert, rise 
Mount Ord, 20 mi. E McNary on St. Hwy 73, 1,000 acres , 2,000 ft. vert, rise 
Roof Butte, 7 mi. SW Lukachukai on St. Hwy 12, 300 acres, 900 ft. vert, rise 
Springer Mtn. , 1.5 mi. E Lakeside on St. Hwy 173, 4 acres, 600 ft. vert, rise 

CALIFORNIA 

Castle Peak, 6 mi. SW Soda Springs on US Hwy 40, 1,000 acres, 1,600 ft. vert, rise 
Deer Creek, 11 mi. NE Chester on St. Hwy 36, 650 acres, 3,000 ft. vert, rise 
Donderberg, 17 mi. N Bridgeport on US Hwy 395, 400 acres, 2,000 ft. vert, rise 
Freel Peak, 8 mi. SE Lake Tahoe on US Hwy 50, 1,000 acres, 2,000 ft. vert, rise 
Kirkwood, 35 mi. SW Lake Tahoe, St. Hwy 88, 800 acres, 1,200 ft. vert, rise 
Mineral King, 31 mi. W Three Rivers on St. Hwy 198, 2,000 acres, 4,000 ft. vert, rise 
Peppermint, 20 mi. NW Springville on St. Hwy 190, 700 acres, 1,600 ft. vert, rise 
Round Top, 30 mi. S Lake Tahoe on St. Hwy 88, 400 acres, 1,200 ft. vert, rise 
Silver Mtn., 14 mi. S MarkleeviUe on St. Hwy 104, 800 acres, 2,500 ft. vert, rise 
Sherwin Creek, 2 mi. N Mammoth Lakes on US Hwy 395, 1,600 acres, 2,800 ft. vert, rise 
Stevens Peak, 12 mi. S Lake Tahoe on St. Hwy 89, 900 acres, 1,900 ft, vert, rise 
Thimble Peak, 37 mi. SW Lake Tahoe on St. Hwy 88, 500 acres, 1,600 ft. vert, rise 

COLORADO 

Copper Mtn,, 5 mi, SW Frisco on US Hwy 6, 1,000 acres, 2,000 ft. vert, rise 
Cucharas, 26 mi, SW Walsenberg on St. Hwy 111, 160 acres, 1,800 ft. vert, rise 
Devil's Creek, 6 mi. N Lake City on St. Hwy 149, 100 acres, 3,000 ft. vert, rise 
Douglas Creek, 40 mi. S Rangely on St. Hwy 64, 200 acres, 1,200 ft. vert, rise 
East Baldy Peak, 10 mi. N Ouray on St. Hwy 550, 100 acres, 2,400 ft. vert, rise 
East Whitehouse, 6 mi. NW Ouray on St. Hwy 550, 100 acres, 2,000 ft. vert, rise 

86 



I 



:OLORADO (con.) 

Iron Mtn., 10 mi, SW Gardner on St. Hwy 305, 3,000 acres, 2,500 ft. vert, rise 

Keystone, 5 mi. E Dillon on US Hwy 6, 2,000 acres, 3,000 ft. vert, rise 

Little Annie, 3 mi. SW Aspen on St. Hwy 82, 1,000 acres, 500 ft. vert, rise 

Mary Jane, 2 mi. S Winter Park on US li\-jy 40, 1,000 acres, 1,700 ft. vert, rise 

Mt. Elbert, 8 mi, SW Leadville on US H\^ 24, 1,500 acres, 1,500 ft. vert, rise 

Sandoval Basin, 25 mi. SW Pagosa Springs on St. Hwy 151, 200 acres, 1,100 ft. vert. rise 

Sheep Mtn., 5 mi, SW Tabernash on US Hwy 40, 320 acres, 1,200 ft. vert, rise 

Slumgullion, 7 mi. SE Lake City on St. Hwy 149, 100 acres 

Snowmass, 5 mi. NW Aspen on St. Hwy 82, 6,000 acres, 4,000 ft. vert, rise 

Waugh Mtn., 40 mi. NW Canon City on St. Hwy 9, 3,150 acres, 2,000 ft. vert, rise 

:daho 



Ajax Mtn., 15 mi. NE Salmon on St. Hwy 93, 154 acres, 3,000 ft, vert, rise 

Baldy, 10 mi, E Swan Valley on US Hwy 26, 360 acres 

Bannak Peak, 30 mi. SW Pocatello on St. Hwy 30, 300 acres, 500 ft. vert, rise I 



Bennett Mtn., 15 mi, NE Mountain Home on St. Hwy 68, <100 acres 
Big Springs, 40 mi. N Ashton on St. Hwy 84, 130 acres 
Bishop, 30 mi. NW Ashton on US Hwy 191, 140 acres 

Butterfield Creek, 16 mi. N Ketchum on US Hwy 93, 800 acres, 2,800 ft. vert, rise 
Capehorn Mtn,, 23 mi. W Stanley on St, Hwy 21, 3,880 acres, 2,712 ft. vert, rise 
Elk Mtn,, 9 mi, W Stanley on St, Hwy 21, 950 acres, 1,300 ft. vert, rise 
Frost Peak, 15 mi, SW Kellogg on St. Hwy 10, <100 acres 
High Point, 20 mi. NW Ashton on US Hwy 191, 160 acres 

Mt. Putnam , 30 mi. NE Pocatello on US Hwy 91, 400 acres, 1,000 ft. vert. rise. 
No Business Mtn., 8 mi. W Donnelly on St. Hwy 15, 1,000 acres, 2,430 ft. vert. rise 
Reed's Gulch, 11 mi. NE St. Maries on St. Hwy 95A, 1,920 acres, 1,103 ft. vert. rise 
Sawtell, 40 mi. N Ashton on US Hwy 191, 600 acres 
Signal Mtn,, 10 mi, NE Spencer on US Hwy 91, 420 acres 

Silver City, 22 mi. SW Murphy on St. Hwy 45, < 100 acres, 1,000 ft. vert, rise 
St. Joe-Baldy Mtn., 10 mi. E St. Maries on Alt. 95 1-43, 3,000 acres 
Warm River, 10 mi. NE Ashton on St. Hwy 47, 100 acres 
West End, 30 mi. NW Ashton on US \i\^ 191, 130 acres 

Withington Creek, 16 mi. SE Salmon on St. Hwy 93, 200 acres, 2,000 ft. vert, rise 
[QNTANA 
Blackfeet, 19 mi. SE Browning on US Hwy 89, 160 acres, 1,300 ft. vert, rise 
Boulder, 16 mi. NE Poison on St. Hwy 35, 4,000 acres, 1,600 ft. vert, rise 
Crazy Fish, 20 mi. N Missoula on US Hwy 10, 2,000 acres, 1,500 ft. vert, rise 
Crystal Lake, 30 mi. S Lewistown on US Hwy 87, 460 acres, 1,000 ft. vert, rise 



87 



I 



I 



MONTANA (con.) 

East Slope-Big Horn, 30 mi. E Wyola on US Hwy 87, 4,000 acres, 2,545 ft. vert, rise 
Lolo Peak, 15 mi. SW Missoula on US Hwy 12, 4,000 acres, 3,500-5,000 ft. vert, rise 
Lost Trail, 30 mi. S Darby on US Hwy 93, 1,500 acres, 2,900 ft. vert, rise 
Mount Hebgen, 13 mi. NNW West Yellowstone on US Hwy 191, 1,500 acres, 2,000 ft. vert. rise 
South Lookout Pass, 7 mi. SE Mullan on US Hwy 90, 1,200 acres, 1,900 ft. vert, rise 
Squaw Peak, 26 mi. NW Missoula on US Hwy 10, 1,500 acres, 2,000 ft. vert, rise 

NEVADA 

Bald Mtn. , 35 mi. SE Ely on US Hwys 6 & 50 , 500 acres, 1,500 ft. vert, rise 
East Peak, 10 mi. NW Minden on For. Hwy 19, 1,500 acres, 2,300 ft. vert, rise 
Lamoille Canyon, 25 mi. SE Elko on US & St. Hwy 40, 300 acres, 1,000 ft. vert, rise 
Mount Tobin, 54 mi. SSE Winnemucca on US Hwy 40, 5,000 acres, 5,100 ft. vert, rise 
Spruce Mtn., 39 mi. S Wells on US Hwy 93, 15,000 acres, 3,700 ft, vert, rise 

NEW MEXICO 

Elk Mtn., 30 mi. NW Las Vegas on St. Hwy 65, 1,500 acres, 2,000 ft. vert, rise 
Mount Taylor, 15 mi. NE Grants on US Hwy 40, 200 acres, 1,840 ft. vert, rise 
Mt. Wheeler, 6 mi. S Red River on St. Hwy 38, 600 acres, 3,000 ft. vert, rise 
Santa Clara Canyon, 15 mi. SW Espanola on St. Hwy 4, 640 acres, 1,800 ft. vert, rise 
White Mtn., 10 mi. NW Ruidoso on St. Hwy 37, 1,280 acres, 2,400 ft. vert, rise 

OREGON 

Badger Butte, 35 mi. S Hood River on St. Hwy 35, 100 acres, 500 ft. vert, rise 
Barlow Butte, 3 mi. E Govt. Camp on St. Hwy 35, 60 acres, 500 ft. vert, rise 
Barlow Pass, 3 mi. E Govt. Camp on St. Hwy 35, 120 acres, 500 ft. vert, rise 
Battle Creek Mtn., 9 mi. NE Dayville on US Hwy 26, 80 acres, 500 ft. vert, rise 
Bennett Pass, 30 mi. S Hood River on St. Hwy 35, 137 acres, 500 ft. vert, rise 
Brown Mtn., 22 mi. NE Ashland on US Hwy 99, 135 acres, 2,000 ft. vert, rise 
Calamity, 25 mi. N Burns on US Hwy 395, 369 acres, 1,500 ft. vert, rise 
Cherry Peak, 12 mi. SW Ft. Klamath on St. Hwy 62, 45 acres, 1,500 ft. vert, rise 
Cloud Lake, 28 mi. NW Klamath Falls on US Hwy 97, 290 acres, 1,500 ft. vert, rise 
Cooper Spur Glacier 35 mi. S Hood River on St. Hwy 35, 28 acres, 1,500 ft. vert. rise 
Cornucopia Schneider, 10 mi. N Halfway on St. Hwy 86, 53 acres, 1,200 ft. vert, rise 
Dixie Summit, 30 mi. NE John Day on US Hwy 26, 114 acres, 500 ft. vert, rise 
East Multorpor, mi. SE Govt. Camp on US Hwy 26, 90 acres, 500 ft. vert, rise 
Frog Lake Butte, 8 mi. SE Govt. Camp on US Hwy 26, 51 acres, 1,000 ft. vert, rise 
Grayback Mtn., 10 mi. E Cave Jet. on St. Hwy 46, 60 acres, 1,500 ft. vert, rise 
High Rock, 30 mi. E Estacada on St. Hwy 224, 226 acres, 500 ft. vert, rise 
Ichabod, 23 mi. NE Ashland on US Hwy 99, 50 acres, 300 ft. vert, rise 
Indian Basin, 5 mi. SE Upper Soda on US Hwy 20, 434 acres, 1,000 ft. vert, rise 



lEGON (conj 

Lamberson Butte, 23 mi. S Hood River on St. Hwy 35, 240 acres, 1,000 ft. vert, rise 
Larch Mtn. , 12 mi, E Corbett on US Hwy 26, 27 acres, 300 ft. vert, rise 
Lehman Springs, 16 mi. E Ukiah on US Hwy 395, 54 acres, 500 ft. vert, rise 
Little ZigZag, 1 mi. N Govt. Camp of US Hwy 26, 28 acres, 500 ft. vert, rise 
Lost Creek, 28 mi. NW Klamath Falls on US Hwy 97, 175 acres, 2,000 ft. vert, rise 
Maiden Peak, 16 mi. NW Chemult on St. Hwy 58, 200 acres, 1,311 ft. vert, rise 
Maklaks Mtn., 15 mi. NW Chemult on St. Hwy 58, 500 acres, 990 ft. vert, rise 
Mary's Peak, 20 mi. SW Corvallis on St. Hwy 34, 60 acres, 500 ft. vert, rise 
Mt. Bailey, 90 mi. E Roseburg on St. Hwy 230, 500 acres, 1,900 ft. vert, rise 
Mt. Howard, 6 mi. S Joseph on St. Hwy 82, 100 acres, 3,835 ft. vert, rise 
Mt. Jefferson, 35 mi. NW Madras on US Hwy 26, 1,000 acres, 1,000 ft. vert, rise 
Mt. Thielsen, 25 mi. SW Chemult on St. Hwy 230, 100 acres, 1,000 ft. vert, rise 
North End, 90 mi. E Roseburg on St. Hwy 230, 40 acres, 300 ft. vert, rise | 

Olallie, 20 mi. NE Detroit on St. Hwy 22, 22 acres, 1,000 ft. vert, rise j 

Olallie Butte, 25 mi. W Warm Spring on US Hw^ 26 • 

Rodley Butte, 90 mi. E Roseburg on St. Hwy 230, 1,700 acres, 1,000 ft. vert, rise ! 

Sand Mtn., 10 mi. SE Upper Soda on US Hwy 20, 190 acres, 500 ft. vert, rise ' 

Timothy, 30 mi. E Estacada on St. Hwy 224, 58 acres, 500 ft. vert, rise 

Twin Mtn., 20 mi. SW North Powder on US Hwy 30, 700 acres, 2,650 ft. vert, rise , 

Wallowa Lake, 3 mi. S Joseph on St. Hwy 82, 82 acres, 2,727 ft. vert, rise \ 

W. Eagle Meadows, 14 mi. NE Medic Springs, St. Hwy 203, 110 acres, 500 ft. vert, rise 
West ZigZag, 1.5 mi. NE Rhododendron on US Hwy 26, 300 acres, 1,000 ft. vert, rise | 

Yainax Butte, 8 mi. S Beatty on St. Hwy 66, 40+ acres, 800 ft. vert, rise 

:ah 

Albion Basin, 29 mi. SE Salt Lake on St. Hwy 210, 600 acres, 1,100 ft. vert, rise 

Avintiquin, 20 mi. SW Duchesne on US Hwy 40, 2,000 acres, 1,000 ft. vert, rise 

Big Sky, 12 mi. E Bountiful on St. Hwy 15, 700 acres, 1,500 ft. vert, rise 

Bluebell, 11 mi. E Ephraim on St. Hwy 29, 40 acres, 800 ft. vert, rise 

Boulger, 18 mi. E Fairview on St. Hwy 31, 160 acres, 1,000 ft. vert, rise 

Circleville Mtn., 20 mi. W Junction on St. Hwy 153, 640 acres, 1,500 ft. vert, rise 

Deseret Peak, 16 mi. NE Grantsville on US Hwy 80, 400 acres, 2,200 ft. vert, rise 

Gad Valley, 29 mi. SE Salt Lake on St. Hwy 210, 1,300 acres, 3,000 ft. vert, rise 

Hill Creek, 25 mi. NE Green River on US Hwys 6 & 50, 2,000 acres, 1,800 ft. vert. rise 

Jefferson Park, 20 mi. NW Roosevelt on US Hwy 40, 2,000 acres, 2,000 ft. vert, rise 

Navajo Lake, 23 mi. SE Cedar City on St. Hwy 14, 50 acres, 865 ft. vert, rise 

Pigeon Water, 20 mi. NW Duchesne on US Hwy 40, 2,000 acres, 1,600 ft. vert, rise 

Rigby, 24 mi. E Fairview on St. Hwy 31, 110 acres, 1,123 ft. vert, rise 

Snake Creek, 4 mi. NW Midway on St. Hwy 224, 1,750 acres, 4,300 ft. vert, rise 

89 



WASHINGTON 

Basin, 20 mi. SE North Bend on St. Hwys 108 & 90, 115 acres, 1,500 ft. vert, rise 
Belcher Mtn. , 20 mi. NE Republic on St. Hwy 4A, 400 acres, 1,250 ft. vert, rise 
Black Buttes, 8 mi. S Glacier on St. Hwy 542, 2,400 acres, 2,000 ft. vert, rise 
Buckhorn Lake, 25 mi. S Sequim on US Hwy 101, 20 acres, 2,000 ft. vert, rise 
Canyon Creek, 6 mi. W Wenatchee on US Hwy 2, 480 acres, 1,500 ft. vert, rise 
Copper Mtn., 30 mi. S Shelton on US Hwy 101, 8 acres, 1,200 ft. vert, rise 
Denny Mtn., 20 mi. SE North Bend on St. Hwys 108 & 90, 207 acres, 2,200 ft. vert. rise 
Horseshoe Mtn., 11 mi. NW Republic on St. Hwy 4A, 400 acres, 1,250 ft. vert, rise 
Huckleberry Creek, 18 mi. SW Chewelah on US Hwy 395, 480 acres, 1,100 ft. vert, rise 
Huckleberry Mtn., 15 mi. SW Chewelah on US Hwy 395, 640 acres, 1,300 ft. vert, rise 
Indian Camp, 20 mi. SE North Bend, St. Hwys 108 & 90, 110 acres, 1,000 ft. vert. rise ' 
Kendall Peak, 0.5 mi. N Hyak on St. Hwys 108 & 90, 1,000 acres, 2,600 ft. vert, rise 
Liberty Bell, 25 mi. W Mazama on St. Hwy 20, 1,000 acres, 2,000 ft. vert, rise 
Meadow Mtn., 16 mi. E Darrington on St. Hwy 530, 356 acres, 500 ft. vert, rise 
Midway, 40 mi. S Packwood on St. Hwy 14, 300 acres, 625 ft. vert, rise 

Moses Mtn., 30 mi. NW Coulee Dam on US Hwy lOA, 200 acres, 500 ft. vert, rise || 
Mt. Adams, 60 mi. SW Yakima on US Hwy 97, 1,000 acres, 1,000 ft. vert, rise 
Mt. Townsend, 15 mi. S Sequim on US Hwy 101, 20 acres, 2,000 ft. vert, rise 
Schrierers Meadows., 16 mi. S Glacier on St. Hwy 542, 361 acres, 800 ft. vert, rise 
Sherman Pass, 18 mi. E Republic on St, Hwy 3P, 600 acres, 1,600 ft. vert, rise 
Silver Peak, 20 mi. SE North Bend, St. Hwys 108 & 90, 369 acres, 1,200 ft. vert. rise 
Silver Star, 25 mi. NE Vancouver on St. Hwy 503, 26 acres, 200 ft. vert, rise 
Skyline Basin, 22 mi. S Dayton on US Hwy 410, 200 acres, 1,600 ft. vert, rise 
Swamp Co., 30 mi. W Maxama on St. Hwy 20, 1,500 acres, 2,500 ft. vert, rise 

WYOMING 

Afton Mtn., 1 mi. E Afton on US Hwy 189, 20 acres, 1,500 ft. vert, rise 

Alpine Park, 2 mi. S Alpine on US Hwy 189, 100 acres, 1,500 ft. vert, rise 

Bald Mtn., 18 mi. SW Fort Washakie on US Hwy 287, >100 acres, 1,500 ft. vert, rise 

Elk Mtn., 50 mi. SE Rawlins on US Hwy 30, 2,000 acres, 3,000 ft. vert, rise 

Fred's Mtn., 10 mi. E Driggs on St. Hwy 33, 500 acres 



90 



WESTERN SKIING COMPAF 
TO THAT FOUND ANYWHERE IN 




terrain that offers variety and long distance runs ...and v 




-i^ 



V 



- .V 



...and with snow that is powder dry 




•••more 





'^. \ 




1 



y 






THE EFFECT OF SPIRAL GRAIN 
ON 
POLE TWIST 
AND 
BENDING STRENGTH 





Lowery 
and 

^., TEu^rJ^^E. C. O. Erickson 



# 



\M 



Re^e^rch Paper INT-3^, •l|67 
. INTERMOUNTAIN FOREST 

AND RANGE 
EXPERIMENT STATION 

Ogden, Ut-.-n 



I 






ACKNOWLEDGMENT 

The aut±iors wish to acknowledge their debt to Mr. C. A. 
Wellner, Intermountain Forest and Range Experiment Station, 
who designed the study and followed it closely for many years; 
to Mr. James M. Trappe, Pacific Northwest Forest and Range 
Experiment Station, who supervised the selection of poles and 
their installation; and to Mr. Thomas Wilkinson, U.S. Forest 
Products Laboratory, who assisted in the analysis of the bending 
strength test data. 

The J. Neils Lumber Company, a division of St. Regis, 
was most helpful in providing the test material, manpower, and 
equipment for installing the study, and the test area. Without the 
active interest and participation of Mr. Melvin Knudson and other 
company representatives, this study could not have been made. 



COVER PHOTO: 

Experimental setup for 
study of twist of spiral- 
grained poles in use. 
(See drawing on page 3) 



^ ^.i 



U.S. Forest Service 
Research Paper INT -35 
1967 



THE EFFECT OF SPIRAL GRAIN ON POLE TWIST 
AND BENDING STRENGTH 



by 
David P. Lowery and E. C. O. Erickson 



INTERMOUNTAIN FOREST AND RANGE EXPERIMENT STATION 

Forest Service 

U.S. Department of Agriculture 

Ogden, Utah 

Joseph F. Pechancc, Director 



THE AUTHORS 

DAVID P. LOWERY is Wood Technologist at the 
Intermoimtain Forest and Range Experiment 
Station, Missoula, Montana. He has done 
research at the Forest Products Laboratory 
and in the Intermountain West since 1952. 

E. C. O. ERICKSON was formerly Engineer in 
Structural Utilization Research, Division of 
Wood Engineering, Forest Products Labora- 
tory, Madison, Wisconsin. He received the 
B.S. degree in Civil Engineering from the 
University of Minnesota. He was a bridge 
designer for the St. Paul Railroad and did 
structural design work for Kimberly-Clark 
Corp. He joined the Forest Products Labo- 
ratory as research engineer in 1936 and 
retired from that position in 1965. 



THE EFFECT OF SPIRAL GRAIN ON POLK TWIST 
AND BENDING STRENGTH 



David P. Lowcry and E. C. O. Erickson 

Spiral grain and its effect on the twisting of poles in service have been under investigation 
le Intermountain Forest and Range Experiment Station for a number of years. Earlier studies 
been concerned witli the detection of spiral grain in standing trees, the inspection of poles 
ansmission lines and pole yards, and the effect of spiral grain on the iK>rforinance of poles, 
present study was designed mainly to determine how spiral grain, in combination with other 
acteristics, affects the twisting of three species of poles in service. One corollary study 
Dred the value of particular characteristics and treatments of poles in preventing twist. An - 
r tested the bending strength of a limited number of spiral -grained poles. General observa- 
i on the nature of spiral grain were made from laboratory examination of pole cross sections. 

LITERATURE REVIEW 



Although the literature abounds with references to spiral grain, in many instances this 
acteristic is noted as an oddity. However, in reports published in 1925 and later. Champion 
), 7) established that spiral grain is a genetic trait, transmitted from parent to progeny, 
tie basis of observations and studies made in Canada, Northcott (12) advanced the hypothesis 
spiral grain is the normal growth habit of trees. Rudinsky and Vite (14) have described five 
r conduction systems in conifers, of which spiral grain is a feature in three. 

Elliott, alone and also in conjunction witli Kennedy, studied spiral grain in Douglas -fir, 
ern hemlock, and red alder (8, 9). They concluded that the slope of grain in any one tree is 
:onstant; that is, it changes radially, in successive growth rings. Stevens (15) substantiated 
finding and reported circumferential and longitudinal changes in spirality. He also devised a 
lula for calculating the amount of twist developed in the drying of hollow wooden tubes having 
al grain. 

It is generally agreed that spiral grain is responsible for twisting of poles in service. The 
Cion between spiral grain and twisting has been studied in simulated service tests by several 
cars. Burger (4), in Switzerland, found that less twist occurred in right -spiraled and 
ight -grained poles than in left-spiraled poles. In his study the spruce and silver fir poles 
been treated with preservative before debarkmg. Krogh (10), working with pine and eucalyp- 
Doles in South Africa, reported that fluctuations in twisting in seasoned, treated poles were 
ndent on the periodic loss and reabsorption of moisture by the wood. Wellner and Lowery, 
study of western larch poles from eastern Washington, verified that pole twist is caused by 
al grain and that loss and absorption of moisture is a controlling factor. In connection with 
I studies, in which seasoning of poles may be an important element, it is worth noting thai 
lewson (n) determined that lodgepole pine poles had an average moisture content of 17 to 19 
ent after 1 year of air drying. 



"Numbers in parentheses refer to Literature Cited, p. 15, 
"Wellner, C. A., andD. P. Lowery. Spiral grain--acau 
serv., Intermountain Forest and Range Exp. Sta., Ogden, Utah. (Manuscript in preparation) 



Wellner, C. A., andD. P. Lowery. Spiral grain --a cause of pole twisting . U.S. lor 



The effect of spiral grain on the strength of dimensional lumber was studied by Wilson 
(16) at the U.S. Forest Products Laboratory. He showed that die modulus of rupture --a meast 
of strength in bending- -decreased rapidly as the slope of grain increased. The reduction in 
bending strength of spiral -grained material as compared with straight -grained material was 
about 10 percent at a grain slope of 1 in 12 (2° 43") and nearly 20 percent at 1 in 15 (3° 48"). 
Banks (3) reported that spiral grain affected the strength of pines grown in South Africa; Rault 
and Marsh (13) studied the silvicultural implications of spiral grain and its effect on converted 
timber. Wood et al. (18), after extensive tests, recently reported on the strength and relatec 
properties of wooden poles. Tests were made of bending strength and other wood properties, 
using selected treated and untreated poles representing the principal pole species of the Unitec( 
States and Canada. 

GENERAL METHOD OF THE STUDY 

For use in all three phases of the study, 62 spiral -grained poles were set upright in the 
ground at Libby, Montana, in September 1955. Forty -eight of the poles were assigned to the 
main project, the study of twist, and from them a selection was eventually made for the bendtu 
strength study. Fourteen additional poles were used for the study of possible preventive 
measures . 

The poles were specially selected for the purposes of the study, with regard to species,, 
direction of grain slope, degree of grain slope, and moisture condition. Pairs of poles with 
similar characteristics were chosen, so that the study might have a two -replication base. 
Every effort was made to match the pairs as closely as possible. (A few exceptions in match 
of steepness of grain slope were unavoidable, and do not seriously affect results.) All 62 pol 
were 40 to 45 feet long and fell in classes 1 to 5; the majority were in class 3 (2). 

The poles were prepared in various ways that are described below in the discussion of ' 
particular study for which they were used. Then all were provided with a means for measure 
ment of twist. A hole was drilled, approximately 1 foot from the upper end of each pole, and 
6 -foot length of 1 -inch pipe, simulating a crossarm, was inserted and attached to the pole. . 
string (later replaced by piano wire) was fastened to the free end of the pipe and extended to 
the ground. 

The poles were tlien randomly assigned to a test position and alined in a row, extending 
due east and west (see fig. 1). The spacing was about 4 feet and the poles were set approxi- 
mately 5 feet in the ground. An iron rail was positioned parallel to the row of poles and app] 
imately 4 feet from it, so that the crossarm on each pole projected over the rail. To malce i 
initial measurement, a plumb bob was attached to the wire suspended from the crossarm of i 
pole, and the position of the plumb bob was recorded as a center punch mark on the rail. Li. 
measurements at varying intervals were made in a similar manner, the deviation from the 
punch mark being measured with the angle -measuring device described by C. A. Wellner (1( 



;■ 



In July 1961, at the completion of the test period, the poles were pulled from the grour 
and various measuremxents were made, as will be described later. Ten poles were then seh 
from the group of 48 for shipment to the U.S. Forest Products Laboratory for bending -stren I 
tests. So that internal slope of grain could be measured, the remaining poles were sectione 
These sections were examined and measured in the laboratory and data were obtained from 
which was helpful in the general description of the characteristics of spiral grain. 



;ec 



m 



CHOtS- HKV PIPE 

(6' LENGTH) 




DETHIL OF BAIi MEASUREMENT 



Figure 1. --Arrangement of poles m study of twist of spirfjl -grained poles in use 



STUDY OF TWIST 

Relation of twist to characteristics of poles 

As indicated earlier, the 48 poles chosen for the study of twist were selected with the in- 
ition of isolating the characteristics that might be related to the amount of twist; that is, 
ecies, moisture condition, direction of slope of grain, and degree of slope of grain. Of the 
poles, 16 were from each of the three principal western pole species --Douglas -fir (Pseudo- 
iga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco var. menziesii), lodgepole pine (Pinus conlorta Dougi.), and 
istern larch (Larix occidentalis Nutt.)- Eight of the poles selected for each species had been 
: seasoned for at least 1 year, and eight were freshly cut or green. In each group of eight at 
ch moisture condition, four poles had a left spiral and four had a right spiral. Each four- 
le group was composed of two pairs of poles, one pair having steep slope of grain and one 
ir having moderate slope of grain. The severity of slope of spiral grain is expressed as the 
le length in inches over which there is 1 inch of deviation from the longitudinal axis. Tlie 
tic 1:16 thus means 1 inch of deviation in 16 inches of pole length. Steep slope of grain was 
fined as 1 in 16 or less, and moderate slope as i in more titan 16. Thus, for every pole of a 
rticular species there existed one approximately matching pole and seven pairs of possible 
artners," each differing in one or more of the important characteristics. All poles were 
tt -treated with creosote. 

The data gathered from the measurements made with the plumb bob concerned botli the 
rection and amount of twist. Poles with a left spiral grain tended to twist to the left, and 
les with a right spiral grain tended to twist to the right. During the period when observations 
;re made at fairly short intervals, it was evident thiat some twisting in the reverse direction 
Dk place, apparently as a result of seasonal climatic conditions. This twisting was almost 
ways much less than the twist in the prevailing direction. 



Right-hand spiral twists upward to the right and left-hand spiral twists upward to the left 
viewed by a person facing the pole. 



1 



The overall measurements showed a steady increase in the amount of twist, up to a poin 
when moisture content of the poles reached equilibrium with the surrounding atmosphere. Aft 
equilibrium was reached, the amount of twist varied from the maximum in relation to seasona 
variations. 

To explore the relationship of the data to the specific characteristics of the various pair 
of poles, the data were analyzed statistically; the results are shown in table 1. (For this pur 
pose, direction of twist was disregarded.) The table shows that initial moisture condition of 
wood, direction of spirality, and grain slope were significantly different at the 1 -percent conf • 
dence level. Also significant at the 1 -percent confidence level were the three-way interactior 
species times Initial moisture condition times grain direction; and the four -way interaction, 
species times moisture condition times grain direction times grain slope. 



Table 1. --Analysis of variance of data on maximum twist in the major pole study 



Source of variation 



Degrees of 
freedom 



Sum of 
squares 



Mean 
square 



F tes' 



Replication 




1 


Species 


(S) 




2 


Moisture condition (M) 


1 


Direction of 


grain (D) 


1 


Grain slope (G) 


1 


Interactions: 






S X 


M 




2 


S X 


D 




2 


S X 


G 




2 


M X 


D 




1 


M X 


G 




1 


D X 


G 




1 


S X 


M X 


D 


2 


S X 


M X 


G 


2 


S X 


D X 


G 


2 


M X 


D X 


G 


1 


S X 


M X 


D X G 


2 


Error 






23 


Total 






47 



0.97 

75.82 

707.64 

2,683.53 

1,821.64 

150.51 
54.20 
85.12 
12.50 

115.63 
78.79 

327.64 

106.04 

39.38 

2.05 

295.11 

859.38 
7,415.95 



0.97 




37.91 


1.0. 


707.64 


**18.9[ 


2,683.53 


**71.8I 


1,821.64 


**48.7: 


75.26 


2.C] 


27.10 


. " i 


42.56 


1.:: 


12.50 


. I > 


115.63 


3.(' 


78.79 


2. I 


163.82 


* * 4 . ; ! 


53.02 


1.' 


19.69 


1 1' 


2.05 


• ' ':' 


147.56 


**3.'li) 



37 . 36 



**Significant at 1 -percent confidence level. 



The degree of twist is shown graphically in figures 2 and 3, Since difference of species 
was found to have little significance, the data for all species were averaged together. Thus 
each curve on the graph represents six poles, two of each species, having the particular mois- 
ture condition or slope of grain indicated. It may be seen from the figures that, in general, 
poles having left spiral grain twist more than poles with right spiral grain. An apparent ex- 
ception in this study is the December 1960 observation. Green, right -spiraled poles with steep 
grain slope had changed slightly more during the period covered than the air -seasoned left- 
spiraled poles with moderate grain slope. This is understandable, however, in view of the 
evidence in the graphs that poles that had been air seasoned for at least 1 year twisted less 
than the matched green poles, and that poles with a moderate slope of grain twisted less than 
the matched poles with steep grain slope. 

To demonstrate the importance of seasoning, the data on degree of twist were graphed 
from three different starting points (November 1956, October 1957, and April 1958), arbitrarily 
chosen as points of assumed moisture stability. The curves for the six green trees having 
left spiral grain are shown in figure 4, Tliese graphs, along with those for the right -spiraled 
poles, suggest that 2 to 3 years of air seasoning of poles before they are treated and used 
would markedly reduce the amount of twist developed in service. The need seems clear for a 
faster seasoning method than that now in general use. 

A summary of the data on maximum twist with relation to pole characteristics is given in 
table 2. 



Table 2. --Summary of maximum twist^ of poles according to direction of spiral grain (left, right), degree 
of slope of grain (steep, moderate), and moisture condition (air seasoned, green) 



Western larch 



Steep 



Moderate 



Seas.: Green : Seas. : Green 



Douglas -fir 



Steep 



Moderate 



Seas.: Green : Seas.: Green 



Lodgepole pine 



: Moderate 
Seas. : Green : Seas. : Green 



Steep 



Right 



Degrees 



, . 40.1 

Left a 



18.3 



21.1 



25.1 



6.4 



18.3 



8.0 



29.3 21.9 43.9 17.4 

10.6 3.2 12.5 2.9 



8.8 



17.8 



18.6 



42.3 



21.2 



8.2 3.4 

15.5 6.2 



Each value is the average maximum twist of two similar poles. 

The unusual low value for green poles in this instance is apparently attributable to lower specific 
gravity and less steep slope of grain in this particular pair of poles. 



CO 
UJ 

111 

UJ 

o 



X 
<D 

a: 
O 






UJ 

< 
a: 

UJ 



40 



30 



20 



10 - 



Green poles with steep slope of grain 

^— ^ Air- seasoned poles with steep slope of grain 

•- — • Green poles with moderate slope of groin 

• • Air- seasoned poles with moderate slope of grain 







Sept. June Nov. Oct. Apr Sept. Dec. May 

1955 1956 1956 1957 1958 58 58 1959 



Dec. 
I960 



July 
1961 



DATE OF MEASUREMENT 



Figure 2. --Average twist of right spiral -grained poles, September 1955 -July 1961. Each curvev! 
represents six poles, including two of each species studied. 



tn 

UJ 
UJ 

q: 
o 

UJ 

o 



P 



5 

I- 

CD 

< 

UJ 

3c 



40 



30 



20 



10 



•— Green poles with steep slope of grain 

— Air- seasoned poles with steep slope of grain 

-• Green poles with moderate slope of groin 

-^ Air- seasoned poles with moderate slope of groin 



.^^^. 



/ ^--' 







Sept. June Nov. Oct. Apr. Sept. Dec. May 

1955 1956 1956 1957 1958 58 58 1959 



Dec. 
I960 



July 
1961 



DATE OF MEASUREMENT 



Figure 3. --Average twist of left spiral -grained poles, September 1955 -July 1961. Each curve 
represents six poles, including two of each species studied. 



'igure 4. --Average iwist 
of left-spiraled poles, 
plotted from three 
different points of 
assumed moisture 
stability. Each curve 
represents six poles, 
including two of each 
species studied. 



v> 

UJ 
UJ 

O 
UJ 
Q 



I- 

5 

»- 

UJ 

< 

UJ 

> 
< 



20 



10 - 



Air- seasoned poles, 
steep slope of grain 



--••y 




Nov. Oct. Apr Sept. Dec. May 

1956 1957 1958 1959 

DATE OF MEASUREMENT 



Dec. 
I960 



July 
1961 



20 



10 - 



Air-seasoned poles, 
moderate slope of groin 



o'>*IIlll!!"---"""" 



^Nov. 
\l956 




Nov. Oct. Apr. Sep*. Dec. May Dec. July 

1956 1957 1958 1959 I960 1961 

DATE OF MEASUREMENT 



20 



— 10 

CO 

UJ 
UJ 
QL 

UJ 

o 






ol 

< 

UJ 

> 
< 



i 



Green poles, steep 
slope of grain 










...••• 



Nov. 
1956 




J 1 I I L 



1. 



20 



Nov Oct, Apr Sept Dec. May Dec 

1956 1957 1958 1959 I960' 

DATE OF MEASUREMENT 

Green poles, moderate 
slope of grain 



...^ 






J L 



Nov. Oct. Apr. Sept. Dec. May 

1956 1957 1958 1959 



Dec. 
1960 



DATE OF MEASUREMENT 



July 
1961 



Nov. 
1956 




July 
1961 



Some Observations on Spiral Grain 

The study made possible some useful measurements of spiral grain which cast light on the 
nature of the phenomenon. Before the 48 poles were set up for the experiment, a longitudinal 
reference line was drawn on the surface of each pole and tacks were driven at 5 -foot intervals 
along the line, to determine whether one section of the pole twisted more than another. The 
first tack was placed 18 inches above the assumed groundline. The slope of grain and the pole 
circumference were determined at the position of each tack. Later, when the poles were taken 
from the ground, the displacement of the tacks was measured. A guideline was drawn from the 
tack nearest the butt end to a corresponding point at the other end along the longitudinal axis of 
the pole, and the tack displacement was measured as the horizontal distance from the line. 

In general, displacement of tacks increased gradually but consistently from the bottom 
to the top of the pole. As expected, total tack displacement was strongly correlated with the 
maximum twist as measured with the plumb bob; that is, poles that twisted the most had the 
greatest total tack displacement. 

Measurements of circumference were made at each tack position and compared with those 
made before the poles were set up. All poles decreased in circumference during the test period 
The western larch poles decreased in circumference an average of 6.05 inches; Douglas -fir 
poles decreased an average of 4.40 inches; and lodgepole pine poles decreased an average of 
5.06 inches. A statistical analysis of the measurements was made, with the results shown in 
table 3. The variables of species and initial moisture condition were significantly different at th 
1 -percent confidence level, and the four -way interaction (species times moisture condition times 
direction of grain times grain slope) was significant at the 5 -percent confidence level. The pole; 
air seasoned 1 year shrank an average of 3.7 inches, whereas the green poles averaged about 
twice as much shrinkage --6 .6 inches. Thus circumferential changes can be correlated in part 
with the measurements of twist discussed earlier. 

Surface slope of grain as measured at each tack position at the beginning and end of the 
experiment was found to have changed during the test interval. However, the changes were 
inconsistent and the final average slope of grain did not correlate with data on maximum twist. 
The average slope of grain decreased in 26 poles, but increased in 22 poles. 

So that internal spiral grain could be measured, sections of the poles were examined in 
the laboratory. Three sections approximately 1 foot long were cut from all but two poles --one 
section from the center and two approximately 8 feet from the ends. Tlie remaining two poles 
were completely cut into 1 -foot sections. Each section was identified as to pole and position 
within the pole, and the tack reference line was retraced on each section to aid in reorientation. 

In the laboratory, each section was split on a line across the pole from the tack reference 
line through the pith. The slope of grain at 10 -year growth increments was measured on the 
freshly split face by means of a device similar to that developed at the Canadian Forest Products 
Laboratory (9). The two poles that were completely sectioned were reassembled in the labora- 
tory and the measurements of slope of grain were made on the same growth rings in all sections. 
The 10 -year rings in the lowest (butt -end) section were used as a base. 



4 

The instrument is essentially a knife edge attached at right angles by a slotted bar to a 
machinist's protractor. The knife edge is placed on the pith and the protractor is moved to the 
point or growth ring where the slope of grain is to be measured. 



ible 3. --Analysis of variance of total circumferential change •'- in poles in the major pole study 



Source of variation 



Degrees of 
freedom 



Sum of 
squares 



Mean 
square 



F lest 



^plications 

lecies (S) 

oisture condition (M) 

.rection of grain (D) 

rain slope (G) 

teractions: 



S X 


M 






S X 


D 






S X 


G 






M X 


D 






M X 


G 






D X 


G 






S X 


M 


X 


D 


S X 


M 


X 


G 


S X 


D 


X 


G 


M X 


D 


X 


G 


S X 


M 


X 


D 


-ror 









1 

2 

1 
1 
1 

2 
2 
2 

1 
1 
1 
2 
2 
2 
1 
2 

23 

47 



0.01 


0.0 10 


0.0 13 


22.29 


IJ. 145 


*=■ 15.000 


95 . 49 


95 . 490 


"'^-128.520 


.68 


.680 


.915 


.42 


.420 


.565 


3.32 


1.660 


2.234 


3 . 36 


1.680 


2.264 


3.93 


1.965 


2.645 


.98 


. 980 


1.319 


.28 


.280 


. 377 


.93 


.930 


1 . 252 


3 . 48 


1 . 740 


2 . 342 


3.58 


1 . 790 


2 . 409 


1.02 


. 5 10 


.686 


.01 


.010 


.013 


7.43 


3.715 


'■'5.067 


17.09 


.743 




64.30 







""•Each value was based on the total change in 8 ineasurements of circumference. 
g checks and splits were included in the measurements. 
" '"Significant at 1 -percent confidence level. 
'■'Significant at 5 -percent confidence level. 



Season - 



Examination of internal spiral grain in the laboratory disclosed that the slope of grain is 
. ever -changing characteristic of wood. The internal slope of grain in the poles (as sampled 
the three cross sections of each pole) gradually changed from the pith to the [periphery. In 
neral, these data conformed to results reported in other studies (8, 9). In the present study 
i found a left spiral near the pith; in poles showing right spiral grain at the surface, this 
adually decreased in degree to zero and was succeeded by an increasing right spiral. Meas- 
ements for almost all sections of right -spiraled poles showed this same change in pattern of 
ope of grain. (Because height growth varied in the poles sampled, data obtained froiii the 
rious sections of a given pole were considered independent samples.) Poles with a left slope 
grain on the surface were left -spiraled throughout . These observations partly explain the 
'eater torsional stability of right -spiraled poles, as evident in the data on twist. Apparently 
ere is a counterbalancing of shrinkage stresses between the left- and right -spiraled poles, 
lereas the left -spiraled poles lack this restraint. 



Data on longitudinal changes in the slope of grain were obtained from the two poles that 
were completely sectioned. Individual growth rings were identified and measured in successive 
sections. These data indicated that the slope of grain in the same growth ring is not constant 
but varies considerably. The data also disclose that the change from a left to a right spiral oc - i 
curred in the lower portion of the stem first and gradually progressed up the stem in succeeding 1 
growth rings. Tlius, both left and right spiral grain may occur within the same growth ring at 
different heights. 

STUDY OF POSSIBLE MEASURES TO PREVENT TWIST 

For the secondary study, designed to explore measures that might prevent twisting of 
poles in service, 14 western larch poles having left spiral grain were selected. The character- 
istics to be investigated were the relative proportions of sapwood and heartwood, and longitudi- j 
nal variation in steepness of grain slope; treatments to be tested were capping and preservatioii-D| 
with creosote. The 14 poles were therefore selected to include seven matched pairs, as follows nij 
two pairs of heartwood poles, prepared by complete removal of the sapwood in the pole peeler; 
one pair of poles having a high proportion of sapwood; one pair having a grain slope of 1 in 10 oj 
less in the upper third but 1 in 20 or more in the lower two -thirds; one pair capped with free- 
fitting covers (inverted metal buckets); and two pairs (one pair air seasoned at least 1 year and.ij 
one pair green) that had been treated by the full -cell process with coal tar creosote preservative ' 
solution. The class of poles varied, but most were class 3 or 4; steepness of slope varied be- 
tween 1:5 and 1:28, but pairs of poles were generally matched in this respect. Except for the 
last two pairs, all poles were green and had been butt -treated with creosote when they were set 
upright for the test. 

A summary of the results of the measurements of twist is given in table 4. Statistical 
comparisons of the data revealed no significant differences among the pairs. Apparently, the 
characteristics and treatments studied had no effect on the degree of twist. 

Table 4. --Maximum twist""" of selected left spiral -grained western larch poles, 1955-1961 i 



Pole characteristic or treatment 



Twisf^ of pole from Sept. 1955 to: 



Nov. 
1956 



Oct. 

1957 



Dec. 
1958 



May 
1959 



Dec. 
1960 



July 

1961 



Sapwood removed (class 3) 

Sapwood removed (class 4) 

High proportion of sapwood 

Slope of grain 1:10 or less in upper third 

Capped with inverted metal bucket 

Air seasoned 1 year, full-length 

creosote treatment 
Green, full-length creosote treatment 



15.7 
9.8 
6.2 
7.3 
7.8 



8.1 
5.2 



36.4 
26.7 
16.1 
21.3 
24.2 



17.1 
20.1 



-Degrees 
41.9 



30.7 
18.6 
24.7 
26.4 

25.3 
28.3 



42.8 
31.2 
18.3 
25.6 
32.4 



28.5 
28.7 



All twisting was to the left. 



48.8 
36.4 
22.0 
28.6 
37 . 9 



35.5 
38.2 



45.4 
33.0 
18.9 
26.8 

34.5 

32.6 
36.3 



"^ Twist values are averages of measurements made on two similar poles . 



10 



BENDING -STRENGTH STUDY 

The 10 spiral -grained poles submitted to the l-orest Protlucts Labcn-aiory uicluded 5 
Douglas -fir and 5 western larch poles. Three of each species were right -spjraled and 2 were 
eft -spiraled . 

Test Procedure 

The method of pole testing conformed to the American Society for Testing Materials 
ASTM) standard for machine tests (1). Before these poles could be tested, they had to be 
wrought to a uniform moisture condition comparable to that of similar st raight -grained poles 
or which strength values are available (18). Therefore the poles were submerged in water 
or 10 weeks before the test. Moisture meter readings, taken on several of the poles when 
hey were first removed from the water, were between 22 and 25 percent at a depth of 3 inches 
jelow the pole surface. The outer surface of each pole, where test stresses are concentrated, 
vas then assumed to be at or near the fiber saturation point. 

So that a uniform dead load for testing poles over a 33 -foot span could be maintained, it 
vas necessary to cut the poles to the proper size. Some of the poles were 40 feet long, whereas 
)thers were 45 feet long. In order to position the groundline (loading point in test) in untreated 
naterial 6 feet from the butt end, a 4 -foot section was cut from the butt end of each pole. Hie 
)oles originally 40 feet long were thus 36 feet long; 4 to 5 feet were then cut from the tifi enti of 
?ach of the poles originally 45 feet long to bring them to the required 36 feet. 

For the test itself, circumference was measured at the butt, tip, and groundline, and at 
?ach of the 5 -foot intervals where tacks had been driven for the twist study. Tlie poles were 
veighed at each support point; that is, at points 1 foot and 34 feet from the butt end. Finally, 
It the time of the test, moisture content was determined at 120 -degree intervals around the 
:ircumference of the poles at the groundline, using an electric moisture meter. The readings 
vere taken at half -inch increments up to a depth of 2^ inches. The poles were supported at 
)oints 1 foot from the butt end and 2 feet from the tip end and were tested over a span of 33 
eet. The load point was located 6 feet from the butt and the load was measured by a hydraulic 
oad cell at the tip support point. Suitable rockers and rollers were provided to accommodate 
he slope of the ends of the pole and the shortening due to curvature as loading progressed, 
rhe rate of movement of the loading head was 0.77 inch per minute. The poles were at room 
emperature at time of test. Figure 5 shows a pole being tested. 

Upon completion of the test, the ly]')v and location of failures were marked on a sketcli of 
he pole, as well as the size and location of any knots that may have contributed to the failure. 
\ i-inch thick disk was cut from the pole near the point of failure, for use in determining the 
specific gravity of the pole. 

Results 



The test results and other related data for the 10 poles are summarized in table 5. N(;te 
hat for each pole, a modulus of rupture at load point is given. This figure in itself was not 
;omparable with data for straight -grained poles, as given in the report of the recently com - 
)leted ASTM Wood Pole Research Program (18). Adjustments were necessary for differences 
n specific gravity of the poles and to take into account the difference in number of poles tested. 



Figure 5. --General view of the 
machine test arrangement 
used for spiral -grained 
poles. The pole shown is 
stressed to its maximum 
load. 




The modulus -of -rupture values for the spiral -grained poles were adjusted to an average speci 
gravity (see footnote 5 of the table). The adjusted values were then assumed to be directly coir 
parable with the average values for the straight -grained poles. 



The significant comparison is thus between the adjusted modulus of rupture found for the -. 
tested spiral grain poles, and the average modulus of rupture of 30 -foot straight -grained poles* i 
as given in the ASTM report. This comparison may be conveniently expressed as a ratio, andnij 
it is so given in the last line of the table. The ratios provide an indication of the possible effecij 
of slope and direction of spiral grain. This limited study did not precisely measure this effect'"! 
but did suggest a trend. 



The ratios indicate, as might be expected, that straight -grained poles are stronger than 
those with a pronounced slope of grain. More significantly, however, the ratios show that righ 
spiral -grained poles are nearly as strong as straight -grained poles and that left spiral -grainec 
poles are only about half as strong as straight -grained poles. Since this result was evident in 
both species, it can be considered to indicate a definite trend in spiral -grained poles. 

The results of the tests on the two left-spiraled Douglas -fir poles are believed to reflect 
some effects of knots. The knots may partially explain the low strength ratios of these poles. 
In pole 9, four 3/4- to 1-inch knots were present at the principal failure point, 16 feet from thi 
butt end. Pole 4 had six to eight small knots (3/4- to 1^ -inch) per foot at the groundline area, 
where failure occurred 8 feet from the butt end. These knots were well within the limits per- 
mitted by the American Standards Association pole specifications (2). Four other poles had 
knots at failure points. 



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CONCLUSIONS 

The results of this study indicate that spiral grain is an important variable that affects 
not only the twisting of poles in service but also their bending strength. The analysis of the 
study data showed that degree of seasoning, direction of grain slope, and steepness of grain 
slope had a significant influence on the twisting of the poles. The data on internal spiral grain 
show the spirality pattern to be one of initial left spiral grain, a gradual decrease to the zero 
axis, and finally, an increasing right spiral. Previous observations had indicated a lack of 
uniformity in the slope of grain of individual growth rings; these observations were confirmed 
in this study by measurements on two completely sectioned poles . 

The data on maximum twist indicated that right spiral -grained poles have greater torsional 
stability than left spiral -grained poles. Examination of internal slope of grain indicates that the 
probable reason for the greater stability in right -spiraled poles is the counterbalancing of mois- 
ture shrinkage stresses. Practically all the poles with right spiral grain on the surface had 
internal left spiral grain. Thus, the shrinkage stresses tended to counteract each other and the 
pole twisted in the direction of the dominant stress. On the other hand, poles with left spiral 
grain on the surface contained only left -sloping grain, and hence were free to twist to the left 
without restraint. The greater stability of the right -spiraled poles indicates a possible basis 
for revising the present American Standards Association pole specifications, to make such poles 
acceptable . 

The degree of slope of grain was also shown to have significant effect on the twisting of 
poles. Poles with a steep slope of grain twisted more than poles with a moderate slope of grain, 
regardless of spiral direction. 

The twisting of poles was shown to be the result of moisture loss or seasoning of the poles 
while in the test. This indicates that proper preliminary seasoning of the poles to a moisture 
content in equilibrium with use conditions would probably eliminate the twisting of poles in serv- 
ice or reduce it to within tolerable limits. There is great need for a process or method that will 
dry poles faster than air seasoning. 

Tree species was not found to be a significant factor. Spiral grain had the same effect in 
the three species studied and probably affects all species used for poles in much the same way. 
The data on tack displacement in this study indicate that poles twist along their entire length, but 
maximum displacement occurs at the top of the pole. The wood products industry needs a non- 
destructive way of sampling and determining internal spiral grain and a method of relating these 
measurements to pole performance. 

The results of the limited study of internal spiral grain indicate that we should further in- 
vestigate the causes of both radial and longitudinal variation. Earlier studies suggested that it 
might be possible to control or regulate spiral grain through silvicultural and management prac - 
tices that influence growth rate. Also, the great emphasis placed on wood quality within recent 
years establishes the need for understanding spiral grain and its effect on wood products other 
than poles . 

All the poles used in this study would be acceptable under present American Standards 
Association specifications. However, the data from the strength tests indicate that severely 
left -spiraled poles have lower bending strength and twist more than do severely right -spiraled 
poles. Table 5 shows that moderate right -spiraled grain with a slope of 1:12 or more has a 

14 



negligible effect on the strengtli of a pole, and poles with a right spiral grain of 1:8 or less may 
have 75 percent of the strength of straight -grained poles. Poles with lefi spiral grain of 1:8 to 
1:12 slope may not be more than 50 to 6(1 percent as strong as comparable straight -grained poles. 
Additional tests of poles of these and other species having moderaie-to-steep slopes of grain are 
needed before tlie effects of spiral ity on strength can be definitely deterinined. 



LITERATURE CITED 

1. American Society for Testing Materials. 

1958. Standard methods of static tests of wood poles. 7\STM D 1036 -58. 

2. American Standards Association. 

1948. American Standard specifications and dimensions for wood poles. New York, 14 pp. 

3. Banks, C. H. 

1953. Spiral grain and its effect on the strength of South African grown pines. J. S. Afri- 
can Forest. Assoc. 22: 1-6. 

4 . Burger , Hans . 

1953. Das "Arbeiten" impragnieter Leitungsmasten (Warping in prescrvat ive -treated 

transmission poles). Mitt. Schweiz. Anst . iMjrstl . Versuchsw . 29(2): 177-188. 

5. Champion, H. G . 

1925. Contribution towards a knowledge of twisted fibre in trees. Indian Forest Rec . 1 1, 
II: 11-80. 

6. 



1927. An interim report on the progress of investigations into tlic origin of twisteC fibre 
in Pinus longifolia Roxb. Indian Forests 53: 18-22. 



7. 



1930. Second interim report on the progress of investigations into the origm of twisted 
fibre in Pinus longifolia Ro.xb. Indian Forests 56: 51 1-520. 



8. Elliott, G. K, 

1956. Spiral grain in second -growth Douglas -fir and western hemlock. Forest Prcxl. J. 

VIII: 203-211. 

9. Kennedy, R. W . , and G . K. Elliott. 

1957. Spiral grain in red alder (Alnus rubra Bong.). Forest Chron. 33: 236-251. 

10. Krogh, P. M. D. 

1952. The twisting of wooden telephone poles in service in South Africa. S. Africa For- 
est Prod. Res. Inst., Praetoria West. (Paper presented at 6th Brit. Common- 
wealth Forest. Conf., Canada, f952.) 

11. Mathews on, J. S. 

1952. Air seasoning of lodgepole pine poles. Forest Prod. Lab. 1922. 

15 



12. Northcott, P. L. 

1957. Is spiral grain the normal growth pattern? Forest Chron. 33: 335-352. 

13. Rault, J. P., andE. K. Marsh. 

1952. The incidence and silvicultural implications of spiral grain in Pinus longifolia 
Roxb. in South Africa and its effect on converted timber. S. Africa Forest 
Prod. Res. Inst., Praetoria West. (Paper presented at 6th Brit. Commonwealth 
Forest Conf., Canada, 1952.) 

14. Rudinsky, J. A., and J. P. Vite. 

1959. Certain ecological and phylogenetic aspects of the patterns of water conduction in 

conifers. Forest Sci. 5; 259-266. 

15. Stevens, W. C. 

1961. Distortions of wood: drying with and without restraint. Forest Prod. J. XI: 348-356. 

16. Wellner, C. A. 

1960. Devices to measure spiral grain and twisting in poles. J. Forest. 58: 117-118. 

17. Wilson, T. R. C. 

1921. The effect of spiral grain on the strength of wood. J. Forest. 19: 740-747. 

18. Wood, L. W., E. C. O. Erickson, and A. W. Dohr. 

1960, Strength and related properties of wood poles. Amer. Soc . of Testing Materials, 
Spec. Tech. Pub. 275: 1-83. 



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Headquarters for the Intermountain 
Forest and Range Experiment Station 
are in Ogden, Utah. Project headquar- 
ters are also at: 
Boise, Idaho 
Bozeman, Montana (in cooperation 

with Montana State University) 
Logan, Utah (in cooperation with 

Utah State University) 
Missoula, Montana (in cooperation 

with University of Montana) 
Moscow, Idaho (in cooperation with 

the University of Idaho) 
Provo, Utah (in cooperation with 
Brigham Young University) 



FOREST SERVICE CREED 



The Forest Service of the U.S. Department of Agriculture is 
dedicated to the principle of multiple use management of the 
Nation's Forest Resources for sustained yields of wood, water, 
forage, wildlife, and recreation. Through forestry research, co- 
operation with the States and private owners, and management 
of the National Forests and National Grasslands, it strives — as 
directed by Congress — to provide increasingly greater service 
to a growing Nation. 



U. S. Forest Service 
Research Paper INT-36 
1967 




COMANDRA, GRAZING. AND 
COMANDRA BLISTER RUST 




W.A. Laycock and R.G. Krebill 




INTERMOUNTAIN FOREST & RANGE EXPERIMENT STATION 

FOREST SERVICE 
U. S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE 

OGDEN, UTAH 



Headquarters for the Intermountain 
Forest and Range Experiment Station 
are in Ogden, Utah. Project headquar- 
ters are also at: 
Boise, Idaho 
Bozeman, Montana (in cooperation 

with Montana State University) 
Logan, Utah (in cooperation with 

Utah State University) 
Missoula, Montana (in cooperation 

with University of Montana) 
Moscow, Idaho (in cooperation with 

the University of Idaho) 
Provo, Utah (in cooperation with 
Brigham Young University) 



U.S. Forest Service 
Research Paper INT -36 
1967 



COMANDRA. GRAZING, AND COMANDRA BLISTER RUST 

by 
W. A. Laycock and R. G. Krebill 



INTERMOUNTAIN FOREST AND RANGE EXPERIMENT STATION 

Forest Service 
U.S. Department of Agriculture 
Ogden, Utali 84401 
Joseph F . Pechanec , Director 



THE AUTHORS 

W. A. LAYCOCK, Plant Ecologist and leader of the 
high elevation summer range project at Logan, 
joined the Intermountain Station staff in 1958. 
He was formerly stationed at Prove and at the 
U.S. Sheep Experiment Station at Dubois, Idaho. 
He received the degrees of bachelor and master 
of science in range management from the Uni- 
versity of Wyoming and the doctoral degree in 
plant ecology from Rutgers University. 

R. G. KREBILL, Plant Pathologist and leader of the 
project on native rusts of western conifers at 
Logan, joined the Intermoimtain Station staff in 
1962. He holds the bachelor of science degree 
in forestry from the University of California and 
the doctoral degree in plant pathology from the 
University of Wisconsin. 

The authors are headquartered at the Forestry 
Sciences Laboratory, Logan, Utah, which is main- 
tained in cooperation with Utah State University. 



COMANDRA, GRAZING, AND COMANDRA l^LISTER RUST 

W. A. Laycock and R. G. Krcbill ^ 

Comandra (Comandra umbellata (L.) Null. ssp. pallida (A. DC.) Pichl) is a minor 
range plant and not very important in terms of forage or as a competitor of more desir- 
able plants. Comandra is important, however, as a host for the sporophytic stage of 
Cronartium comandrae Pk. , a rust ftingus that kills hard pines. In the Rocky Mountains, 
comandra blister rust causes widespread damage to lodgepole pine (Krebill 1965) and 
local damage to ponderosa pine. Pines are infected by spores originating on comandra 
in adjacent or interspersed rangelands. Since comandra is a common plant on range - 
lands, and since it may influence the epidemiology of comandra blister rust disease, 
information on conditions that tend to increase or decrease the abundance of comandra 
may be useful to land managers. 

Comandra, also known as bastard toadflax, is a perennial rhizomatous forb oc- 
curring in many range types. It is commonly found on dry open sites such as exposed 
slopes and rocky outcrops in sagebrush rangelands. However, it is sometimes found 
in fairly dense stands of sagebrush or grass on deeper soils ajid occasionally in the 
understory of open stands of ponderosa pine or other widely spaced trees. It is appar- 
ently not shade tolerant, since it is not found within dense lodgepole, spruce, or fir 
stands. Although parasitism is not absolutely necessary for its survival, comandra is 
more vigorous when it is attached to roots of associated plants (Piehl 1965), 

In both range and forest management, comandra has been classified as an unde- 
sirable plant species which increases on or invades overgrazed ranges. For example, 
Julander (1937) indicated that comandra had "zero" palatability for sheep, cattle, and 
deer on the Kaibab National Forest in Arizona. The U.S. Forest Service (196 1) has 
consistently listed comandra as an "invader," that is, a "non -climax species charac- 
teristic of disturbed areas" and "low in the scale of plant succession." 

Mielke (1957, 1961) and Kimmey (1958) suggested that increases in comandra 
caused by overgrazing might have triggered recent severe outbreaks of comandra blis- 
ter rust of lodgepole pine in the Rocky Mountains. Tliis theory was based on the scarcity 
of known severe outbreaks of comandra blister rust in lodgepole pine prior to the 1950's, 
and also on the assumption that comandra had increased following the introduction of 
livestock on western ranges. For the most part this idea has remained untested because 
of a lack of firmly based ecological evidence. 



■^ The authors gratefully acknowledge special assistance from Dr. James L. Mielke, 
Pathologist, formerly with the hitermountain Forest and Range Experiment Station. 



This report brings together various published and unpublished records ^ of the 
palatability and use of comandra by livestock and big game, and of the effect of this 
grazing. We hope this evaluation will stimulate others to examine their records for 
information which might improve understanding of the ecology of this range plant. 

PALATABILITY AND USE 
LIVESTOCK 

The assumption that comandra is unpalatable is not justified. Comandra is quite 
palatable to sheep. On the sagebrush -grass ranges at the U.S. Sheep Experiment 
Station near Dubois, Idaho, sheep eat as much as 90 percent of the comandra on rangesi 
grazed in the spring. Comandra has been reported as a constituent of the diet of sheep- 
on sagebrush -grass summer range areas in northern Utah (Cook et al. 1961) and in the 
Gravelly Mountains in southwestern Montana (Peek 1963). 

Many forbs are relatively unpalatable to cattle, and comandra appears to be no 
exception. It was listed with species grazed lightly or not at all on short -grass plains 
in Canada (Clarke 1930) and on western wheatgrass range in Colorado (Hanson et al. 
1931). The literature searched contained only one reference to use of comandra by 
cattle. On sagebrush -grass ranges in the Missouri River Breaks in central Montana, 
Mackie (1965) found small amounts of comandra in cattle rumens examined in the sprin 
and summer of 1963. He also observed light use of comandra by cattle on ranges grazes 
in spring, summer, and fall. ■ 

BIG GAME 

Both deer and antelope eat comandra. In the Missouri River Breaks in central | 
Montana, Mackie (1965) found that deer used comandra on one -third of the sites exam- | 
ined on sagebrush -grass range grazed by deer in spring, summer, and fall. Some f 
use during the same seasons was also observed in the ponderosa pine -juniper type and 
in the greasewood -sagebrush type. Mackie (1965) also found comandra in deer rumens, 

In northern Utah, deer enclosed in small sagebrush -grass paddocks in early 
summer used 13 to 25 percent of the comandra present .° In May 1966 we observed 
heavy use of comandra (50 to 75 percent) by deer inside a livestock exclosure on 
sagebrush -oakbrush -juniper range in southern Utah . 

On grass and sagebrush -grass ranges in central Montana, Cole (1956) and Cole 
and Wilkins (1958) found comandra in antelope rumens or observed use of comandra by 
antelope at all seasons of the year. However, comandra made up a greater proportion 
of the diet in the spring and summer than in fall or winter; 72 percent of the contents c 
one rumen from an antelope collected on a grassland range in the spring was comandr£ 



2 

All information not otherwise credited is based on unpublished file data of the 
Intermountain Forest and Range Experiment Station. 

Personal communication, Arthur D. Smith, Range Science Department, Utah 
State University, Logan, Utah. 



[lole aiid Wilkins 1958). On sagebrush -grass aniclopc range in Saskatchewan, Dirschl 

.963) found that comandra made up 5 to 6 percent of the volume of forage in antelope 

imens collected during the summer. ' 

We found little information about tlie relative palatability of comandra to elk. ; 

[ackie (1965) reported "relatively intensive" use of comandra by elk in late spring but i 

ily minor use by late summer and fall in die Missouri River Breaks in central Montana. 

EFFECTS OF USE BY LIVESTOCK AND BIG GAME 

SHEEP 

Reports indicate that overgrazing by sheep tends to reduce comandra rather than 
icrease it. In northern California, Meinecke (1928) reported that destructive grazing , 

^ sheep was at least partly responsible for a considerable reduction in the comandra ! 

Dpulation in the Mount Lassen area. On sagebrush -grass ranges at the U.S. Sheep Ex- 
sriment Station in Idaho, comandra becomes scarce on ranges grazed too heavily in the 
Dring (Mueggler 1950). On ranges in good condition it remains a minor but important 
irt of the vegetation. In one study at the Sheep Station, heavy spring grazing caused 
le range to deteriorate from good to poor condition and reduced production of comandra 
om 20 pounds per acre in 1950 to 1 pound in 1964. On adjacent ranges kept in good 
andition by favorable grazing treatments or by complete protection from grazing, pro- 
iction of comandra remained about 20 pounds per acre. 

i 

I 

In another area at the Sheep Station, protected from grazing since 1931, produc - j 

on of comandra has steadily increased, although fluctuations have occurred possibly ! 
3 a result of climatic variations (table 1). On adjacent range grazed in spring and fall 

^ sheep, production of comandra has remained quite low. I 



'^Laycock, William A. How heavy grazing and protection affect sagebrush -grass 
mges . J. Range Manage. (In press.) 



Table 1. --Influence of sheep grazing on production of comandra at the U.S. Sheep 

Experiment Station, 1936 - 1958 



Treatment 



Production of comandra 



1936 : 1938 : 1940 : 1942 : 1949 : J953 : J958 



____________ Pounds per acre, air dry- ----------- 

xclosure 1 3 4 7 22 11 7 
razed 1 -- 1 -- 1 -- 2 



CATTLE 

Reports on effects of use by cattle vary. Comandra might increase on some 
overgrazed cattle ranges because it is not readily eaten by cattle. On fescue grassland 
range near Stavely, Alberta, comandra is scarce on all areas but it tends to increase 
slightly under heavy summer grazing by cattle.^ The trends of abundance of comandra' 
on heavily grazed cattle ranges in other areas are poorly documented. For example, 
Lewis et al. (1956) list the response of comandra to cattle grazing on mixed grass plaii^ 
in South Dakota as "uncertain." 

BIG GAME I 

Elk use apparently has little effect on abundance of comandra. Jones (1964) com- 
pared cover of vegetation inside and outside nine exclosures on heavily grazed elk 
winter range in nortliwestern Wyoming. Five areas had greater cover of comandra in- 
side the exclosure, two areas had greater cover in the area grazed by elk outside the 
exclosure, and two areas had the same amount of cover inside and outside. Average 
percentage ground cover of comandra in the nine areas was slightly higher in the ex- 
closures (1.8 percent) than in the grazed areas (1.4 percent) but the percentage of tota! 
vegetative cover contributed by comandra was higher in the grazed areas. This probab 
indicates that heavy grazing by elk during the winter had little effect on comandra and 
relatively more effect on other species. This would result in the absolute amount of 
comandra remaining about constant while other species decreased. Nothing is known 
about the effect on comandra of use by elk in spring and summer. 

Even though deer and antelope readily eat comandra, the effect of their use on 
abundance of comandra apparently has never been studied. 

COMBINED USE BY MORE THAN ONE TYPE OF ANIMAL | 

On ranges grazed by two or more types of animals, comandra often decreases. ^ 
This is especially true where sheep are grazed with other animals. In an area in 
Ephraim Canyon in central Utah, comandra shoots were counted at intervals from 
1926 to 1966 on permanent, meter -square quadrats inside and outside an exclosure in 
a sagebrush -rabbitbrush-snowberry type. Heavy grazing by sheep, cattle, and deer 
outside the exclosure kept comandra at a relatively low level, but comandra increased 
markedly on the quadrats inside the exclosure protected from grazing by all types of 
animals (table 2). 



Personal communication, Alexander Johnston, Can. Dep. Agr. Res. Sta., Leth- 
bridge, Alberta. 



Table 2. -- Density of comandra as influence d by mixed grazing In 

Ephr aim Canyon, 1926-1966 ' "~~ 



Treatment 



1926 : 1938 : 1950 : 1958 : 1966 



---------- -Thousands per acre -------- ■ 

Exclosure 49 107 115 

Grazed 13 8 4 4 



On thin-soil prairie areas in Wisconsin, Dix (1959) found that comandra (sub- 
species umbellata) was at some disadvantage under grazed conditions. In 24 pairs of 
grazed and ungrazed sites, he found comandra in 11 ungrazed areas but in only three 
grazed areas. Grazing had been predominantly by cattle but also by sheep and horses 
in some sites P 

On sagebrush -oakbrush -juniper range in soutliern Utah, comandra was absent 
from permanent sample plots on range grazed by cattle and deer from 1932 to 1966 and 
remained at a low level on plots inside an exclosure closed to cattle but open to deer 
(table 3). 

On ranges grazed by elk and cattle, the response of comandra is somewhat varied, 
In the Gros Ventre drainage of northwestern Wyoming, comandra shoots were counted 
in permanent plots inside and outside a new exclosure in 1956 and again in 1965. "Ibe 
area is along a cattle driveway and near an elk winter feeding area, so tiie outside plots 
probably received heavy use by both animals before and after the exclosure was es- 
tablished. Numbers of comandra shoots remained about the same inside the exclosure 
where both types of animals were prohibited but more than doubled on the grazed range 
(table 4) . 

In the same general area in northwestern Wyoming, Jones (1964) found more 
comandra inside exclosures than on adjacent range grazed by elk and cattle (two areas) 
and by elk and sheep (one area). These areas were sampled only once, however, and 
trends over time are not known. 



° Personal communication, Ralph Dix, Department of Plant Ecology, University of 
Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan. 



I 



Comandra shoots ' 



Table 3. --Comandra frequency and production as influenced by cattle and deer grazing 

near Kanosh, Utah, 1932-1966 



n 



Treatment 



Frequency of occurrence 



1932 



1942 



1966 



Average production 
per acre, air dry 



1942 



1966 



Exclosure' 
Grazed 



Percent --------- -.--_ Pounds 



3.9 




1.3 




Based on data for 100 plots, each covering 100 square feet. 



Open to deer use , 



Table 4. --Influence of heavy elk and cattle use on density of comandra 





near Jackson, Wyoming 










: Comandra shoots 


Year : 


, , : Plots grazed by 


elk and cattle 




LJligi clZCu UACiUbUlC ■ ■ 


: 3 










- - i llUUbcLllU-b ptrJ- dUlt: 




1956 
1965 


121 34 28 
127 74 54 


40 
112 



i 

4 



DISCUSSION 

The evidence presented indicates tliat comandra neidier increases on nor invades 
St overgrazed ranges. Comandra decreases on ranges grazed heavily by sheep, 
ler alone or in combination widi other animals. On these ranges, comandra should 
classified as a "decreaser" in range condition criteria and not an "increaser" or 
vader ." 

Comandra is not consistently influenced by heavy use by other animals. Because 
s not readily eaten by cattle, comandra could increase on overgrazed cattle range 
sn selective grazing pressure causes the more palatable species to decrease. The 
dence of comandra response to cattle grazing is conflicting, however, and no clear - 
pattern is apparent. 

Since overgrazing probably has not caused comandra to increase on most ranges, 
re seems to be no relationship between grazing and die current prevalence of coman- 
i blister rust in lodgepole pine. Furthermore, moderate increases or decreases in 
indance of comandra may not influence the incidence of rust infection in pine. Since 
;n one comandra shoot produces large numbers of pine -infecting spores (numerous 
mts suggest 1.5 million under favorable conditions), relatively small populations of 
nandra in the vicinity of pine stands might furnish enough spores for abundant infection 
years with favorable climatic conditions. 



LITERATURE CITED 

irke, S. W. 

1930. Pasture investigations on the shortgrass plains of Saskatchewan and Alberta. 
Sci. Agr. 10: 732-749. 

le, G. F. 
1956. The pronghorn antelope --its range use and food habits in central Montana with 

special reference to alfalfa. Mont. Fish and Game Dep. and Mont. State 

Coll. Agr. Exp. Sta. Bull. 5116, 63 pp. 

le, G. F., and Bruce T. Wilkins. 

1958. The pronghorn antelope --its range use and food liabits in central Montana with 
special reference to wheat. Mont. Fish and Game Dep. Tech. Bull. 2, 39 pp. 

ok, C. Wayne, J. E. Mattox, and L. E. Harris. 

1961. Comparative daily consumption and digestibility of summer range forage by 
wet and dry ewes. J. .Anim . Sci. 20: 866-870. 

rschl, Herman J. 
1963. Food habits of tlie pronghorn in Saskatchewan. J. Wildlife Manage. 27: 8 1-93. 



Dix, Ralph L. 

1959. The influence of grazing on the thin -soil prairies of Wisconsin. Ecology 40 
46-59. 

Hanson, H. C, L. D. Love, and M. S. Morris. 

1931. Effects of different systems of grazing by cattle upon a western wheatgrass 
type of range near Fort Collins, Colorado. Colo. Agr. Exp. Sta. Bull. 
377, 82 pp. 

Jones, Webster B. 

1964. A study of some livestock and big game exclosures in northwestern Wyomin; 

M.S. Thesis, Univ. Wyo. 

Julander, Odell. 

1937. Utilization of browse by wildlife. North American Wildlife Conf . Trans. 
1937: 276-287. 

Kimmey, James W. 

1958. Forest diseases in multiple -use management in the western United States. 
Soc. Amer. Forest. Proc . 1958: 74-77. 

Krebill, R. G. 

1965. Comandra rust outbreaks in lodgepole pine. J. Forest. 63: 519-522. 

Lewis, James K., George M. Van Dyne, Leslie R. Albee, and Frank W. Whetzal. 

1956. Intensity of grazing, its effect on livestock and forage production. South Daa( 

State Agr. Exp. Sta. Bull. 459, 44 pp. 

Mackie, Richard J. 

1965. Deer, elk, and cattle food habits and range relationships in the Missouri 

River Breaks. Mont. Fish and Game Dep. Job Completion Rep., P-R Proj 
W-98, 229 pp. 

Meinecke, E. P. 

1928. The evaluation of loss from killing diseases in the young forest. J. Forest t 
26: 283-298. 

Mielke, J. L. 

1957. The comandra blister rust in lodgepole pine. Intermountain Forest and Rann 

Exp. Sta. Res. Note 46, 8 pp. 

Mielke, J. L. 

1961. Comandra blister rust. U.S. Dep. Agr. Forest Pest Leafl. 62, 7 pp. 



ueggler, Walter F. 
1950. Effects of spring and fall grazing by sheep on vegetation of tlie Upper Snake 
River Plains. J. Range Manage. 3: 308-315. 

;ek, James M. 
1963. Big game survey and investigation --summer of 1956-1960. Gravelly-snow- 
crest rumen collection. Mont. Fish and Game Dep. Job Completion Rep. 
Proj. W-73-R-8, 11 pp. 

ehl, Martin A. 
1965. The natural history and taxonomy of Comandra (Santalaceae). Memoirs of 
the Torrey Bot. Club 22(1): 1-97. 

.S. Forest Service. 
1961. Range Allotment Analysis Instructions, Region 4. 



AhPS, Ogden, Utah 



FOREST SERVICE CREED 

The Forest Service of the U.S. Department of Agriculture is 
dedicated to the principle of multiple use management of the 
Nation's Forest Resources for sustained yields of wood, water, 
forage, wildlife, and recreation. Through forestry research, co- 
operation with the States and private owners, and management 
of the National Forests and National Grasslands, it strives — as 
directed by Congress — to provide increasingly greater service 
to a growing Nation. 



i' v.^ 






^■, ;i 



AERIAL PHOTO 
TECHNIQUES 



:-^ 












FOR A RECREATION INVENTORY 



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*^■•^' 



OF MOUNTAIN LAKES AND STREAMS 



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FOREST SERVICE/ U. S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE 



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1*^# V 




I.S. Forest Service 
Lesearch Paper INT -37 
967 



AERIAL PHOTO TECHNIQUES FOR A RECREATION INVENTORY 
OF MOUNTAIN LAKES AND STREAMS 



by 



Roscoe B. Herrington 

and 

S . Ross Tocher 



INTERMOUNTAIN FOREST AND RANGE EXPERIMENT STATION 

Forest Service 
U.S. Department of Agriculture 
Ogden, Utah 84401 
Joseph F . Pechanec, Director 

in cooperation with 

UTAH STATE UNIVERSITY 
College of Forest, Range, and Wildlife Management 
Logan, Utah 84321 



THE AUTHORS 

ROSCOE B. HERRINGTON is Recreation Resource Analyst 
at the Intermountain Forest and Range Experiment Sta- 
tion. Prior to his present appointment, his experience 
included assignments in timber resource inventory, 
timber marketing research, and production economics 
research in Montana, Idaho, Colorado, and Utah. 

S. ROSS TOCHER was Assistant Professor of Forestry at 
Utah State University, Logan, Utah, during this study; 
he taught courses in recreation, aerial photo use, and 
fire control. At present, Mr. Tocher is completing the 
requirements for the Ph.D. degree at the University of 
Michigan. 



11 



THE WATER RESOURCE INVENTORY IN RECREATIONAL PLANNING 

The importance of water in comprehensive resource planning is clear to all. The man- 
yement and development of the water resource is a difficult and complex task which must be 
irried out according to the multiple use concept of public land management. 

In planning for recreational water use, a complete inventory of lakes and streams in a 
iven area is a necessity. Such an inventory ideally provides information about the location and 
ize of the water body; about water volume fluctuations and water characteristics such as clarity, 
;mperature, and pH; and about insect life and the presence of plankton and underwater vegetation. 

To date, any attempts at making such inventories have been confined to the larger lakes 
id streams. There are many obstacles to the collection of water resource information, par- 
cularly in mountainous areas, which are of major interest for recreation. The field season for 
uploration is often short. Roads may be few, and even trails may be lacking to many of the 
mailer lakes and streams. Travel on the ground is blocked by snow and ice during much of the 
2ar and is strenuous at any time. Also, great fluctuations in water volume leave only a short 
me in late summer when comparative measurements can be made. The roaring spring torrent 
lav dwindle to a trickle by fall. 

Thus, a field survey of the smaller lakes and streams is generally too time consuming 
nd costly to be practical. Other possibilities, such as individual air surveys using planes or 
dicopters, are both expensive and hazardous in rugged mountains. 

A survey made from maps alone is unsatisfactory. The scale of the aerial photography 
:om which maps are usually made is not large enough to allow for identification of some of the 
mailer water bodies, and much desired detail is not normally included on maps. Meadows are 
Dmetimes mislabeled as lakes, and dry ravines are not consistently distinguished from year- 
Dund watercourses. 

A step toward the solution of the problem is the use of aerial photographs of 1:20,000 
:ale. Photogrammetric tecliniques may be used to make rapid and reasonably accurate inven- 
)ries of mountain lakes and streams. By this means, existing maps may be corrected and sup- 
lemented, and additional information useful for recreational planning may be gathered. 

A TEST OF PHOTOGRAPHIC SURVEY TECHNIQUES 

To test the procedures in a photographic survey, a study was conducted on the North 
lope of the Uinta Mountains in northeastern Utah (fig. 1). An attempt was made to collect as 
luch information as possible from the photographs, for use in an initial reconnaissance inven- 
)ry of recreational water resources. The data gained from interpretation of photos was checked 
)r accuracy by ground surveys. The test showed that although some of the information desirable 
)r such a survey can be collected only in the field, a substantial amount of general descriptive 
etail can be obtained rapidly and at reasonable cost from aerial photographs. 

The study area was fairly typical of mountainous areas offering recreational possibilities, 
everal hundred miles of streams and several hundred lakes lie within the 677,000 acres studied, 
lost of which is administered by the U.S. Forest Service, although scattered tracts are pri- 
ately owned. The mountains are composed primarily of quartzites and otlier sedimentary rocks 
nd have been heavily glaciated, although no glaciers are now present. Elevations range from 



NORTH SLOPE 
STUDY AREA 



Ogdra, 



Evanston / Green 

• 1 River 




M Lake Qty 



UTAH 



about 6,200 to over 13,000 feet, and 
much of the area is above timberline 
(11, 000 feet) . The predommant tree 
cover is lodgepole pine and there are 
lesser amounts of Engelmann spruce, 
Douglas -fir, and subalpine fir. Many 
aspen stands grow among these conif- 
erous forests. Alpine meadows are 
numerous and give way to tundra above 
timberline. Low willows are common 
in the meadows and along streams. 
At lower elevations, ponderosa pine, 
pinyon pine, juniper, and sagebrush 
are found. 

Few roads currently penetrate 
the North Slope. A much enlarged 
road network is planned outside the 
roadless High Uintas Primitive Area. 
Thus many remote streams and lakes 
may suddenly become accessible to 
large numbers of people, creating a 
need for an inventory of available 
recreation resources and plans for 
their development. 

This paper describes the tech- 
niques used in the test survey and 
makes general recommendations. 
Wherever possible, evaluations of 
accuracy of --and estimates of time 
consumed by- -the various operations 
are given. 

PRELIMINARY PROCEDURES 

To be successful, a water resource inventory using aerial photographs must be planned 
and organized to make the best use of available funds and manpower . The amount and kind of 
detail to be collected must be decided upon. Selection and training of the photo interpreter re- 
quire a varying amount of advance preparation, depending on the level of intensity of the study. 

THE DRAINAGE BASIN UNIT 



Figure 1. --Location of study area, 



The drainage patterns of mountains greatly influence the development of timber and other 
resources, as well as water. Water resource data are most useful to administrators when 
mapped and presented by units that correspond to drainage basins. The acreage included in any 
particular drainage unit is not of great importance, but the unit boundaries should coincide as 
nearly as possible with the boundaries of working units established for timber, forage, and other 
resources. This organization allows comparison of resource values common to a specific area. 
Fishery biologists, foresters, water engineers, highway planners, and land managers can adjust 
their specific development plans to avoid damaging other resources. 



Ridgelines, divides, and saddles form the natural separation loetween drainage units and 
re logical choices for boundaries. They have the advantage that tliey can be easily identified 
,'ithout cosUy surveying on maps and photos as well as in the field. Hie ixiundaries of drainage 
nits should be marked on a map of adequate scale; onc-fourtli incli to the mile is usually sul'- 
LCient. The same boundaries should be marked on a scries of maps of larger scale, sucli as 

to 2 inches per mile. These are used to show tiie position of lakes and streams a's the 
iventory progresses. 

On both the large and small scale maps, the drainage basin units should be systematically 
umbered for identification and reference of inventory data. 

PURCHASE AND PREPARATION OF AERb\L PHOTOS 

When tlie botindaries of the area to be studied have been determined, die photos may be 
rdered. Median scale (1:20,000) aerial photographs are readily available at moderate cost 
id cover most of the United States. Such photos are usually taken with panchromatic film and 
filter to remove blue light, permitting moderate penetration of haze. They can be purchased 
•om the U.S. Agricultural Stabilization and Conservation Service or from tlie U.S. Forest 
srvice. Index sheets show the photographic coverage available over any specific area, and 
le required prints should be ordered from these sheets by individual photo number. 

In aerial photography, images of all terrain features visible on one photo are duplicated on 
le or more adjacent photos; that is, tliere is a large amount of overlap between adjacent photos, 
tierefore, it is particularly important that die effective area of each photo be marked before 
e inventory is begun, so that no water areas are either omitted or inventoried more tlian once. 
tie effective area is an approximately rectangular area in the central portion of eacii plioto. 
:ocedures for delineating effective area are given in appendix A. 

Because tlie scale on an aerial photo varies widi the height of the camera above ground 
vel, it not only changes from one photo to another, but from one portion of a photo to anotlier, 
'en within the effective area. Changes in scale are particularly great in mountainous regions' 
lere ground elevation changes abruptly and where conditions require frequent changes in flying 
light. Unless the photo interpreter recognizes scale variations, he will get erroneous impres- 
ons or measurements. For this reason, care must be taken to determine the scale of each 
Tial photo to be used in the inventory. This is not necessarily a difficult or time-consuming 
■ocedure, as convenient tables may be worked out to simplify tiie calculation. Detailed dis- 
ission of procedures for scale determination may be found in "Manual of Pliotographic Inter - 
etation." In general, scale determination requires the use of accurate contour maps from 
lich the elevation above sea level can be read for specific points on a given piioto. 



American Society of Photogrammctry. Manual of photograpiiic interpretation, .siS pp. 
ishington, D.C., 1960. See chapter 3, Fundamentals of photo interpretation. 



QUALIFICATIONS AND TRAINING OF THE PHOTO INTERPRETER 

The efficient use of aerial photography for a water resource inventory requires that per- 
sons assigned the duty of interpretation have some technical knowledge of photogrammetry and 
some training and experience in actual interpretation. In any practical situation, the success 
of the inventory will depend largely on the skill of the interpreter. Every effort should be made 
to secure a qualified person or to give adequate training to those who are assigned to the work. 
Those without general aerial photogrammetric training may refer to the publications on this sub- 
ject by Moessner and Moessner and Choate. Most colleges and universities offer courses in 
photogrammetric techniques. 

A primary requisite for the photo interpreter is the ability to use the stereoscope. Normal 
vision in both eyes is therefore required. Almost all the work with the photographs is done with 
the three-dimensional image provided by stereoscopic viewing. In this, as in all skills, experi- 
ence is valuable in that it allows the user to produce results faster and more accurately. Time 
spent in practice with the stereoscope is a necessary part of training. 

In addition to specific training and experience with the photos themselves, the interpreter 
should have field experience. He should have the opportunity to make a few comparative ground 
measurements of features typical of those he will be expected to recognize or measure on photos.. 
He should travel through the inventory area with the aerial photos and make direct comparisons 
between the photo image and the ground situation. In a water inventory, for example, he would 
want to study the ground situation in terms of lake depth, stream width, slope of bank, vegetation i 
type, and similar features. 

INVENTORY OF LAKES 

The inventory of lakes has two aspects: (1) the determination of the total number of lakes 
and their location, and (2) the physical description of each lake. Because this information is 
valuable even for small lakes and streams, it is desirable that the inventory be as complete 
as possible. 

RECOGNITION OF LAKES ON PHOTOS 

For the most part, lakes are easily recognized on aerial photos. The smooth texture of 
the lake surface is generally so different from the surrounding vegetation or ground surface 
that the interpreter can instantly pick out the lake images. However, photo images of lakes 
vary considerably in tone from deep black to light gray. When light is reflected from a lake 
surface, suspended sediment, light -colored vegetation, or lake bottom material, the image on 
panchromatic photos appears light gray. But when light is absorbed by deep water, dark materi- • 
als in the water, or the lake bottom, the resultant tone of the photo image is dark. 



Moessner, Karl E. A simple test for stereoscopic perception. U.S. Forest Serv., 
Central States Forest Exp. Sta. Tech. Pap. 144, 14 pp., nius. 1954. 

Moessner, Karl E., and Grover A. Choate. Estimating slope percent for land manage- 
ment from aerial photos. U.S. Forest Serv. Res. Note INT -26, 8 pp., illus. 1964. 



Lake images that are light gray or white seem to blend with the image tones of adjacent 
•ck slopes, and may easily be overlooked (fig. 2). Stereoscopic examination reveals them, 
iwever, and field investigation shows that such lakes are almost always lieavily silted; their 
Iter is opaque, and all underwater detail is obscured. 

Occasionally alpine meadows and dry lakebeds have photographic tones similar to those 
opaque lakes. Stereoscopic study of the photo images, however, reveals textural differences 
!tween the water surface of a lake and the vegetation of a meadow. When meadows surround 
arshlike lakes, the exact position of the shoreline is difficult to delineate on photos. In such 
ises, ground inspection often shows that the area is subject to spring flooding followed by a 
wering ot water that exposes meadows during the late summer. Dry lukebeds, on the other 
md, can be recognized by their basinhke conformation. 

RECORDING THE LAKES BY DRAINAGE UNITS 



The photo interpreter can quickly identify and count all the lakes within each drainage unit, 
ly convenient method may be used to identify them if they arc not already named. It was help- 
1 in this study to number each lake initially by both drainage unit and the number of the aerial 
loto on which it appears. For example, lake 3-10-EBW-9-198 would be the third lake in drain- 
;e unit 10 on photo EBW-9-198. The center of each lake was pinpricked on the photo and the 
ke number was v.Titten on the back of the photo next to the pinprick. All the lakes in one drain - 
;e unit were later numbered consecutively on the map and cross- referencedto the photo numbers 
r rapid retrieval of the photo on which 

particular lake was shown. These 
imbers were used on the drainage unit 
ap to show the location of the lake, 
hen large numbers of small lakes less 
an an acre each are clustered on the 
loto, it may be unnecessary or difficult 

indicate the precise position of each 
I the map. In such instances, the total 
imber of lakes less than 1 acre and of 
single type can be simply recorded for 
Lch drainage unit, and no specific 
cations need be shown. 



igure 2. --An opaque lake image, compared 
with a clear lake image. Lakes that ap- 
pear cloudy on the ground may produce 
light images on panchromatic photographs; 
such images may blend with the tones of 
rock slopes. (Enlarged X2) 




DESCRIBING LAKE CHARACTERISTICS 

By measurements made entirely on aerial photos, lakes can be described in terms of 
(1) type, (2) size, (3) elevation, (4) depth, (5) clarity of water, and (6) shore cover. Descrip- 
tion of bottom material, water temperature, forms of aquatic vegetation, and fish life is not 
possible from aerial photographs. 

The extent to which lakes are studied and classified depends primarily on the intensity of 
the survey to be made. In this study, lakes larger than 1 acre warrant description according to 
type, acreage, depth, clarity, and shore cover. Smaller lakes usually require type and size 
classification only. 

Lake Type 

Five lake types were recognized in the study area. In other geographic regions, additional 
or different lake types may be appropriate. The following type classes were used: 

1. Cirque lakes --those in the cirque basins formed at the head of former glaciers. 

2. Moraine lakes --those formed behind the terminal or lateral moraines left by former 
glaciers. 

3. Reservoirs --lakes formed or altered in level by human activity. Reservoirs can be 
recognized by the amount of shoreline exposed by fluctuating water levels. 

4. Beaver ponds --small impoundments created when watercourses are dammed by 
beaver . 

5. Potholes --small depressions formed by disintegrating glaciers and retaining less than 
1 acre of water. 

The last two lake types are the most difficult to identify because they are frequently simi- 
lar in size. However, it is desirable to distinguish between them, because beaver ponds are 
not so permanent as other lakes (spring runoff frequently breaks beaver dams), and because 
they have different recreational values. Beaver ponds provide fishpools, and the higher water 
temperatures in the ponds usually allow fish to multiply more rapidly than they generally do in 
the cold mountain streams. On die other hand, potholes may not support game fish, but they 
occur in significant numbers and often serve as reflection pools, thus helping to create attract- 
ive surroundings for hiking and camping. Some pothole lakes are occupied by beaver, and 
beaver houses may be visible on photos. Because such impoundments are not created by beaver, 
they should be classified as potholes rather than beaver ponds. 

In general, beaver -formed ponds are associated with flowing water of small streams 
(fig. 3). They tend to photograph in medium or light tones of gray, and can generally be recog- 
nized by the characteristic fan -shaped pool behind the dam. A ripple of "white water" flowing 
over the crest of the dam is sometimes visible on the photo. Recognizable beaver houses may 
provide an additional clue. In contrast to beaver ponds, potholes usually occur in groups in the 
glacial dumps of terminal and lateral moraines or in glacier -scarred basins. These depres- 
sions often contain substantial amounts of organic matter, and the ponds thus tend to photograph 
in darker tones than do beaver ponds. 



igure 3. --Beaver 
ponds on aerial 
photo. White in 
upper pond is a 
beaver house . 







Lake Size 

Description by class . --Lakes of different sizes have different possibilities for recreational 
se. Therefore classification according to surface area is recommended. The following five 
lasses have been found useful for mountain lakes: 

Class l--less than 1 acre 
Class 2--1.00 to 4.99 acres 
Class 3--5.00 to 9.99 acres 
Class 4--10.00 to 19.99 acres 
Class 5--20 acres or more 

The size class of a lake can be estimated directly on a photo by means of a lake size guide, 
transparent overlay printed with concentric circles that correspond to the lake size classes at 
le average scale of the photos being examined. By placing the guide over a lake image on a 
hoto, the interpreter can rapidly select the size class most nearly matching the lake surface 
rea. It should be remembered that division of lakes into general size classes with the guide is 
lerely an approximation of acreage. The acreage of a long, narrow lake, for example, cannot 
e accurately measured with a circular guide, but a reasonable estimate can be quickly made. 

Description by acreage. --When it is deemed necessary to describe lake size more pre- 
isely than by classes, each lake image can be measured with a dot grid. This grid is a trans - 
arent overlay covered with equally spaced dots, each of which represents the center of a small 
quare. For most lake measurements, a dot grid having 256 dots per square inch is adequate. 
Vhere added precision is desired, a microdot grid having 1,024 dots per square inch can be used. 



The photo interpreter can rapidly compute the lake area by the following procedures: 

Step 1. --Determine the exact scale of the photo at the lake surface elevation. 

Step 2. --Determine the acreage per dot. For example, 1 square inch of photo surface 
at a scale of 1:19,000 is: 

19,000 X 19,000 = 361,000,000 square inches 

= 361,000,000-=- 144 = 2, 506, 944 square feet 
= 2, 506, 944 H- 43,560 = 57.55 acres 

Consequently, for a dot grid with 256 dots per square inch, the acreage per 
dot for a scale of 1:19,000 is 57.55 ^ 256 = 0.225 acre. 

Step 3. --Count the dots superimposed on the photo image of the lake. This should be 
done while the photos are being viewed stereoscopically. 

Step 4. --Multiply the number of dots counted times the acreage per dot. 

Lake Elevation 

The approximate elevation of a lake can be determined once the lake position is indicated 
on the contour map. Elevation is critical in estimating the approximate number of snow- and 
ice -free days that may be expected during the year, an important influence on general recrea- 
tional use. The duration of the ice -free period also influences the amount of biological activity 
(such as fish growth) in the lake. 

Depth 

In this study, determination of maximum lake depth from photos could not be done accu- 
rately. Instead, photo interpretation was used to determine whether lakes were less or more 
than 15 feet deep, and if more, to estimate the percentage of each lake area that was under 15 
feet deep. The procedures used were essentially those reported by Moessner. 

Any appropriate depth contour may be used. The 15 -foot depth contour was judged to be 
a significant lake measurement in the study area for three reasons: (1) It is about the minimum 
depth that allows fish in high mountain lakes to escape suffocation and mortality during severe 
winters; (2) it approximately defines the "littoral zone" in which light penetration and water 
temperature permit the production of food for fish; and (3) it is the maximum depth at which light 
penetration allows recognition of underwater detail on panchromatic photographs of clear lakes. 

The techniques used for estimating depth on aerial photos are based on the assumption 
that the immediate bank slope surrounding a lake continues more or less unchanged for some 
distance under water. Thus, lakes with steep banks on all sides are considered more likely to 
be deep than are lakes witli nearly level banks. 

Estimations of lake depth may be based mainly on the interpreter's judgment of steepness 
of bank slope or may be calculated from bank slope measurements on the photo. Measurement 
is, of course, more accurate, and it allows the interpreter to predict depth at specific distances 
from shore. 



( 



4 

Moessner, Karl E. Estimating depth of small mountain lakes by photo measurement 
techniques. Photogram. Eng. XX1X(4): 580-588, illus. 1963. 



DcpUl classification without measurement. --Di this method, tlic photos are examined 
:ereoscopically and a judgment is made on unmeasured estimates of bank slopes. Otiier clues 
I the slope of tlie lake bottom are considered, including the general conf i^>iiration of the lake, 
le expected characteristics of lakes of known origin, images of underwater detail, such as 
jgetation or rocks, and tlie lighter or darker tones of different parts of the lake. 

In tlie test study, two experienced interpreters worked independenlly to estimate the po- 
tion of tlie 15-foot depth line for each lake and to draw it on the photo. Tlieir estimates were 
[accurate for the shallower lakes. None of the four lakes determined from field measurements 
I be less than 15 feet deep was correctly classified by either interpreter. Only one lake was 
idged to be less than 15 feet deep, and field measurements showed this lake to be actually 
jeper than 15 feet. Although depth judgments were often wrong, lakes with steep banks were 
;ldom misclassified. Training of photo interpreters should include practice in comparing 
jtimates of bank slopes with parallax measurements of the same slopes. 

Depth classification using parallax measurement. --In this method, selected bank slopes 
round each lake image are measured, using parallax wedges, as described by Moessner and 
hoate.^ Accuracy may be improved ii xhc banks most likely to characterize lake depth are 
losen according to indications such as the clues mentioned above. For example, if underwater 
igetation is evident near a steeply sloping bank, that bank is probably not a good choice for 
irallax measurement. 

The underwater extension of each measured bank is calculated, and the distance from 
lore at which a water deptli of 15 feet would be expected is calculated. The resulting points 
:e then plotted on tlie photo. For example, a 20 -percent bank slope (20/100) would result in 
15 -foot lake depth at 75 feet from shore if it continued under water without change: 

15 feet 20 



Distance from shore 100 

15(100) 
Distance from shore = — :^ 

= 75 feet 

In the test study, three trained interpreters measured bank slopes of 21 lakes on the 
lotos. Their measurements gave dependable depth information for steep -sided lakes. The 
7 lakes that were deeper than 15 feet, as determined from depth measurements made from a 
)at, were all correctly identified by parallax measurements. However, this procedure proved 
idependable for lakes with the shallowest water and the gentlest bank slopes. Of tlie 12 depth 
Btimates made for the four lakes found to be less than 15 feet deep, only three were correct 
15 percent) . 

Lake size as an indicator of lake depth. --To cut down tlie time rerjuired for deptli classifi- 
ition using parallax measurements, the relation of lake size to the steepness of general terrain 
id lake banks may be used as an indicator of depth. The bank slope of a small lake must be 
Jite steep if the lake depth is to reach 15 feet or more. Conversely, large lakes are likely to 
s 15 feet deep even when their bank slopes are relatively gentle. This general relation between 
ike size and minimum average bank slopes may be tabulated for convenience, using general 
stimates taken from the photos and based on field experience. For lakes on the North Slope, 
le relationships between size and slope were as follows: 



'See footnote 3. 



Lake size Slope 

(Acres) (Percent) 

Less than 5 28 

5-10 25 

10-15 22 

15-20 19 

20 -40 15 

More than 40 10 



"'"Average of the two steepest measured slopes. 

Such a table may be used to classify lakes into two groups as more or less than 15 feet 
deep, on the basis of average bank slope measurement, without actual plotting of the 15 -foot 
depth contour. Eliminating the plotting of the underwater contour considerably reduces the work 
time required per lake. Although the time saving does result in somewhat reduced accuracy, 
80 percent of the lakes in the study were classified correctly by this method. Lakes that fail to 
meet these minimum criteria of slope and lake size must be measured with additional slope 
readings and the 15 -foot depth contour must be plotted. 

Estimating Shallow Area of Lakes 

In a recreation inventory, it is often desirable to know what proportion of a deep lake is 
relatively shallow. As mentioned earlier, fish are not likely to survive over winter in lakes 
less than 15 feet deep but are largely dependent on food produced in the shallow zone of less than 
this depth. 

Two methods can be used to determine the proportion of shallow zone area. The first, 
contour plotting, requires that slopes be measured on photos, and that the 15 -foot depth line be 
plotted. The shallow area is then determined by the dot -counting technique described earlier. 
The second method, formula computation, still requires bank slope measurements but elimi- 
nates the plotting and dot -counting chore by using a formula to compute the proportion of shallow 
area. The proportion can easily be converted into acreage if a dot count of the total lake area 
has been made. 

Shallow area estimation by plotting contour. --Once the 15 -foot depth line has been drawn 
on a photo, either from unmeasured estimates or from projection of 5 to 10 measured bank; 
slopes per lake, it is easy to obtain the shallow zone area of each lake by the dot -count pro- 
cedures described earlier. 

Contour plotting with parallax measurements was found to be the most accurate of the two 
methods when results were compared with field measurements. Without parallax measurements, 
only 47 percent (16 out of 34) of the photo estimates of the shallow zone area were within ±25 per- 
cent of field measurements. However, estimates based on parallax measurements and projec- 
tions of bank slopes were within ±25 percent of field measurements 80 percent of the time (41 
out of 51). 

Formula computation o f shallow area. --The formula method of estimating shallow zone 
area uses 5 to 10 bank slope measurements and projections. The equation is as follows: 



10 



, , , , ,, 2D(L + W - 2D) 
Proportion ot lake in shallow zone = 



LW 

here 

D = t±ie average distance from shore to the 13 -foot depth line as projected from measured 

bank slopes 
L = length of lake 
W = width of lake. 

he formula is derived on the assumption that each lake is a perfect ellipse.'' Formula esti- 
lates of shallow zone area were within ±25 percent of field measurements 69 percent of the 
me (35 out of 51, table 1, page 21). 

Formula -derived estimates of shallow area averaged somewhat less than field estimates, 
n adjustment factor may be used to improve accuracy if field measurements are available for 
few sample lakes. The factor is the result of dividing the average field -measured proportion 
E total lake area to shallow area by the average formula -estimated proportion. Each formula 
stimate is tlien multiplied by this factor to obtain an adjusted formula estimate. In the test 
tudy, an average factor for the three interpreters was used (1.16). The adjusted estimates 
ere within ±25 percent of field measurements 75 percent of the time (38 out of 51). Because 
stimates tend to differ from one photo interpreter to another, slightly better accuracy can be 
btained by using a separate adjustment factor for each photo interpreter. 

The accuracy of the four methods may be summarized according to percent of estimates 
oming within ±25 percent of values based on field measurements as follows: (1) 80 percent 
;curate (41/51) --plotting of 15-foot depth contour with parallax measurements; (2) 75 percent 
^curate (38/51) --adjusted formula estimation; (3) 69 percent accurate (35/51) --unadjusted 
)rmula estimation; and (4) 47 percent accurate (16/34) --contour plotting without parallax meas- 
rement. (The estimates on which these percentages are based are given in table 1, page 21.) 



If the lake is an ellipse, then the shallow zone area equals the total lake area minus the 

eep zone area. Thus, 

^ , , , TtLW 

Total lake area = 



Deep area 



4 _ 

ir(L - 2D) (W - 2D) 



4 
Shallow area = total area - deep area 

_ jtLW jt(L - 2D) (W - 2D) 



'hich reduces to 



_ 2nD(L + W - 2D) 



his must be divided by the total area of the lake to convert it to the proportion of lake in 
hallow zone. 

_ 2«D(L + W - 2D)/4 2D(L + W - 2D) 



Shallow area 



rtLW/4 LW 



lOTE : In order to convert a proportion obtained by the formula method to acreage of sliallow 
rea, when no dot count of total lake area has been made, the total area can be calculated by 
le formula itLW/4. 






11 



Clarity of Lake Water 

The relative clarity of the water contained in lakes can be judged on the basis of the color 
tone of the photo image. Lakes which appear light gray or white (opaque) on panchromatic photos 
generally contain suspended solids. It is more difficult to predict the water clarity of a lake 
which appears dark on the photo. The water may be clear or may contain varying amounts of 
suspended material. 

Shore Cover 

The type of vegetation surrounding a lake influences its recreational utility. Wood for 
campfires is difficult to obtain at lakes without tree cover. Dense brush cover may require 
construction of trails. Boggy or marshy areas surrounding a lake make access difficult. For 
these and other reasons, it is desirable to indicate the approximate percentage of the lakeshore 
that falls in the following cover classes: 

1. Forest --stands of trees averaging 20 feet or more in height. 

2. Brush--woody vegetation less than 20 feet in height. 

3. Bog --wet areas of grasses and sedges that usually appear in dark tones on photos. 

4. Meadow --areas of grasses and sedges that are drier than bog and usually appear in 
lighter tones on photos. 

5. Barren --no vegetation present. 

INVENTORY OF STREAMS 



Aerial photographs provide far less information for streams than for lakes. Streams less 
than 20 feet wide can be easily obscured by tree or brush cover, so that any measurement is 
difficult. Depth measurements such as those made on lakes are impossible, even when the 
stream is plainly visible. Nonwater features are often mistaken for streams on photos. Live 
streams that are not hidden by overtopping vegetation appear as thin and meandering dark lines 
(fig. 4). Shadows of steep drainage banks, as well as the outcrops of dark rock strata, can 
appear as similar lines. 

In spite of these problems, photo interpretation and measurement can be used to obtain 
estimates of stream length, width, and gradient, and a general description of streambank cover. 
The principal value of the photos in a stream inventory is to correct and supplement the informa- 
tion given on available maps of the area. In addition, photos are a logical tool for field location 
of sample points if on-the-ground measurement of additional stream characteristics is planned. 

K no field measurements are to be taken, aerial photos should be used to improve the 
basic description of streams given on the best maps of the area. Most modern maps are made 
from aerial photos and show the location of streams fairly accurately. However, because in 
general these maps are based on small-scale photos, much detail visible on 1:20,000 scale 
photos is not apparent to the mapmakers. 



12 



It 'y .1 I 



w. 





















Figure 4. --A typical live stream appears on panchromatic photography as a 

meandering, thin, dark line. 



RECOGNITION OF STREAMS ON AERIAL PHOTOS 

Larger streams, which are easily recognized on the photos, arc usually correctly mapped, 
any smaller streams, however, particularly in mountainous areas, cannot be identified from a 
ap alone as flowing, dry, or intermittent. A number of tliese can be correctly classified from 
lotos, and substantial savings over field inventory costs can be made. 

Where live streams are obscured by vegetation, tlieir presence may sometimes be inferred 
cm related photo features. A meandering pattern of dark blotches through a forested area may 
; made by marshes, springs, seeps, or other riparian vegetation and water. On the other hand, 
:y drainage channels usually appear on panchromatic photography in liglit -colored image tones, 
icause the deposits of clay, silt, sand, and rock tend to reflect light. Sucli indirect evidence 
5 exposed boulders, the absence of riparian vegetation, and lack of sprmgs or marsh areas all 
iggest tliat a channel is dry. 



13 



Intermittent streams are the most difficult to identify on aerial photos, especially in the 
upper reaches where flow is strongly influenced by periodic rainfall. A small channel may con- 
tain a live stream on the date of photography and be dry immediately thereafter. Similarly, 
field surveys may find water where none was present at the time of photography. Nevertheless, 
experience indicates that if the photo interpreter "sees" water in a channel when he is viewing 
photos stereoscopically, a field check will usually confirm his judgment. This probability is 
raised by the fact that most resource photos are taken during late summer and autumn, when 
stream levels are lowest. 

When streams are identified, obviously dry channels can be eliminated from the inventory. 
Any later fieldwork can be concentrated on streams that remain questionable after the photo 
interpretation has been completed. 

RECORDING STREAMS BY DRAINAGE UNITS 

Most drainage units contain one main channel and one or more channels tributary to it. 
Although most of the main stream channels are named, the smaller tributaries are frequently 
nameless. For convenience in reference, it is desirable to use some system of numerical and 
alphabetical identification. In this study, the main channel was given the same number as that 
of the drainage unit in which it was located. Tributary streams were then identified with the 
letter "T" following the unit designation number. The first tributary was labeled TA, the second 
TB, and so on, until each flowing tributary was identified. In the example shown in figure 5, the 
third tributary in drainage unit 10 is identified as lOTC . 



Figure 5. --Typical drainage unit, showing 
pattern and identification of streams. 




_Tritatar)f stream 
xMaai shream 
Unit IxHaidary 



14 



DESCRIBING STREAM CMARACTERLSTICS 

Stream Length 

Aerial photos are particularly effective tor editing maps for streain length. If available, 
laps with a scale as large as 1 or 2 inches to the mile are best for use with the photos. End 
Dints of each stream should be located first on the pliotos. The end points are transferred to 
le map as accurately as possible and the apparent length of the stream and its tributaries can 
len be measured on the corrected map. The stream's lower end is defined as the point where 

flows into another stream. The upper end is defined as the highest point in the drainage that 
Lves evidence of permanent flow of water. Dry or intermittent channels can be eliminated 
3 that only the essential portions of any stream under consideration will be included. Dividers, 
2t to the scale of the map, are used to step off the lengtli at quarter -mile intervals to give tlie 
ladjusted length of the entire stream or any portion of the stream. This unadjusted length 
iderestimates actual stream length, because small bends and other deviations in stream di- 
3Ction cannot be accurately mapped. However, tlie mapped stream length can be multiplied by 

"meander factor" to give an adjusted stream length. 

The meander factor is the ratio between the meander distance as visible in the photo and 
le straight -line distance for a given stream segment. 

The procedure for determining meander distance on tlie photo is to rule a tliin straight 
ne on a strip of transparent paper and then match this line to short segments of the stream, 
wo points approximately a quarter of a mile apart in straight -line ground distance are selected 
1 tlie stream image. The paper is placed over the photo so tliat one end of the ruled line is 
i^er one of the selected points, and a pin is pushed through the paper and into the photo at this 
Dint. The paper is then pivoted so that the line lies over a short section of the stream course, 
second pin is then placed at the point where the stream image diverges from the ruled line. 
he first pin is removed and the paper pivoted to coincide with the next section of stream. This 
rocess is repeated tintil the point a quarter of a mile away is reached. The amount of line used 
i then measured, and the meander factor is calculated: 

Photo meander distance 
Meander factor 



Plioto straight -line distance 



2cause the value sought is a ratio, any units of measurement can be used on the plioto; conver- 
ion to ground distances is not required. Several measurements may be made at different points 
long the stream photo image and an average meander factor established. Thus a stream with an 
verage meander factor of 1.470 and an tinadjusted mapped length of 8.6 miles would have an 
djusted length of 8.6 X 1.470 = 12.64 mUes. 

In some instances, a general average meander factor for a particular drainage basin may 
e used for all streams in the basin. This saves time witiiout any considerable loss of accuracy. 



If work on photos is followed by on -the -ground sampling, the upper end ol the stream may 
e redefined by other criteria. During the fieldwork on the North Slope study tlie upper end of 
ach stream was arbitrarily defined as the point where stream width dwindled to 4 feet. 



15 



Stream Widt± i 

Stream width is difficult to measure accurately from photos. Perhaps the most practical 
course is to group the stream segments on photos into width classes. This method produces 
reliable estimates. Appropriate class limits for small mountain streams are: 

1 -20 feet 
21-50 feet 
51-100 feet 
10 1-200 feet 

Limits can be established as needed, depending on conditions in the area under study. However, 
for evaluation of recreational possibilities of streams, the above classification is generally ade- 
quate. If estimates of stream surface area are needed, the adjusted stream length and the 
midpoint value for the width class can be multiplied together. Length of segments may be de- 
termined in any convenient manner, depending on the general amount of variation in stream width. 

Stream Gradient 

Gradient can be determined most easily directly from contour maps. If contour maps are 
not available, elevation differences may be determined by parallax wedge measurements on 
aerial photos. Once the adjusted length for the entire stream has been determined, the gradient, 
in percent, can be found by dividing the elevation difference between two points by the adjusted 
stream length between these points and multiplying the result by 100. 

Streambank Cover 

Streambank cover can be recognized by an experienced photo interpreter and can be 
classified for stream segments as: 

1. Forest --stands of trees averaging 20 feet or more in height. 

2. Brush --woody vegetation up to 20 feet in height. 

3. Open --no shrub or tree cover recognizable on photos. 

If vegetation cover maps have been prepared for other purposes, they may provide ade- 
quate cover information without further photo work. 

LEVELS OF INTENSITY OF AN INVENTORY 

The procedures in a water resource inventory may be combined in several ways to make 
up inventories of varying degrees of intensity. 

LAKE INVENTORY 

In the early planning stage of the inventory, some decision will probably be made as to 
the amount of information desired; however, in the course of the study, it may become advis- 
able to step up or step down in intensity. Particularly promising lake areas discovered in the 
course of a low-intensity study may warrant closer examination and measurement. In a high- 
intensity study, a group of lakes of similar nature may require only sampling. 

As a guide in the choice of level, information is needed on the time required for each 
procedure. In the present study the following evaluation has been made: 

16 



requ 


ired per 


lake 


1 


minute 




1 

2 


hour 




5 


minutes 





Approximate time 
Procedure 

Lake size determination: 

By class, with lake size guide 

By area, dot count 

Determination of elevation, tyjie, 
clarity, shore cover 

Depth determination: 

By plotting without measurement 5 minutes 

By plotting with parallax measurement 5 hour 

Determination of shallow area: 

By plotting witliout measurement, 

including dot count ^ hour 

By plotting with parallax measure- 
ment, including dot count 1^ hours 

By use of formula ^ hour or less 

Three possible combinations of procedures, witli time approximations for photo interpre- 
Ltion, are as follows: 

1. Low-intensity photo inventory (average of 10 minutes per lake). 

a. Inventory all lakes and ponds within each drainage basin unit by lake type, size 
Lass, elevation, water clarity, and shore cover. 

b. Use unmeasured estimates of bank slope, the lake size guide, and a table of mini- 
lum baak slopes to classify all lakes larger than 1 acre as either "probably deep" (more than 

5 feet deep) or "probably shallow" (less than 15 feet deep). 

2. Medium -intensity photo inventory (average of 45 minutes per lake). 

a. Inventory all lakes and ponds within each drainage basin unit by lake type, size 
lass, elevation, water clarity, and shore cover. 

b. Use a combination of unmeasured and measured estimates of bank slopes, the 
ike size guide, and the table of minimum bank slopes to classify all lakes larger than 1 acre 
s either "deep" or "shallow." Lakes having bank slopes that are judged to exceed the niini- 
lum required by the table need not be checked with parallax measurements and may be classi- 
ed as "deep." For all other lakes, take parallax measurements of the one or two bank slopes 
onsidered most indicative of lake depth. Classify lakes as "deep" if slopes equal or exceed 
linimum values in table, "shallow" if slopes are less than these table values. 

c. Use parallax measurements and the formula for calculating shallow area of lakes 
lat seem to justify furtlier evaluation because of size, location, or depth. 

17 



3. Fiill -intensity photo inventory (1 hour and 30 minutes per lake). 

a. Inventory all lakes and ponds within each drainage basin by lake type, size class, 
elevation, water clarity, and shore cover. Measure area of all lakes over 1 acre in size by dot- 
count procedures. 

b. Classify all lakes over 1 acre in size as "deep," or "shallow." Classify as "deep" 
if measured bank slopes exceed the table values, "shallow" if they do not. 

c. For all lakes classified as "deep, " plot the 15 -foot depth line from 5 to 10 meas- 
ured bank slopes and compute the shallow zone area by dot -count procedures. 

Any further details unobtainable by a full -intensity inventory must be gathered on the 
ground. In the Uinta Mountains, field measurements cost approximately seven times as much 
per lake as full -intensity photo measurements. However, they may often be justified after photo 
techniques have been used to identify the lakes most likely to offer outstanding opportunities for 
recreation. 

STREAM INVENTORY 

The primary objective of a stream inventory from aerial photos is to evaluate the stream 
resource of each drainage unit in terms that allow comparison with the stream resource in other 
units. If a higher intensity inventory is desired, however, the same techniques can be used to 
describe individual segments of a stream, so as to allow comparison of different parts of the 
same stream. For example, streams can be described in 1-mile segments, permitting the 
identification of unique or separate sections of a given stream. 

The time requirements for stream inventories cannot be estimated as easily as those for 
lake inventories, because streams vary greatly in length. However, as a rough guide, most 
streams can be adequately classified in 4 hoiurs. The description of a particular segment of a 
stream will take between 2 and 3 hours. 



18 



APPENDIX A 

DETERMINATION OF EFFECTIVE AREAS ON AERIAL PMOTOS 

Delineation o( effective areas on aerial photos requires marking off the boundaries of the 
■ea or. each photo that appears on that photo alone. Overlap occurs perpendicular to the flight 
ae and between lines of flight. The procedure is as follows: 

Marking l)oundaries perpendicular to the flight line--endlap. 

Step 1. --Taking the first two photos in a fliglit line, place photo 1 over photo 2 so that 
lages common to the two photos are approximately superimposed. Then, rule a straight line 
a ink or crayon pencil) on photo 1 so it approximately bisects the area of endlap and is approx- 
lately perpendicular to the line of flight. This line should pass through two easily recognized 
lage points, several inches apart on the photos, and representing the highest points of topog- 
iphy in a position suitable for the ruled line. 

Step 2. --Duplicate this ruled line on photo 2 by drawing it through the images of the same 
)ints on this second photo. This duplication is simpler if the photos are examined in stereo - 
sion. h" both lines pass through image points representing high points in the topography, dien 
) photo detail will be excluded. Some detail at low elevations may be duplicated within the 
fective area of the two photos, but if ruled lines pass through high points, effective areas can 
isily be separated and adjustments made under stereovision. 

Step 3. --Repeat this procedure for all photos in a single flight line, pairing photo 2 with 
loto 3, 3 with 4, etc. 

Marking boundaries between lines of flight --sidelap. 

Step 1. --Place the first photo in one flight line over the first photo in an adjacent flight 
ne so that images common to the two photos are approximately superimposed. Then, rule a 
xaight line on the top photo so it is approximately parallel to the flight line and approximately 
sects the area of sidelap. If possible, this line should pass through two prominent image 
)ints. Draw this sidelap boundary only until it meets the endlap boundaries drawn previously. 

Step 2. --Duplicate this ruled line on the bottom photo. Since stereovision of images from 
Ijacent flight lines is difficult or impossible, duplication of die ruled line must be guided by lo- 
ition of image points crossed by the line on the top photo. It is convenient to hold die two photos 
1 a desk top in overlapped position with one hand. The other hand can be used to pull up one 
ige of the top photo so that images common to the two photos can be identified and marked. 

Step 3 . --Repeat the procedure for all other sidelapping photo pairs. The boundaries 
lied for each endlap and sidelap area will define the effective area on each photo. 



ly 



APPENDIX B 

The guide is prepared by drafting concentric circles to represent areas of 1, 5, 10, and 
20 acres at the average scale of the photos being used. Radii for the circles are easily calcu- 
lated from (1) tlie formula for the area of a circle (A = nr^), and (2) the average photo scale. 
For example, the radius of a 1-acre circle is calculated thus: 

A = irr^ = 43,560 square feet 

r^ = 43,560 ~ 3.1416 = 13,866 square feet 

r =118 feet 

This can be converted to distance on the photo itself by the relationship: 

Radius on photo „ 

— — ; ~ = Photo scale 

Radius on ground 

For a 1-acre circle at a photo scale of 1:20,000 this becomes 

Radius on photo _ 1 



118 feet 20,000 

Radius on photo = 118 feet - 20,000 = .0059 foot 
Radii for a lake size guide applicable to 1:20, 000 -scale photos are as follows: 

Area Radius on photo 

1 acre 0.0059 foot 

5 acres .0132 foot 

10 acres .0186 foot 

20 acres .0264 foot 

A simple method of putting the circles on transparent material is to photograph them and pre- 
pare a positive transparency. 



20 



APPENDIX C 

Evaluations of t±ie accuracy of the 
photo interpreters' conclusions as to 
depth and shallow area have been re- 
ferred to in the text. Table 1 gives 
detailed data from which the percentages 
were drawn, covering the estimation of 
shallow area by four different methods . 
Note that somewhat consistent variation 
is evident in the conclusions arrived at 
by the three interpreters. Any given 
interpreter may have a tendency to under- 
estimate or overestimate; in preliminary 
field training this might well be noticed 
and thus be taken into account in actual 
survey work. Also, because of their par- 
ticular characteristics, certain lakes 
were overestimated or underestimated by 
all interpreters. 

The methods are as follows: 

Method A: 15 -foot depth contour 
plotted on basis of vis- 
ual estimates; shallow 
area acreage obtained 
from dot count. 

Method B: 15 -foot depth contour 

plotted on basis of par- 
allax measurements of 
bank slopes; shallow 
area acreage obtained 
from dot count. 

Method C: Average distance from 
shore to 15 -foot depth 
contour calculated from 
parallax measurements; 
proportion of shallow 
area computed by ellipse 
formula; acreage cal- 
culated on basis of total 
lake acreage obtained 
from dot count. 

Method D: Shallow area computed 
as in method C; result 
adjusted by correction 
factor of 1.16. 



Tabic 1 . --Estimates 



of shallow area of lakes made by three photo 



interpreters, using four mt 


tliods, as c 


miiKin il with shallow 


area 


measured 


in tlie field (North Slop. 


■.b 


lunta ins) 


Lake no. : 
and total ■ 


Measured 
shallow 

2 

area 


Shallow area 


estimated 


by: . 


1 
ac reage : 


■ Method A 


: Method B 


: Metliod C 


: Method D 








X.- ^.^ I V ' " 










INTERPRETER 1 






i. 2.51 


1.75 


1.17 


1.38* 


1.56* 


1.81* 


2. 3.67 


1.75 


1.78* 


2.14* 


1.85* 


2.15* 


3. 4.51 


2.83 


1.61 


3.13* 


2.76* 


3.20* 


4. b.bA 


5.16 


4.09* 


4.80* 


3.57 


4.14* 


5. 7.44 


6.04 


5.12* 


4.83* 


4.80* 


5.57* 


6. K.7K 


6.00 


3. 10 


5.18* 


5.15* 


5.97* 


7. ').K3 


8.06 


6.54* 


5.52 


5.57 


6.46* 


K. 17.61 


8.98 


11.04* 


8.51* 


9.26* 


10.74* 


4. 20.30 


18.67 


16.88* 


13. 19 


11.71 


13.58 


10. 22.31 


6.68 


1 1 . 00 


5.84* 


5.69* 


6.60* 


11. 24.05 


20.74 


15.19 


17.94* 


1 1 . 59 


13.44 


12. 32.36 


17.74 


13.67* 


16.70* 


13.01 


15.09* 


13. 32.44 


15.63 


10.53 


16.43* 


15.12* 


17.54* 1 
21.23* 1 


14. 40.30 


26.81 


29.40* 


26.44* 


18.30 


15. 40.80 


18.89 


20.28* 


25.56 


19.50* 


22.62* 


16. 41.12 


16.29 


24.20 


17.11* 


11.23 


13.03* 


17. 63.41 


16.18 


37.91 


21.96 


18.34* 


21.27 






INTERPRETER 2 






1. 2.51 


1.75 


2.41 


1.46* 


1.70* 


1.97* 


2. 3.67 


1.75 


2.16* 


1.81* 


1.73* 


2.01* 


3. 4.51 


2.83 


4.26 


3.10* 


3.20* 


3.71 


4. 6.64 


5. 16 


4.72* 


5.28* 


5.05* 


5.86* 


5. 7.44 


6.04 


6.62* 


4.82* 


4.62* 


5.36* 


6. 8.78 


6.00 


6.52* 


7.90 


8.56 


9.93 


7. 9.83 


8.06 


9.21* 


6.29* 


6.46* 


7.49* 


8. 17.61 


8.98 


12.67 


8.81* 


10.14* 


11.76 


9. 20.30 


18.67 


19.76* 


14.57* 


15.27* 


17.71* 1 1 


10. 22.31 


6.68 


17.93 


6.42* 


6.02* 


6.98* M 


11. 29.05 


20.74 


23.25* 


22.9(1* 


21.32* 


24.73* 


12. 32.36 


17.74 


29.13 


16.20* 


11.20 


12.99 


13. 32.44 


15.63 


25.71 


13.99' 


12. .36* 


14.34* 


14. 40.30 


26.81 


40 . 30 


29.30* 


20.39* 


23.65* 


15. 40.80 


18.89 


39.41 


19.31* 


15.95* 


18.50* 


16. 41.12 


16.29 


34.04 


17.33* 


14.10* 


16., 36* 


17. 63.91 


16.18 


46.68 


22.11 


18.53' 


21.49 






INTERPRETER 3 






1. 2.51 


1.75 


3__ 


1.40* 


1.22 


1.42* 


2. 3.67 


1.75 


-- 


2.21 


2.07* 


2.40 


3. 4.51 


2.83 


-- 


2.70* 


2.02 


2.34* 


4. 6.64 


5.16 


-- 


4.91* 


3.76 


4..36* 


5. 7.44 


6.04 


-- 


6.69* 


4.97* 


5.77* 


6. 8.78 


6.00 


-- 


6.29* 


5.64* 


6.54* 


7. 9.83 


8.06 


-- 


6.60* 


6.81* 


7.90* 


8. 17.61 


8.98 


-- 


10.56* 


9.76* 


1 1 . 32 


9. 20.30 


18.67 


-- 


16.28* 


13.44 


15.59* 


10. 22.31 


6.68 


-- 


5.35* 


6.31* 


7.32* 


11. 29.05 


20.74 


-- 


20.39* 


16. 18* 


18.77* 


12. 32.. 36 


17.74 


-- 


16.93* 


11.65 


13.51* 


13. 32.44 


15.63 


-- 


19.02* 


19.07* 


22.12 


14. 40.30 


26.81 


-- 


27.60* 


12.78 


14.82 


15. 40.80 


18.89 


-- 


25.87 


16.48* 


19.12* 


16. 41.12 


16.29 


-- 


20.77 


16.78* 


19.46* 


17. 63.91 


16.18 


-- 


28.62 


22.50 


26.10 


Total number of 










estimates ( 


•) falling 










within ±25 


percent 


16/34 


41/51 


35/51 


38/ 5 1 


of measured shal- 










low area 













Obtained from photos by dot -grid method. 
^ Based on soundings taken in field and dot count. 
^Method A was used by two interpreters only. 



21 



AFPS Ooden Umh 



Headquarters for the Intermountain 
Forest and Range Experiment Station 
are in Ogden, Utah. Project headquar- 
ters are also at: 
Boise, Idaho 
Bozeman, Montana (in cooperation 

with Montana State University) 
Logan, Utah (in cooperation with 

Utah State University) 
Missoula, Montana (in cooperation 

with University of Montana) 
Moscow, Idaho (in cooperation with 

the University of Idaho) 
Provo, Utah (in cooperation with 
Brigham Young University) 



'*4%5^' 




• '^. 






U. S. FOREST SERVICE 
RESEARCH PAPER INT-38 
1967 








1 



CHARLES A. WELLNER and DAVID P. LOWERY 




INTERMOUNTAIN FOREST & RANGE EXPERIMENT STATION 

FOREST SERVICE 
U. S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE 

OGDEN, UTAH 



J.S. Forest Service 
lesearch Paper INT -38 
L967 



SPIRAL GRAIN--A CAUSE OF POLE TWISTING 



by 



Charles A. Wellner and David P. Lowery 



INTERMOUNTAIN FOREST AND RANGE EXPERIMENT STATION 

Forest Service 

U.S. Department of Agriculture 

Ogden, Utah 84401 

Joseph F. Pechanec, Director 



THE AUTHORS 

CHARLES A. WELLNER is Assistant Director in 
charge of Forest Insect, Disease, and Timber 
Management Research at Intermoimtain Station. 
His entire Forest Service career has been at 
the Northern Rocky Mountain and Intermountain 
Stations . 

DAVID P. LOWERY is Wood Technologist at the 
Intermountain Forest and Range Experiment 
Station, Missoula, Montana. He has done re- 
search at the Forest Products Laboratory and 
in the Intermountain West since 1952. 



SPIRAL GRAIN- -A CAUSE OF POLE TWISTING 
Charles A. Wellner and David P. Lowcry 

Pole producers and pole users have contended with spiral grain in poles and the twisting 
f poles that have been in service for a number of years without fully appreciating the cause - 
nd-effect relation between the two. Pole producers have rejected poles because the slope of 
rain failed to meet specification requirements, and pole users have had to pay for costly pole 
eplacement or line repairs because poles twisted in place. It has been generally believed that 
wisting or misalignment of crossarms was caused either by uneven pull on the wires by line 
rews during construction or repair work, by heavy icing, or by wires broken by falling trees. 
Jthough the effect of grain deviations on the warping of boards and timbers lias long been 
nderstood, the influence on wood used in the round has not been as apparent or as obvious. 

The present American Standards Association specification for poles limits, among other 
lings, the slope of grain that can be tolerated on the pole's surface. The specification states 
nat for a pole 30 feet or shorter the maximum spiral grain permitted shall be one complete 
piral in any 10 feet; for poles 35 to 45 feet inclusive, one complete spiral in any 16 feet; and 
ar poles 50 feet or longer, one complete spiral in any 20 feet. 

This paper describes research" on tlie occurrence of spiral grain and the effect of spiral 
rain on the stability of poles in service. 

SURVEY OF LITERATURE 

Spiral grain in trees has been noted and reported upon ratlier extensively. Excellent sum- 
naries of the literature have been prepared by Noskowiak (13), Nicholls (10), Nortlicott (12), 
nd Bannon (2). 

Spiral grain is a common feature of tree growth and has been reported in nearly 200 
pecies of hardwoods and softwoods. There is some evidence to indicate that spiral grain is a 
enetic characteristic that may be transmitted from parents to offspring (4, 5, 6). So common 
3 the occurrence of spiral grain tliat Northcott (11) has advanced the hypothesis that spirality 
B the normal growth pattern and that straight grain is a transitory phase of spiral grain. Ru- 
insky and Vite (15) classified the water -conducting systems in trees into five groups, four of 
'hich contain spiral grain. 

Because severe spiral grain has a profound influence on the strength and workability 
f timber (1, 14, 17), it is of great interest to forest managers and wood teclinologists. Two 
ivestigators have reported on the interrelationship of spiral grain and pole twisting, 
rogh's (9) studies in South Africa were designed to show the relation between spiral grain 
id the amount of twisting that takes place in poles due to weather changes and the effect of 



The authors express their appreciation to the following men who assisted in planning or 
Onduct of fieldwork: I. V. Anderson, Frank T. Bailey, Jr., Henry 11. Webster, and Peter F. 
5ickney. They also express their gratitude and thanks to the cooperating companies for finan- 
cal assistance, frequent suggestions and ideas, and many courtesies and other help given 
(iring conduct of the various studies. 

^Underlined numbers in parentheses refer to Literature Cited at the end of this report. 



preservatives on the amount of twisting. Hans Burger's (3) studies in Switzerland established a 
correlation between spiral grain and poles twisting in service. 

COOPERATIVE STUDIES ^ 

Because of the lack of information in this country on pole twisting, several studies were 
made of various phases of the problem in cooperation with pole producers. Each of these 
studies is here discussed separately. The first study set out to determine what might be the 
cause of twisting of poles in service. It soon pinpointed spiral grain, and all subsequent studies 
were concerned with this property. The second study attempted to find a practical method for 
detecting spiral grain in unpeeled poles. The third study surveyed the occurrence of spiral 
grain in poles in four pole yards in northern Idaho and nortiieastern Washington. The fourth 
study tried to determine the effects of altitude and stand density on spiral grain in live pole -size ■ 
trees. The fifth study established a larch pole farm at Newport, Washington, to determine the 
effect of spiral grain on twisting of poles. A sixth study, to be reported later, established a 
pole farm at Libby, Montana, somewhat similar to the Newport pole farm; but it included three 
species rather than only the one species at Newport. Western larch (Larix occidentalis Nutt.) 
was chosen as the study species for all five studies reported here because it was available at the. 
different pole -processing plants and because of its wide acceptance as a pole species. However,, 
it is believed that the information obtained applies to other pole species. 

Relation Between Spiral Grain and Twisting 

The first study was made to determine, if possible, what caused poles to twist when in 
service in power transmission lines. This investigation, made in the spring of 1952, involved 
the inspection of poles in several transmission lines. The poles were examined in detail to 
discover any possible cause of twisting, and spiral grain appeared to be the major cause. 
Consequently the following discussion is concerned only with this property. 

Two hundred and ninety western larch poles in four transmission lines were examined 
during this study. The lines were selected on the basis of historical knowledge of the poles 
used in each line. For each pole, information was obtained on the relation between the degree 
of spiral grain on the pole surface and the twisting of the pole in place. In addition, historical \ 
data provided information regarding the effect of seasoning on the subsequent amount and 
direction of twisting in the spiral -grained poles. 

The lines inspected were typical; that is, the pole lengths ranged from 30 to 60 feet with 
half of the poles being under 45 feet and the remainder over 45 feet in length. The poles had all , 
been butt treated; however, the length of air seasoning time, prior to treatment, varied among | 
the different pole lines. The poles in one line had been butt treated green; in a second line, the] • 
has been air seasoned 6 months prior to treatment; in the third line, the poles had been air sea- ; 
soned 22 months before butt treating; no definite seasoning information was available on the poleS 
in the fourth line . 



3 

The following companies cooperated in the first, second, third, and fifth studies describee 
here: Poles, Inc., Spokane, Wash.; B. J. Carney and Co., Spokane, Wash.; andSchaefer- 
Hitchcock Co., Sandpoint, Idaho. The J. Neils Lumber Co., Libby, Mont., cooperated in the 
fourth and sixth studies. 



4 

Results of this pole line study showed that left spiral occurred about three times as fre- 
quently as right spiral. Generally, the pole twisted in tlie same direction as the spiral and the 
few exceptions were believed to have been due to line pull. Left -spiraled poles seemed to dis 
tort more than right-spiraled poles. However, extreme distortion was always associated with 
severe spiral grain on the pole's surface. Many poles showed spiral grain on the surface but 
did not twist in place; this indicated that seasoning might have reduced tlie distortion forces. 

The effect of seasoning on the three lines for which information was available is shown in 
the following comparison: 

Air Proportion of poles 

Transmission seasoning 



line 

1 
2 

3 



period 
(Months) 



6 

22 



with distortion greater than 
3 percent ^ 
(Percent) 

26 

22 

2 



1 In percent of pole circumference at ground line. 

On some individual poles, the spiral angle was not the same along the entire length. No 
correlation could be established between the change of spiral angle and the pole's distortion. 
However, the relation between the average degree of spiral grain and the amount of distortion 
was definite; as the average degree of spirality increased, the amount of distortion increased 
(table 1). 

Table 1, --Relation of distortion to spiral grain classes in four transmission lines 



Spiral ratio 
1 1 
class 



: Left -spiraled grain 


Right-spiraled grain 


Right-spiraled grain 


: Left distortion : 

in degrees : Total 


Left distortion : 

in degrees : Total 


Right distortion : 

in degrees : Total 


: 0-5 : 5-10 : 


0-5 : 5-10 : 


0-5 : 5-10 : 



10 
20 
30 
40 
50 



1- 

11- 

21- 

31- 

41- 

51-100 

101-150 

151-200 

201+ 

\'o spiral 



Number 



7 
26 
20 
17 
17 
28 
20 

7 
23 
25 



9 


16 


5 


31 


2 


22 


3 


20 


1 


18 


3 


31 





20 





7 





23 





25 












1 





5 





4 





3 





9 





3 





3 





1 










4 
6 

6 
14 
5 
2 
5 
1 




4 
6 

6 
15 
5 
2 
5 
1 



Total 



190 



23 



213 



29 







29 



43 



1 



44 



In terms of 1 inch of deviation for indicated inches measured along tlie longitudinal axis of 
he pole. For example, 1:10 means 1 inch of grain deviation in 10 inches along the longitudinal 
jxis of the pole. 



^ As used in this paper, "left spiral" means that as you face an upright pole, grain spirals 
lO the left as you look from the bottom to the top of the pole . 



Detection of Spiral Grain Prior to Debarking 

No reliable way has been found to date for detecting presence or absence of spiral grain 
in a tree or pole before debarking. A practical method for doing this could effect considerable 
savings for pole producers because buyers could use greater selectivity in purchasing poles, 
and the expenses of producing and processing unsuitable material could be avoided. 

To determine the feasibility of detecting spiral grain, two methods were tried in 1952 at 
pole yards in Newport, Washington. In the first, the outer bark surface of 29 poles was exam- 
ined and an attempt was made to determine the direction of the bark furrows with reference to 
the longitudinal axis of the pole. The direction was then translated into terms of spiral ratio. 
The direction and degree of spiral were recorded. After machine peeling, the actual direction 
and slope of grain were determined by scribing the surface with a TECO slope of grain detec - 
tor.^ Measurements were made at the top, middle, and butt of each pole, and were averaged. 

In the second method, the outer bark was removed with a drawknife at various places 
along the pole's length. At each debarked area, a narrow strip of the tliin inner skinlike bark 
was peeled off and the direction of peel noted. These directions were then translated into spiral I 
ratios and averaged to give a predicted direction and degree of spiral for each pole. After the 
pole was peeled, the actual slope of grain was determined as for the first method --using a 
TECO slope of grain detector. The 28 poles examined in this manner made a total of 57 poles 
included in the study. 

Results of this study showed that it was impossible to predict occurrence of severe spiral 
grain (i.e., 1:20 or more severe) with any consistent degree of success. In the first method 
(visual examination of the bark), one pole having severe spiral grain was not detected prior to 
peeling, while another pole, believed to have severe spiral grain, did not fall into this category. 
With the second method (peeling of the inner bark), five poles actually had severe spiral grain 
and five poles were predicted to have this characteristic. However, only two of the poles that 
had severe spiral grain were properly identified. 

Somewhat better success was attained in predicting the direction of spiral without refer- 
ence to the degree of grain slope. This was particularly true for the inner bark examination 
method, by which direction of spiral was correctly predicted in 86 percent of the poles. The 
comparable percentage for outer bark examination was 55 percent. 



Product of Timber Engineering Co. , Wash. , D.C. Use of trade name herein does not 
imply endorsement by the U.S. Forest Service. 

"^ One inch of grain deviation in 20 inches measured along the longitudinal axis of the pole. 



Occurrence of Spiral Grain in Poles 

A third study, made in 1952, was concerned with the frequency of occurrence of spiral 
grain in poles. Poles totaling 800, either green or air seasoned 1 year, were examined in four 
pole yards of the cooperators. These yards were located at Spokane and Newport, Washington, 
and at Priest River and Sandpomt, Idaho. One hundred poles were examined during each of two 
visits at the individual yards m order to obtain a representative production sample. The direc- 
tion and degree of spiral grain were measured at the top, middle, and butt surfaces and the 
measurements for each pole were averaged. 

Of the 800 poles examined, only 1 percent (7 poles) had a slope of grain of 1:10 or more 
severe (table 2). Six and one -half percent of the poles (53 in number) had a slope of grain be- 
tween 1:11 and 1:20. Forty -eight percent of tlie poles were practically straight grained, i.e., 
1:201 or more. 

Table 2. --Spiral -grained poles classified by pole yard and spiral ratio classes 





Spiral ratio 








Yard 






class 


A 


: B 


: C 


: D : 


All 


yards 







- - - Number - - 




Number 


Percent 


1: 1-10 


3 


1 


1 


2 


7 


1.0 


1: 11- 20 


15 


9 


13 


16 


53 


6.5 


1: 21- 50 


53 


32 


28 


38 


151 


19,0 


1: 51-100 


34 


32 


30 


19 


115 


14.0 


1:101-150 


14 


26 


10 


10 


60 


7.5 


1:151-200 


8 


4 


10 


11 


33 


4.0 


1:201+^ 


75 


96 


108 


104 


381 


48.0 


Total 


200 


200 


200 


200 


800 


100.0 



Poles in this class are practically straight grained. 

Poles with spiral gram to the left occurred with greater frequency than poles with a slope 
of grain to the right (table 3). Sixty -six percent of the poles examined had left-spiraled grain 
as compared with 34 percent that had right -spiraled grain. The left-spiraled grain was even 
more common where the spiraling was severe. All poles with a slope of grain of 1:10 or more 
severe had left spiral, and 88 percent of the poles having a slope of grain of 1:20 or more severe 
were left spiraled. 

Spiral grain had no apparent relation to pole circumference; there was no significant dif- 

'J 

ference between pole groups of classes 1 to 4 and 5 to 7. 

Variation in the slope of grain along tlie pole's length was common; maximum divergence 
from the longitudinal occurred most frequently near the top of the pole (table 4). Some variation 
in the slope of grain was observed in 378 out of 400 poles for which these data were recorded. 
The variation was usually relatively small, but spiral ratios as dissimilar as 1:720 and 1:20 
were observed in a single pole. 



Pole classes are based on circumference at the groundline and top; the lower the number 
the greater the circumference. 



Table 3. --Poles classified by direction of grain and spiral ratio classes 















Spiral ratio : 




Direction of 


grain 




class : 


Left 


: Right : 


Left 


: Right 







Number 





Percent ------ 


1: 1- 10 


7 





100 







11- 20 


46 


7 


87 


13 




21- 50 


103 


48 


68 


32 




51-100 


73 


42 


63 


37 




101-150 


40 


20 


67 


33 




151-200 


13 


20 


39 


61 




201+^ 


245 


136 


64 


36 




Total 


527 


273 


66 


34 



Poles in this class are practically straight grained. 



Table 4. --Section of pole in which maximum divergence of grain occurred, 



by pole yard 


Section 


; 






Yard 








: A 


: B 


: C 


: D : 


All 


yard 


s 







- - - Number - 




Number 




Percent 


Top 


48 


37 


45 


38 


168 




44 


Middle 


20 


25 


31 


21 


97 




26 


Butt 


27 


29 


22 


35 


113 




30 


Total 


95 


91 


98 


94 


378 




100 



I 



Forty -four percent (168) of the poles exhibited maximum divergence of grain in the top 
section of the pole. Percentages of the poles exhibiting maximum grain divergence in the middle 
and butt sections were 26 and 30 percent, respectively. 



Effects of Position on Slope (Altitude) and Stand Density on Spiral Grain of 

Living Trees of Pole Size 

Still another study was made in the summer of 1953 to determine whether spiral grain in 
living western larch trees of pole size showed any relation either to position on slope or density 
of stand. Study plots, each consisting of 25 pole-size trees, 6 to 18 inches d.b.h., were es- 
tablished in dense and open stands on lower, mid, and upper slopes at two locations. One of 
these locations was the Priest River Experimental Forest within the Kaniksu National Forest 
in northern Idaho, and the other was near Big Creek Baldy Mountain in the Kootenai National 
Forest in northwestern Montana. Each tree was measured and described, and slope of grain 
was measured by means of a bolaxis (16) at 16 feet above groundline on a face where the bark 
had been peeled away with a drawknife . Table 5 summarizes distribution of the 300 trees 
measured in this study. 



able 5. --Distribution of sample trees by direction and degree of grain slope for each location, 



Total 



Total 



Total 











slope 


position, and stand density 








^lot 
no. 


Slope 
position 


Elevation 


; Stand 
■ density 


: Grain slope 


direct 


ion : Grain 


slope ratio 




; Left 


; Right 


■ Strai) 


, : 1:10 or : 
^■ht 

: more severe : 


1:11 to : 
1:20 : 


1:21 or 
less severe 






Feet 










- -Number of trees 
KANIKSU PLOTS 


























4 


Upper 


5,000 


Dense 


11 


8 


6 





2 




23 


3 


Upper 


5,000 


Open 


6 


19 





3 


8 




14 


5 


Mid 


3,900 


Dense 


5 


19 


1 





3 




22 


6 


Mid 


3,900 


Open 


7 


18 





2 


10 




13 


1 


Low 


2,400 


Dense 


9 


15 


1 





2 




23 


2 


Low 


2,400 


Open 


8 


15 


2 





3 




22 



46 94 10 5 28 

KOOTENAI PLOTS 



53 



83 



14 



40 



99 



177 



24 



10 



68 



117 



5 


Upper 


5,200 


Dense 


8 


14 


3 





4 


21 


4 


Upper 


5,400 


Open 


5 


19 


1 


1 


8 


16 


6 


Mid 


4,200 


Dense 


8 


13 


4 





6 


19 


3 


Mid 


4,200 


Open 


6 


15 


4 





7 


18 


2 


Low 


3,200 


Dense 


6 


17 


2 


1 


9 


15 


1 


Low 


3,200 


Open 


20 


5 





3 


6 


16 



105 



222 



Slope position had no apparent effect on either the direction or severity of grain slope 
;able 6) . 



Table 6. --Relation of direction and degree of spiral grain to slope position 



















Stand ; 
position * 


Grain 


slope 


direction 


: 


Grain 


slope ratio 


Left ; 


Right 


[ Straight 


: 1:10 or : 
: more severe : 


1:11 to 
1:20 


1:21 or 
less severe 










Number of trees -